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Oct. 29, 1946. _ `
~ 2,410,207
Filed Det. 25, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Filed Oct. 25, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. 29,v 1946
2,410,207 A
Frieder, New 4York, N. Y.
Application October 25, 1941,'Serial No. 416,479
(Cl.` 244-142)
.Thisinvention relates generally‘to parachutes n u
for retarding the v.speed of 'falling :bodies and has
".Fig. 2 is atop >plan iview of the `reinforced
l'nection `with magnesium kilares :and signals of
various kinds.
`tion of the reinforced canopy and the ‘attached
-shroud lines.
particular reference to parachutes for use in con
f Canopy.
p Fig. 3 is a partial top plan view of a’modifìcati'on
One object of the‘invention is to vprovide‘a
low cost parachute "for the 'purposes indicated,
ofthe canopy and its reinforcement.
this being of particular importance because of
the fact that the parachutes are 'usually not
and shows the method of -attaching rthe shroud
‘recovered after being-used.
Fig. 5 shows a modification in which tapes are
used to lserve as >shroudlines or lanyards, 'and
Fig. 6 shows a further modification in which
the :edge of the canopy or Ásail is reinforced :by
a cord which is hemmed in around the edge Aoi’
-îPaper parachutes have beenused in connection
with magnesium ñares and signals .but they have
heretofore had many disadvantages, one being
v the relatively` lhigh `cost f and ¿another .beingfthat
-they were not uniformly reliable.
Owing kto
lthe canopy.
Referring tol Figs. l `and 2, the canopy or 'sail
the structure the sail or canopy was often dam
aged to .an extent WhereV itwould'not properly
` 'I0 is in the form of a -circular disk or sheet of
support' theïload andthe percentagesk in which
`the parachute failed ‘to Yopen 'were 'entirely too
high. This latter defect wasa serious'one, par
ticularly where the'parachute was used over a
Fig. 4 is a side View >of the canopy o`f Fig.~ 3
paper. ‘The paper employed is preferably one in
_ which there is little vor no grain; that is, a'paper
20 `which has substantially equal strength lin all
rterrain >in which'îfires might be started ~by drop
ping lighted magnesium flares which werenot
ïretarded yby «the parachute. f These -defects" were
directions. However, 'for most purposes this
grainless paper is not required .as rthe construc
. tion .is such that >paper-which is considerably
l'weaker across the grain than'with the >grain
'in' large part due 'to .the fact that the rp'aper‘ -25 `may be’employed. This is an advantage in view
parachutes heretofore usedwere ‘constructed by
sewing together triangularfgores of papen‘thereby
v oftheffact that paper of the- latter 'kind is less
expensive than the >grainless paper.
producing a -plurality of kseams 'which made it
di‘fñcult to'pack a parachute'in the container,
.from which it was to be discharged after reach
. v ‘The r disks ’or sheets .of paper yfor the canopy
I0 maybe cut by? dies --and are, in the form shown
in Figs. 1 andr 2, perforated near the margin `as
ing the desired elevation. This'defect or source ' -{.shownat II. vThese perforations are preferably
-of trouble has been overcome bythe present in
»made Y'before -the 'reinforcing‘has 'been applied.
`vention. It contemplates .the use of a -single
This reinforcing includes applying to the paper
sheet of paper and ‘reinforcing that sheet in jsuch ` "
threads “ IZeXtending `radially'from the center o'f
a way that it is strengthened at stress points 35 the'sail. These threads may be treated with ad
-without interfering with 'the proper functioning
:hesiveland then 4a.pplied,.bu`t it is preferred >>to
suse'a'lon‘g ysewing `machine stitch in which the
of the parachute. The parachute of "this inven
tion will. easily fold or collapse into the container
needle thread has a reduced tension whichwill
Iandth'ere are no‘ seams Which will'interfere with
’result in :the shuttle thread being >substantially
'the proper opening of the 'canopy when the-'para W40. straight. The straight'shuttle thread will be the
chute is discharged from the container.
"main-.reinforcing thread and owing to the man
While the parachute of >the'prese'n't invention
rner in which it is held by the'ioops 'of the needle
is‘intended primarilyfor use in ’connection iwith . thread it Will'have substantially no‘tendency to
"flares and signals, "it is'not limited to lïsuch'use
‘cut .the paper when thesa'il is supporting va load.
as it can'be used in various sizesfor
to havethe shuttle thread -on `the
outer or upper `side of thesail. As Vva'nrattercf
.With the foregoing v‘and other and incidental
manufacturing convenience the `sail, when it‘is
objects in View the invention consists in a novel
cut, canbespotted yat- the center 'as indicated-at
construction and varrangement of component
I3 and the sewing then done in straight lines
parts, embodiments ofwhich are shown in the 50 from edge-to-edge through the center in apply
drawings accompanying and forming a part of
ingr the reinforcing threads.
vthis application, with the novel features ‘being
The sail is further reinforced by a similar appli
pointed out in the claims appended hereto.
cation of reinforcing thread I4 held by stitching
In said drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side view illustrating the construc
around the sail close to its margin. The rein;
forcìng threads are all of small cross-section and
Figs. 1 and 2, but in tying the knots at the upper
end of the shroud lines the cord 22 is included
in the tying.
The construction as described permits the use
owing to this and the way in which they are
applied, there is little added to the bulk or weight
of the sail and nothing which will interfere with
proper folding and packing of the sail in the
container or its subsequent opening when ejected
from the container to support flares or signals.
of a paper sail which is light in Weight and of a
texture which will not readily take a permanent
crease in folding, the paper employed being some
The shroud lines I5 are secured at their upper
ends to the canopy or sail at the points where
what in the nature of aV strong tissue paper.
While it is not an essential thing, it maybe advis
gable: to treat the'paper inany of the lwell known
threads.r I4; V_In tying each shroud lineit' is passed 10 ways to make it water-proof or at’ least partially
through one of the perforations II and then the
non-absorbent where the parachute must be
adjacent- edge of the canopy pulled out and a
the radial threadsintersect the circumferential
packed and stored in a humid atmosphere.
Parachutes constructed according to the in
knot tied in the line which includes within the
knot the intersecting threads I2 and I4 and a
vention ñower almost instantly when discharged
part of the paper of the sail. This method of 15 or released and support reliably loads which are
tying gives a direct connection between the radial '
, heavier in proportion to the supporting area of
reinforcing threads I2 as well as the circumfer
the sail than was practical with prior devices
ential threads I4. When the parachute opens
of the kind. The construction is simple and
with the load attached the canopy I!) will assume
involves no serious manufacturing diñiculties and
substantially the shape indicated in Fig. 1.
as a result the entire structure can be produced
`-It has been observed in repeated tests that
with a minimum outlay for material, labor and
when the canopy opens to assume its load any
`shock taken by the canopy is localized in -a zone
» While the invention has been explained' in con
extending around the canopy parallel to the edge
siderable detail with reference to the drawings,
of the canopy and at a distance from the edge 25 it is not the intention to be limited by anything
of about one-third of the total radius of the can
hereinabove contained, except tothe extent in
opy. This localization of shock stress was par
ticularly noticeable with the prior art gored para
dicated by the claims which follow.
chute and in the present invention a reinforcing
1. A parachute having in combination a canopy
or sail consisting of a substantially circular one
What is claimed is:
thread I6 through the Zone is applied in the same
manner as the threads I2 and I4, thereby rein
forcing the paper around the zone indicated.
This’is a particularly valuable feature where pa
per is used having a substantial grain; that is,
where the paper is much weaker across the grain
than lengthwise of the grain.
The construction illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4
is the same as the one previously described, ex
cept that the sail or canopy is reinforced by addi~
tional threads il and I8 -applied in the same wayï 40
as the other reinforcing threads and extending
in concentric circles parallel to the edge of the
sail.v Where these additional threads are em
ployed the shroud lines may be passed through
double perforations I9 and 20 at either side ofir
vthe radial thread 7I2 and then the threads I2, I1
and I8, and some of the paper of the sail may
be drawn out and included in the knot by which
the upper end of the shroud line is secured to
`the sail. This is illustrated vin Fig. 4.
The construction shown in Fig. 5 is the same
as that shown in Figs. land 2, except that nar
row flexible tapes 2| are used for shroud lines.
These tapes have some advantages including the
piece sheet of paper, reinforcing threads stitched
to and extending radially of said sheet, a rein
forcing thread stitched to and extending circum
ferentially of the sheet near the margin of the
sheet, land shroud lines secured at their upper
ends to the canopy at the points where the radial
and the circumferential threads intersect.
2. A `parachute comprising a canopy or sail
consisting of a substantially circular one-piece
sheet of paper, and reinforcing stitched seams
extending radially and in concentric circles
around the center of the sail, each of said seams
consisting of a substantially straight shuttle
thread held-in place by relatively loose loops in
the needle thread extending through the paper
and around the shuttle thread.
3. A parachute comprising a canopy or sail
consisting of la. substantially circular one-piece
sheet of paper- and reinforcing stitched seams
extending radially' of the sail, each of the said
seams consisting of a substantially straight shut
tle thread held in place by relatively loose loops
in-a needle thread extending through the paper
around the shuttle thread.
fact that they can be extended across the- rein-l .55 and
4. Ina parachute, a one-piece circular paper
forcement threads I4 andi@ and secured in place
canopy, reinforcing threads held by thread loops
as an incident tov stitching the radial threads I2
through the paper along a plurality of equidis
‘in place.
tant radial lines, a reinforcing thread held by
The construction illustrated in Fig. 6 is for use
thread loops through the paper on a circular line
with large canopies supporting heavy loads. The’ 60 having the center of the canopy as the center
paper of the sail ID may be folded inward and
stitched to form a hem enclosing a cord 22; or
a separate piece of paper in theform of a tape
of the circle, said circle having a diameter of
`approximately two-thirds of the diameter ofthe
canopy and shroud lines attached to the canopy
in alignment with »at least some of the aforesaid
then stitched along the line 23 to attach the tape‘ 65
radial threads.
' and vits enclosed cord 22 `to the margin of the
sail I0. In this construction the shroud lines are
attached as above described in connection with
or band may be folded to enclose the cord 22 and ._
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