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- Oct. 29, 1946.
’ Filed oct. 5o, 1941
- '45
¿sheets-sheet 1
Oct. 29, 1946.
Filed 0G13. 30, 1941
2 Sheets-sheet 2
Patented 0ct. 29, 1946
2,410,278 '
Riley Floyd ‘Farris and Joseph B. Clark, Tulsa,
Okla., assignors to Stanolind Oil'and Gas Com
pany, ITulsa, Okla., a corporation of Delaware
Application October 30, 1941, Serial No. .417,184
19 Claims. (Cl. 175---182)
This invention pertains to the art of -determin
kof water in an oil well have in practice frequently
ing the position in a well of zones of ingress of
failed due to the fact that the water which enters
undesired electricallyrconducting liquids there
into and, more speciiically, pertains to the loca
the Well is‘usually immediately divided into’iine
droplets dispersed inthe oil.` These droplets `do
not touch each other and therefore unless the
tion of water flows into oil or gas'wells.
In‘th'e oil production kindustry it .has always
` been recognized that the problem ofthe location
of iiows of vbrine into -wells is complex. This is
duein considerable part 'to the fact that many
electrodes employed‘were spaced extremely close
ly together `the change vin-conductivity of the
fluid could not be detected.' -On the other hand,
if the electrodes were placed so closely together
wells 'produce oil and Water from several perf 10 that theY average drop of water would'short-cir
When production Yis from a >sinsuit them, the Vresistance to flow ofthe well `fluids
through the vpassage deiined by the closely spaced
gle formation, waterinearly always enters at .the
electrodes was so great that the water tended -to
bottom of that formation. In such cases> sealing
bypass around the electrodes and prevent -anjade
01T >of the bottom of thewell often eliminates the
inflow of connate water. However, ’there has 15 quate measurement from'being taken. Moreover,
always been great diiiiculty in locating accurately .
clearly erroneous measurements'could be >made
in that one or- two water droplets might pass
the exact plug-back depth `to use.“ Often, wells
were not plugged backjfar yenough up 'the hole,
between the Yelectrodes at a ‘location `quite re
meable strata.
with the result that water continued tofiow into
moved .from the water source, while :the main
the hole. 'On the other hand,v some Wells may 20 flow of water bypassed the electrodes. In such a
case, the `po-sition of the water could be deter
have been plugged back too far obstructing the
mined to be a place quite removed from the ac
v'iiow of -oil from a portion ofthe sand which'was
y*not _Water-bearing, vand reducing the productivity
-tual water sand. Therefore it is a further object
of our invention to provide’anelectrical waterlo
of the well. Thus the accuratelocation o'f the
oil-water interface vin a single formation has been 25 cating system for _use in `oil wells in which the
electrodes are spaced suiìciently Widely so .that a
very diflicult and the 1location of the various oil
water interfaces inaJ multiple formation well has
single drop of water cannot short circuit them
been practically impossible.
but in which a predetermined amount of water
must be collected as the well vis produced before
’Formation Mresistivity well logs ‘have been ~em
ployed to locate the water-producing sand in a 30 there is any indication, after which there is a
producing section, but such methods have been . ‘positive non-'Varying indication> clearly showing
found to yield-in general very unsatisfactory re
‘the location of thesource of this Water.
sults. This is partly due to the inherent Idiiii
` Another object of thisinvention istoprovide a
culty in obtaining a precise interpretation 0f well ., .system of the type described in which conductiv
logs, but more frequently to the fact that the 35 ity measurements .are madev at ’a number of
accuracy of the location of the water source vis
spaced points which are maintained stationary
low, since it depends -upon `the rapidity with
in the >well during the yperiod of investigation,
and which affect aising'le resultant reading from
which the survey is made afterwater‘iiows in the
well, since'the _water produced in the-well Ini
whichvthe location of one or more water sands
grates either upwardly or downwardly as 'the
can be expeditiously determined.
>A further object of this invention is to provide
such asystem for locating the presence of pro
ducing wa'tersa'nds in an `oil welllin which a'large
portion .of .the 'waterproducedinto the well after
well log is being> made. „ In general no precise-de’- y
termination can be effected.
v We have found Athat it is‘possible to overcome
the difliculties inherent inthe prior -systems of
well llogging used to locate the source l'of ‘water’ 45 the preliminary „conditioning of said well -vvill`be
ingress. This .method isA electrical'ïin‘its’nature . y ve-ntralblûed in .one or another .of numerous con
and depends upon the well yknown fact that the
ductivity> determining stations spaced through
Water found in such wells cis of veryv high conduc
tivity _and hence differs widely from'the‘relatively
the producing formation, whereby a positive de
termination vof Íthe majorwater flow is simplilied.
rlow-conductivity oil. yIt is therefore anl object of 50 »It is an object of >this invention to provide such
a system in which the water .determining means
this linvention to -provide an improved means of
determining the location of la zone of inñow of
>.are provided fwith purging means whereby any
conducting liquids into a well producingralsorel
contaminating extraneous water which 4may have
.atively non-conducting liquids.
entered the water determining means during its
Prior art methods .of determining the presence ' ’ Passage from the surface to the location in the
well can be eliminated, thus insuring that the
location of the water strata in the Well will not
be affected by extraneous conditions. Further
objects and advantages of this invention will be
come apparent from a reading of the appended
station includes a trap or collector whereby water
droplets flowing by are collected and held. One
simple design embodying this feature is shown in
greater detail in Figure 2. In this embodiment
the trap is in the form of a funnel-shaped metal
specification and of the associated drawings
which form a part thereof and are to be read in
member 38. A central metallic electrode 39 is
firmly attached to member 38 by insulation 40.
connection therewith. In these drawings:
Preferably this insulation is rubber which is vul
a producing region with a diagrammatic repre
sentation of one type of apparatus useful in car
rying out an embodiment of this invention;
Figure 2 is a cross sectio-n of a portion of the
senting in diagrammatic form the electric circuit
of Figures 1 and 2;
kinds of insulation can be employed. The dimen
sion between the least interior diameter of the
funnel and the outside diameter of electrode 39
is suñiciently great so that no single drop of water
will bridge this gap. This spacing can, for ex
ample, be of the order of three-eighths to three
quarters of an inch or larger. Preferably this
spacing is in the range of three-eighths to 2
inches. Small vents or fopenings 4l are provided
ductivity determining apparatus suitable for low
ering in the well, including a purging device; and
38 in order to prevent the member 38 from strik
ing the walls of the tubing or casing in the well.
Figure 1 is a cross section of the crust of the ` canized to member 38 and electrode 39, but of
earth showing an oil well which has penetrated 10 course other means of attachment and other
conductivity determining apparatus shown in
generalized form in the lower part of Figure l;
Figure 3 is an electrical circuit diagram repre
Figure 4 is a cross sectional view of another 20 inthe upper conical portion of the member 38,
the purpose of which will be described subse
embodiment of our invention showing a diiîerent
quently. It is desirable, although not entirely
type of conductivity measuring apparatus;
necessary, to provide a rubber guard ring 42 about
Figure 5 illustrates another embodiment oi
the outside of the upper iiared edge of member
our invention showing a cross section of a con
Figure 6 is a cross sectional View of another
type of collector station useful in carrying cut
our invention.
Referring now to Figure 1, a well Il has been
drilled from the surface of the ground l2 through,
among others, formations |3,to IS. Casing I9
has been set in the well and cemented in place. At
the top of the well there is a casinghead indi
cated generally by numeral 20 with two valve
controlled lines 2| and 22 connected with the
annular space between the casing I9 and the tub
ing 23 and two other valve controlled lines 2li and
This is not an absolute requirement. From an in
spection of the conductivity determining sta
tion it is. apparent that drops of water falling
through the oil in the well within the area deñned
by the top of the opening in member 38 will be
collected or trapped in the bottom of this mem
ber so that as soon as a predetermined amount
of Water has been so collected and retained, it
will form a conducting path between member
38 and electrode 3S. The resistance between these
twoV metal members -will therefore decrease
abruptly whenever this occurs and will remain at
a low value until the collector is emptied. One
25 furnishing ingress to the tubing 23. It is as- ,
sumed that it has been found that water is 40 superiority of this type of design lies in the fact
that the water over a wide area in the well is
entering the well at some point in the uncased
collected and concentrated at one small region to
formations. The casinghead is provided with a
give a positive indication which, once having been
lubricator 2B, stuiiing box or the like, through
established, will not vary appreciably. The vents
which the apparatus about to be described can
4l in member 38 are provided so that if there
.loe admitted to the well without substantial loss
is more water trapped or retained in any unit
of fluids therefrom. This apparatus preferably
than that required to i'lll the collector to the
consists of a two conductor insulated cable 21
lower level of the venty it will overflow and pass
at the lower end of which are connected a num
ber of conductivity determining stations 23. The »V ~ to the next conductivity determining station be
supply of cable is normally kept on reel 29 with
the ends of the insulated conductors brought out
There are many ways in which the change of
to insulated slip rings 3i! on the outside of the
conductivity across the electrodes occasioned by
reel. Suitably insulated brushes 3| bear against
the trapping or retention of the water could be
these slip rings and are connected toa source of y =' made to operate some sort of indicating device
potential 32 and a meter 33 or other means of
at the surface of the ground or, if desired, -at a
producing a visual indication of the current flow 55 recording-apparatus in the well itself. . One cir
in the circuit. In order to indicate the depth of
.cuit for use in this connection is illustrated in
the conductivity determining stations 28 in the
part by the equipment shown in Figure 2. A re
well, a measuring sheave 34 is provided adjacent
sistor 43 is connected between member 38 and
the well head, the circumference of which is a '
electrode 39 at each conductivity determining sta
known value, customarily l0 feet. The cable is 60 tion 2B. The value of this resistor is chosen to
reeved over this measuring sheave as it passes
into the well and hence the number ,of revolu
tions on this sheave indicate thejdepth of the
cable in the well.
This depth can be readupon `
the revolution counter 35 attached ltothe axle
be considerablyv greater than that across member
"38 and electrode 39 when water has beenv trapped
to Short circuit the resistor, and is preferably low
er than the resistance of the insulator 40. It is
apparentthat if desired a semi-conductor may
be employed instead of insulator 49, so that there
If the well is a flowing well no further ap
will'be a relatively high resistance between, mem
paratus is necessary. However, if the liquid level l
ber 39 and electrode 39, and whereby the need
in the well is below the top some form of lift
ing device such as a pump or gas lifting ap 70 for the resistor ¿i3 is eliminated. An insulated
conductor 44 passes through the center of elec
paratus, must be employed. In this particular
trode 39 of each conductivity determining sta
iigure it is assumed that the well is ñowing. '
tion and is connected electrically to the member
One outstanding advantage in the employment n
38 of the lowest of these stations. The electrode
of the apparatus and method of this invention lies
V39 of this station is connected through a second
in the fact that each conductivity determining
of the> measuring sheave. n
insulatedl conductorv 145 Lto> the memberfBß'of the
nextßstation’above. The central electrode 39 `of
that stationis similarly connected tothe mem
'wate'r'was entrapped isrdeterminedß“ Itis lto be
ber 38..'of the next higher station, and so on.
The electrode 39 of .the top. station can, if de
sired,- bemade of a~ concentric metal sheath sur
rounding eonducto-r 44," as shown infFigur'e 2.
This conductor is insturn insulated-by a sheath of
insulating' material 4-6 which may, if desired, be
again surrounded-by .an armored sheath. ‘From
Water lwere allowed to pass on through'the, con--
this description ‘andirom Figure’S itris‘seen that
therefisfarseries ycircuit from the‘top electrode 39
notedthat this change is not merely a momentary
effect which would be the result obtainedif the
ductivityldetermining station', but remains’ con
stant. and AñXed. Hence there is practicallyno
opportunity to make `ianv erroneous' reading, >as
there would be if the Yindication were- of a tran
sitory nature. If water enters through two zones
at> 'the same time the corresponding current
change `will indicate the presence ‘of water; in
both ofi these zones, and if the resistors 43 are
of 'different Values', as described above, thechange
member 38,»through the electrode 39’> of the sec->
in current will `be a function of the particular
ond station, through the second resistor 43'., 15 stations at which the simultaneous entrapment
through` the correspondingmember 38’ of this
occurred, hence there is little difficulty in deter'
mining these two stations. Finally, if the. flow
station,` and "sofon, theV circuit being completed
through the insulated conductor 44.` The vtwo - _ of water is suiiiciently large or'if the production
conductors are brought out-through the cableto
is maintained fora suilicient length of time, water
the surface' of theground where'they-are 'con
iiows out of the ports 4I ofthe Viirst- station atV
through the first resistor
through-’the first
which the entrapment occurs and bridges across
nected through the reel 29, slip rings 3_9 and
brushes 3| to the current indicating device and
the resistor 43 ofi the next stationV below, causing
source of ypotential '32. This is illustrated by the
another current change and furnishing conñrm
circuit diagram shown in Figure 3;
atory'evidence as to the location of the flow.
If the well is not a flowing well it is merely nec
When water collects at any of the stations it 2.5
esary toemploy suitable means for causing'the
short circuits the corresponding resistor, thus de
creasing the total resistance in the series circuit
production of they water into the well after the
and increasing the current through the current
well ,has been conditioned and while the cable
indicating device 33. Thisindicates to the op
ís'in 'theewell VThis can be carried out by meth
erator the presence .of the'water. We `prefer to 30 ods and apparatus already known to the technol
ogistsin’this art. .
use a diiîerent value for the resistnce of eachre
If the fflow of water is Very small, it is possible
si'stor 43 so that the change inY current due to
that this'now will take place chiefly along the
entrapment of water at any' station will be
walls of the well and it will require considerable
uniquely relatedV to the particular station in which
it occurs. This can be accomplished, for exam~ 35 time for sufficient water to be entrapped at 'any
station to" produce an indication. In some casesy
ple, by arranging the values of these resistances
no indication at all mightfbe obtained. In'order
to be some multipleof the. series 1,2, 4,8, 16 and
to Vreduce this possibility it is desirable in such
-so on. One such setje-f yresistors which will op
cases to >arrange for the opening in the member
erate satisfactorily has the values of 50, 10Q, 200,
400 and 800 ohms. It will' be understood by those 40 33 to be as great as possible, preferably approach
ingl the cross sectional area of >the well.- I-I‘oW
skilled Iin the art that -the Values chosen will
ever, ii the apparatus 'is tobe loweredthrougha
depend ‘upon the dimensions of the retaining
tubing such as vshown inFigure l, it is> apparent
zonefof jthe collector- and `that this set of resis
thatlthe use of a rigid member 38 precludes the
tors is given onlyby way of example; However,
use‘ßoi such a member with »an opening larger
other suitable values can also be used which .do
than the inside diameter of the tubing. `In‘Fig
not fallin this series.
ure 451 have ‘shown another type of conductivity
kIn practicing the inventionin connection with
the well shown in Figure l, theconductivity de
termining’stations are preferably lowered to the
bottom of the well.
Production in the well is i
stopped and an insulating liquid which can con
veniently be oil is circulated through the well
between-tubing 23'and casing I9 at a» suflicient
rate to remove 'any standing water’lfrom the re
gion t'o be investigated. :Thisi can be accom
épli'sh'edl by the useof valveddines.' 21.' ,and 245er
-22 and`2-5, etc.ïThe source of?potential»132.fisl
then energized, causing a relatively small-cure.
determining station which gets around thisdiiìî
culty." Inthis drawing the funnel-shaped mem
ber "si 'is composed ofra ñexible. conducting nia-i>
terial. This may be, forl example, conducting
rubber of the type 'described in British Patent
494,058, the composition of which is given inthe
Table I
Rubbef‘ .___'_____._.‘_ ____ __'_’.___'_' ________ __ 60.5.
Sulfur' _»«__'______'_______`____' ..... ____‘____
Zinc - oiiide’____‘_~_ ______________________ __
rent to ilow through the` circuit and hence
through the current indicating device 33.' rThe 60 Steari'c' facid __' _______________ __ _______ __ 2.0
P‘araiiiu! wax____ __________________ ______ 2.0
well is then allowed to produce a small amount
Antioxidant ______-~_____‘_________ _-_'_'__'___ À0.5
of fluid. If, as has been assumed," thewell is‘of
'the' flowing type, this is accomplishedv merely by
Mercaptbb‘en'zothiazole ______-___ _______ __
the- opening of the valve in line 24 or 25 which
Ac'ètyle'ne black_____ ____ _____'____'__..__'__ 28.0
is suñicient to rcause production to beV resumed.
The maximum diameter of the-funnel-shaped
member 4i' may be ‘of any desired sizevand pref
erably should be chosen with regard to the diam-eter of the well in which measurements are being
made so that it closely approximates this diam
eter,` thus preventing substantial flow of 'water
Water from anyy of the-permeable formations
then enters the well, usually in the `form of iine
droplets and if the‘pro'ducti'on 'is'maintained‘ at
a relatively low rate, the drops of waterA gravi; ,
`tate downward and are trapped in the nearest
conductivity determining station. As soon as
enough water has beenfentrap'ped to short. cir
cuit the resistor 43,v a changein current will ¿be
observed Vin;` the circuit ' and i'fro?n theiaazmount: >of
'this’change in'current ‘theïjstatio‘nzat which-the I
down the walls of the well, and hence causing it
to collect in the center partY of the trap.-
In Figure 4 the flexible funnel-shaped member
411 is> clampedaby means of a split clamp 48„held
together. by >screws 49 about the. cylindrical insu
at each station was flared to form the water col
lector, it is, of course, not necessary that such
lation 4D.' ~ This 'split clamp 48 is provided with an `
extension 50 to which the end of the conductor
arrangements be used. For example, in Figure 6,
45 vand the resistor 43 can be attached. Since the
is shown a fluid collection station in which the
rubber is conductive there will be an electrical
collector is of insulating material. This co1
connection'between Amember 41 and the wires
lector 55 may be constructed, for example, of
connected to the extension 50, in the same man
plastic such as Bakelite or the like. As shown, it
ner asthat shown in Figure 2.
is provided with a central portion 56 from which
Since the funnel-shaped member is highly flex
radiate guides 51 connecting the top of the cen
ible it can be forced through a relatively small di
ameter tube and will open out into the form 10 tral portion 55 with the rim of the collector 55.
These guides do not extend to the bottom of the
shown`-> in Figure 4 after it has passed there
collector. In the bottom of the collector a. metal'-`
through. When the conductivity determining
lic ring electrode 58 is placed. It is furnished
stations are to be removed from the well the cone
with a screw threaded extension 59 to which by
portion of member 41 is turned inside out by con
means of nuts 60 one insulated conductor Si of
tact with the` lower end of the tubing and hence
a two-conductor cable 62 is attached. One ter
can be easily removed through the tubing.
minal of the resistor 43 is also connected to the
Oil-proof synthetic rubber is also manufac
extension 59. A rivet 63, spaced a predetermined
tured with high electrical conductivity and it is
distance from the ring electrode 58 forms the
contemplated that this material may be used in
other electrode. To it is fastened an extension
stead'of electrically conducting rubber such as
lug 54. Attached to this lug is the other ter
that described above. Metal expansible elec
minal of resistor ¿53 and the conductor ‘35 which,
trodes can also be used. The particular design
before attachment, Was the continuation of the»
of the flexible equipment will vary according to
conductor 5I. The second conductor 66 in the
the operator and the type of equipment in the
25 cable 62 is continuous and unbroken down to the
lowest collector station where itV is attached in
Occasionally it is found that upon passage of
the same manner as the central conductor 44
the various conductivity determining stations
of the previous figures was attached. One` or
into the Well, water or other conducting material
more ports 4I are provided for overflow purposes,
such as drill mud, etc., already present in the well
is trapped and prematurely shorts out the corre 30 as before. The cable 62 is provided with a clamp
6l which may be either a split metal clamp held
sponding resistor. Although this . phenomenon
in place by screws or a cylindrical section of
is not a frequent occurrence, nevertheless diiiicul
rubber vulcanized to cable 52, in order to support
ty of this type can be eliminated by arranging the
the collector 55 and keep it in place. It is ap
collector or trap so that it can be purged of any
water present prior to its use. We have shown 35 parent from this description that the operation of
this equipment is precisely the same as that
in Figure 5 one very simple apparatus for accom
shown, for example, in Figure 2, and that‘when
plishing this result. In this case a port 5| has
sufficient water has collected in the bottom of
been provided in the funnel shaped member 38
the collector 55 to'short circuit between electrodes
at the point Where the first water collects. This
port is covered by a small, preferably hemispheri 40 53 andrivet 63 that there is a change of resist
ance in the series circuit which is communicated
cal valve 52 carried on a flexible support 53 which
to the surface by means of cable 62 and detected
- is attached to member 38, for example by a rivet
in the manner already described.` If desired, the.
54.v » The rest of the apparatus shown in Figure 5
collectors can be formed of metal and the elec
is similar to that shown in Figure 2. The opera
trodes 5B and 53 insulated therefrom. The guides
tion of this device is apparent from the drawing.
5l' form a particularly useful purpose in Athat
After the stations have been lowered to a depth
when the stations are pulled up into tubing such
somewhat below their iinal position they are
as shown in Figure l, the guides automatically
raised rapidly, thus forcing huid downwardly and
againstvalve 52. The port opening M is in this
center the station as it is pulled into the end of
case preferably made quite small so that there 50 the tubing so that there will be no danger of
chipping or breaking the edge of the collector.
willzbe> a considerable pressure built up against
thevalve 52. The flexible support 53 thereupon
If desired, similar guides could be used with the
bends, opening the port 5| and >purging the trap
type of collector station shown in Figures 2 and 5.
Although the description of the conductivity
of all water that has already settled in it. This
procedure is preferably carried on after the well 55 determining stations has been directed to types
has been conditioned with the nonconducting liq
with a conical inlet, various other configurations
uid such as oil in order that no more water will
can be used.' It will also be apparent to those
'flow into the traps until the formations are al
skilledin the art that other types of electrical
lowed to produce. Preferably the procedure is
circuits can be employed for the indication of
then repeated several times to insure that no 60 the short circuiting action of the entrapped liq
waterfrom an upper trap has settled into a lower
trap without having been purged in turn. The
main procedure outlined above is then carried out
in order to determine the location of the water
While our invention has been described with
particular reference to certain theories of oper
ation we do not mean to be restricted thereby,
65 nor is there -any election on our part to be re
This particular type of check valve is, of course,
stricted to the particular equipment shown and
only one example of many that might be illus
described. This invention is best defined by the
scope of the appended claims.
trated. For example, the types of valves used
We claim:
in two-valve bottom hole samplers such, for ex
1. A method of determining the location of a
ample, as the type described in` U. S. Patent 70
zone of -Water ingress into an oil or gas well vcom
.2,l61,577,v can be employed. We prefer to use a
simple valve in order to permit maximum flex»
'ibility‘oi the equipment.
1 ` Although the previous figures have shown water
prising conditioning said well >to remove water
from the producing »section thereof, preventing
the ingress of fluids fromV well formations into
detecting apparatus in which the outer electrode 75 said well during said conditioning, thereafter
ffcaùsing »ingress-of fluids fromv said .weuiformauons
'i‘t'wo ele‘ctrodesingeach'of said .setsbeing spaced
by- »producing- said-well,l ventrapping for an appre
-ciableiperiodïoftime-a substantial portion of
iiapartafminirnum distance greater than the max->
"water beingl produced in each of a plurality of
fof insulators one oflwhich separates each of said
» imum dimension' ' of. a V.drop *of water, Va > plurality
"adjacent vertically disposed Zones in said well at >
»setsi of said.f;electrodes,_each of said insulators
stationary po-ints disposed aty the lower boundary
`- andrjat -lea'st :onezof :eachi of _ said sets vof electrodes
"Ófea'ch'of said` zones and `effecting a change in
aîbeingsconstructed and< adapted to denne a water
yfarìf'elel'btrical characteristic at' thesurface of the
ï well by theï'entrapment-of~ a plurality of drops
trappingì collector :whereby drops of. water enter
V:ingsaid.lcollectcrare retained in .the region ad
:jacent-‘the .minimum 'spacing- between said two
,:e'lectrodes,. aiplurality of resistors, each one of
' of-Water at any one ofsaid points.
2. A method of locating the regions of .salt
"water ingress intoian oil or gas well including
f establi'shing'fwithin the'uncased vportion of said
i Well a plurality of vertically separated `water
'.‘which is connectedzbetweenthe electrodes of one
"of Vsaid vs‘ets of twoelectrodes, and an electrical
‘.circuitincluding means for producing a visual
"stratifying zones, stopping the now of iiuids into 15l indication of thezcurrent ñowing in said circuit,
«isaidcircuit >extending to the surface of the earth
5 the'iwell fromsaid uncased portion thereof,v dis
~f and associated with said'sets of electrodes where
“pl'a'cingany water in said uncased portion of said
? by the shortecircuiting of ,any of said resistors
""well‘- by oil, thereafter causing Water from said
by ïtheJ-trapping of a predetermined quantity of
-uncased’portion- of -saidvwell to flow into said
Water-‘iin any‘of said collectors.v produces an in-4
‘"l-well, entrapping for an appreciable period of time
dication insaid current indicating- means.
îïa' substantial portion of 'said-'water at said water
7.1íApparatus :according to claimv 6 including
i’stratifying'zones-adjacent said regions of water
purging means. associatedtwith~-said electrodes
ingress, and producing at the surface of the
adapted to remove conducting fluids from said
f ground4 a ‘change in a single composite electrical
' conditionïdue toy the'stratiflcation of a predeter 25
- mined> volume- of'entrapped Water at anyof said
8.> In apparatuswfor determining the location
of the 'zones of water lingress into an oil or gas
Well, a plurality of sets vof. two electrodes, said
two electrodes in each'ofr said sets being spaced
wateringress‘into an-oil or gas-well including
' disposing in the uncased portion of said Well a~ 30 apart a distance not less than three-eighths nor
more than twoinches, a plurality of insulators
' plurality of‘vertically'separated water collectors,
each of which is adapted toseparate the said
stopping the flow of iìuids into the well from said
two electrodes 'of'one 'of said sets of electrodes,
í'uncased kportion thereof,~removing water from
water stratifying zones.
3.*A‘ method of locating the regions of salt
l‘said 'uncased-portion of said well, thereafter
-one of said electrodes in each of said sets being
’ causingwater'from` said uncased portion ofY said 35 flared and adapted to form with saidl insulator
"well to'?low into said well, entrapping for an
appreciable'period of'time a substantial portion of
said Water at said Water collectors adjacent said
` regions ofwater ingress while maintaining said
andthe other electrode of said set a means to
collect water inthe fluid of said lwell in a pool
¿adjacent~said»electrodes, a plurality of resistors,
one for each‘i'of lsaid sets of electrodes and con
collectors stationary relative to-said uncased por
nectedbetwïeen the electrodes in said set, and a
tion of'said Well and while producing fluids from
Asingle electrical series circuit including a source
` said wel1,‘producing- an `electrical eiiîect at each
‘ 'of potential; a current indicating device, said plu- v
of saidv water collectors the magnitude of which
-changes byA a predetermined amount upon the
rality of resistors» and insulated conductors be
" entrapment at said’collectors of more thana
"predetermined volumey of water, and producing
tween the surface of the earth and said sets of
9.A YIn Aapparatus for determiningthe location of
at the ’surface ofv the ground a single resultant
a zone ofzwater ingress into an oil or gas Well,
of the'magnitude of said electrical effects at ally
a lplurality >of »setsof- two electrodes, said two
> electrodes in-each 'of said sets being spaced apart,
' 4. A‘method according to claim 3 in which said 504 one electrode of-'each set being constructed oi’ a
lof . said’ water collectors.
‘change inthe magnitude dof'saicl electrical effect
is diiîerent at each of ,saidl collectors, whereby
l.the> change" in the "magnitude of said resultant
V'of'said"electrical effects is uniquely related to
those'of said collectors at which more than said
vpredetermined Volume of water is entrapped.
5. In apparatus for determining the location
ofthe Zones of water ingress into an oil or gas
well, an electrically conducting collector adapted
-to be lowered into a well,4 said collector being so
shaped and‘constructed ‘that any water entering
v'sa'id'collector is 'collected Yin a relatively small
iiexible conducting material and in part coni
cally Yshapedfand yadapted to-form with saidA in
sulatory landftheother- electrode of said set a
Ymeans-tocollectAv droplets of water in said well
in a pool adjacentw said electrodes, a plurality ofy
resistors; 'one' to weach of said sets of electrodes
andconnected'between the electrodes in said set,
ak singleelectrical circuit connected to said elec
trodes and including two insulated'conductors in
60 a cable extending to the surface of the earth and
means_'at the’surface for determining changes in
.the'impedance'of said circuit due to entrapment
of water in said~conical1yv>shaped ñexibleelec
trode, means' for lowering saidïcable in said well,
region within said collector, an electrode placed
in -said’region but separated from said collector
by such a'distance that at least several drops of 65 `and means for’determining the >location of said
Water are‘required to connect said electrode and
sets off-electrodes‘in Ysaid well.
‘said collector, -an‘electrical resistor connecting
" ‘10.“¿Apparatus-for determining the‘location of
a. _zone ofwateringress into an oil or gas well
»said electrode and said collector, and a series
including'means,for'removing water from the
electrical circuitlincluding a source of potential
and ymeansfforv `‘producing-a visual indication of 70 producingsection‘ of said» well, means for control
_ling- vthe^ flow'of?luids' from permeable forma
the current: kflowing in said series circuit, said
tions of ~said producing section into saidA well, a
electrode, said collector and said resistor.
6. In apparatus for determining the location
cable including two insulated conductors, means
of the zones of water ingress into an oil or gas
for lowering said cable in said Well, means for
well, a plurality of sets of two electrodes, said 75 determining the length of said cable in said well,
a plurality of substantially vertically spaced pairs
provided by the entrapment of a predetermined
quantity of Water within said constricted portion,
of 'electrodes attached to said cable, one of each
and means actuated by the electrical connection
pair of electrodes being constructed with an en
of said electrodes by the entrapped water to pro
larged conical section, a plurality of insulators,
duce a unidirectional change in‘an electrical cur
one for each pair of electrodes, adapted to space
rent through a circuit.
said electrodes a distance greater than thegreat
16. An apparatus for determining the location
Lestldimension of a drop of water, and to deñne
of zones of water ingress to an oil or gas well,
with said electrodes a water collector whereby
an electrically conducting entrapping means
drops of water are trapped in a region adjacent
the minimum spacing of said electrodes, means 10 adapted to be lowered into said Well and to permit
any water entering said entrapping means to be
for removing conducting fluids from each of said
retained for an appreciable period of time with
water collectors, a number of resistors equal to
in a constricted portion of saidv entrapping means,
the number of pairs of electrodes, each resistor
at least one electrode spaced from said entrap
having a different ohmic value than that of any
other resistor, each of said resistors being con 15 ping means and located in said constricted por
tion thereof, and an electrical means including
nected across one of said pairs of electrodes,
said entrapping means and said electrode adapted
means for connecting all of said resistors in se
to cause a change in current in a circuit, one
ries to the two conductors in said cable, and
portion of which is located at the surface of the
means at the surface of the ground connected to
earth, when sufficient water is retained within
said two conductors of said cable for detecting
said entrapment means to form >a conducting
the change in resistance of the circuit includ
path between said entrapping means and said
ing said cable, said resistors, and said electrodes.
1l. Apparatus according to claim 10 in which
1'7. The method of locating a Zone of ingress
the ohmic value of said resistors are integral
multiples of members of the series 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. 25 of conducting fluid to a well producing both con
ducting and nonconducting fluids, the steps of
l2. A method of locating a zone of ingress of
introducing a conditioning fluid to said well to
conducting fluid to a well producing both conduct
remove conducting fluids, displacing the condi
ing and nonconducting fluids comprising the steps
tioning fluid by introducing Well fluids, segregat
of conditioning said Well to remove conducting
liquid therefrom, thereafter permitting fluids to 30 ing a portion of incoming well fluid in at least
one zone which is shielded on the sides and bot
enter said well, entrapping for an appreciable
tom from the incoming well fluid, separating con
period of time a portion of said fluids within at
ducting fluid from said segregated portion within
least one constricted Zone, accumulating con
said zone, collecting a pool of conducting iluid
ducting fluids in a lower portion of said Zone and
producing a change in a signal when the amount 35 in a lower portion of said zone, and utilizing the
collected conducting fluid for producing a signal
of said accumulated conducting fluid exceeds a
predetermined minimum quantity.
13. A method of determining the location of a
Zone of water ingress within an oil or gas well
when the pool of said collected conducting fluid
exceeds a predetermined minimum depth.
18. Apparatus for locating- a Zone of ingress
comprising conditioning said well to remove water 40 of conducting fluid in a well producing non-con
ducting fluid including means for temporarily
therefrom, preventing the ingress of fluids from
excluding >conducting ñuid from the region in
well formations into said well during said con
said well under investigation, a plurality of re
- ditioning, thereafter permitting ingress of fluids
ceptacle means, means for supporting said re
from said well formations into said well, entrap
ping a portion of the fluids entering the well at 45 ceptacle means in a spaced substantially vertical
array within the said region under investigation,
at least one stationary point adjacent the location
means for producing said well, and means within
of a zone of water ingress, separating the water
each of said receptacle means for determining a
from the entrapped well fluids to produce a bot
cha-nge in an electrical property of fluid accumu
torn water layer and producing a signal when
lated within said receptacle means by stratifica
the quantity of entrapped water so separated ex
tion of conducting fluid accumulated therein while
ceeds a predetermined minimum quantity.
14. An apparatus for determining the location
producing the well.
19. The method of locating a zone of ingress
of t‘ne zones of water ingress of an oil or gas well,
of conducting fluid to a well producing both con
means for entrapping water for an appreciable
period of time and for stratifying a bottom 55 ducting and non-conducting fluids comprising
the steps of introducing a conditioning fluid to
water layer, said means being adapted to be low
said well to remove conducting fluids, displac
ered into the iiuid in said well and to cause water
ing the conditioning fluid by well fluids, segregat
Vin the fluid thereabove to be entrapped within a
ing portions of incoming well ñuid at a plurality
Zone of relatively small cross-sectional area as
compared to the cross-sectional area of the well, 60 of vertically disposed Zones, each shielded on the
sides and bottom from the incoming well fluid,
and means for producing a change in an electrical
separating conducting fluid from said segregated
effect of a predetermined magnitude upon the
portion within _at least one of said Zones, collect
entrapment and segregation of water within said
ing a pool of conducting fluid in the bottom por
entrapping and stratifying means.
l5. An apparatus for determining the location
tion of said last-mentioned zone, and utilizing
of zones of water ingress of an oil or gas well,
as an indication of the zone of ingress of con
water entrapping means adapted to be lowered
ducting fluid a signal produced in response to a
into said well and to accumulate entrapped water
predetermined depth of the pool of conducting
in a constricted portion thereof for an appreciable
period of time, two separated electrodes within I
ñuid separated in said last-mentioned zone`
said constricted portion of said entrapping means,
a conducting path between said electrodes being
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