6st. 29, 19%. .J_,\, H BARKEU v 2,41,333 HYDRAULIC MECHANISM ‘ Filed_April 29, 1940 ‘ 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. @ct. 2,19%. 234102533 J. A. H. BARKEIJ HYDRAULIC MEcHANI SM Filed April- 29, 1940 /6a. s Sheets-Sheet 2 ' ~66 INVENTOR. Get 29, 3946. 2,416,333 J. AU. H. BARKEIJ HYDRAULIC MECHANISM Filed April 29, 1940 BY I 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 0m. 29, 1946. I ' I J. A. H. BARKEIJ HYDRAULIC , MECHANISM Filed April 29, 1940 2,41,333 ' 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG/6. 757 "554 5 “7 147~ 53 7 7a 75 7 156 (/55 ), 22' , 23 4 222 06L 29, 1946. J. A. H. BARKEIJ ‘ 2,410,333 vHYDRAULIC. MECHANISM ' Filed April 29, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 . F/& A3. 1575- _/42 Patented Oct. 29, 1946 2,4l'0,333 . UNITED ‘STATES ‘PATIENT OFFICE 2,410,333 ‘HYDRAULIC MECHANISM Jean A. H. Barkeij, Altadena, ‘Calif. Application April 29, 1940, Serial No. 332,522 35 Claims. (Cl. ‘ill-189.5) 1 2 My invention relates primarily to hydraulic , shows Fig. 10 on the section line 'I‘I-II thereof. Fig. '11 shows further ‘mechanism or means to control the conversion of the converter into a coupling and conversely, by the driver at will and preferably in connection with the fuel con power transmission and more particularly with that kind of transmission which is called the Foettinger type of hydraulic coupling or hydro ‘kinetic‘torque converter. vMy ?rst object is to arrange hydraulic mecha "trol element‘ of the prime mover. nism in such a way with other mechanism or The same idle ‘runner, however, may be used, planetary gearing in general so as to reduce the ‘to drive the runner slightly in opposite direction relative speeds of the impeller and runner of the as we will explain hereinafter. hydraulic mechanism ‘to a minimum thereby in 10 Fig. 12 show a modi?cation of Fig. 11, in which creasing the emciency of a hydraulic mechanism, the driver controls the device of Figs. 10 and 11 My second object is to combine a planetary by ‘means of a single solenoid, instead of two. gearing with a hydrokinetic coupling or converter Fig. 13 shows that ‘the planetary gearing may in such a way that the usual creeping tendency be soarranged that the two intermediate side exerted on the ‘vehicle by such couplings, and/or gears (4a and 'I) may be connected with the im converters, is entirely eliminated. With creeping peller and runner of the hydrokineticx mecha ‘tendency is meant the tendency of such a drive nism and the planetary carrier may be connected to move the vehicle forwards with the engine vwith the propeller shaft for instance by means of idling. an intermediate gearing I5 and Hi to the driven My third object is to associate said second ob 20 mechanism, as for instance a vehicle. ject with a free-wheel mechanism tending to Fig. 14 shOWs how a pawl Ila can release the prevent the exertion of backward drive to vthe freewheel of Fig. 6 for reverse drive. vehicle, said freewheel allowing only a forward Fig. 15 shows a centrifugal governor control motion but no backward motion, unless elimi ling a valve to release the pressure in anoil-pres nated. sure pump, in ‘order to release the brake mecha.. Other objects will appear hereinafter during nism to vstop the vanes of the rotor III shown in the discussion of the various ?gures. ‘Figs. 10 and 11. Figs. 1 to '7 are diagrammatical drawings to Fig. 16 shows the combination of the Figs. 8, explain the principle of my invention. "11 and 15. The brake II'I operates on'theplane Fig. 8 shows the combination of a prime mover 30 tary carrier and the impeller connected there with a hydrokinetic torque converter, the prime with. The brake I35 operates on the idle runner mover being connected to one driving shaft of a III of Fig. 11. The meaning of the separation planetary gearing, the planetary carrier of said lines ‘S1, S2, S3 ‘are explained ‘hereinafter. The gearing and the other, driven, shaft being in driv accelerator ‘I38 operates either on the brake H1, ing connection with each other through said con 35 or on the brake I35. The governor I41 operates verter, and said other shaft being in driving re only on the brake I35. lation to a vehicle carrying said combination, Fig. 1'7 shows a combination of the features of preferably through a gear reduction drive. Figs."3, 7 or ‘9 with 11, and 15. The brake I34 ‘Fig. 9 shows the combination of a hydrokinetic operates on the planetary carrier or differential coupling and a prime mover, said motor being 40 housing and the runner connected therewith. connected to the impeller of said coupling and 'The brake #35 operates on the idle runner III of the runner thereof being connected to an over Fig. 11. The accelerator controls either the brake IM or the brake 935. The governor I41 controls drive between said runner and the housing or carrier of a planetary gearing, having two shafts extending therefrom, one being connected to said motor and said impeller, and the other shaft be ing geared to the pinion gears rotatably arranged on said planetary carrier, and in driving con nection with the gear drive of a vehicle carrying saidcombination. Figs. 10 and 11 show the combination of a torque converter and ?uid clutch in one, and mechanism to change one into the other during the rotation thereof. Fig. 10 shows Fig. 11 on only the brake I35. The ‘meaning of the separa 45 tion lines is the same as that of Fig. 16. Fig. 13 shows a combination of the Figs. 1, 11 and 15. The brake I34 does not operate on the planetary carrier, but only on the runner of a ?uid . drive. The brake I35 controls the brake on the 50, idle runner .I H of Fig. 11. The accelerator con trols either the brake I314, or the brake I35. The governor con-trols only the brake I35. The mean ing of the separation lines S1, S2, S3 are the-same the section line I0—Iil of Fig. 11, .and Fig. 11 55 as before. Fig. 19 shows a combination of Figs. 13, 11 and 2,410,333 3 4 crankshaft of the engine having to the right an 15. The brake I34 operates or controls again the planetary carrier of a planetary or di?erential mechanism, but does not operate directly on the runner or impeller of the ?uid drive. The ac celerator controls either the brake I 34 or the brake I35, and the governor controls only the brake I35. impeller with a series of vanes ?xed thereon and to the left a runner with a similar number in reverse. The shift may be a handshift or a mechanical shift as explained in said prior ' of a circle indicated by the letter X, in the direc tion indicated by the arrows, and this motion of of vanes, as shown in Fig. 2, which represents Fig. l on the section line I-I thereof. The run ner is connected to the driven mechanism 3, here shown as the rear axle of a vehicle, carrying this combination. The meaning of the separation lines S1, S2, S3, >In=such a coupling the oil rotates with the is the same asfor the previous ?gures. In the latter four ?gures, the freewheel I3b 10 vanes around the axis of the coupling, which is the straight line A connecting the motor with can be locked out for reverse drive, as explained the rear axle in Fig. 1, but this motion does not in my prior application No. 676,646, June 20, 1933 transfer practically any power from the impeller now Patent No. 2,261,898, independently of the to the runner. gearshift. And it can be locked out by the gear The same oil rotates however around the axis shift substantially simultaneously with the shift 15 the oil is in fact the power transmitting agent. The oil entering the impeller at the point a Likewise, the mechanism to lock out the free .wheel may look out‘ the control of the accelerator 20 from the runner R, has a certain speed depending upon the distance R1, which is the distance from onthe reverse, drive (or gearshift as shown in point a to the axis A of the coupling. The oil Fig. 15C of Patent No. 2,261,898), because in the entering at point b from the runner into the im combinations of Figs. 16 and 1'7 it is evident peller has a kinetic energy proportional to the that the momentum of ‘the car, when the free radius from point I) to the axis A of the coupling, wheel is locked out, would tend to drive the which is R2. The total column of oil is thrown engine in opposite direction so that it would be by centrifugal force to the periphery of the im ‘stalled. These old features are omitted here but peller and leaves the impeller at points I and e, it is emphasized that they may be combined with patent. which have a radius of respectively B4 and R5 and In all ?gures the two motors I31 and I311, 30 an inertia corresponding to said radii. (See Fig. 1 mainly.) have each their entry line I3'Ia to receive the oil Considering Fig. 2, which shows diagrammat pressure, and I have shown their exit line I3'Ib ically Fig. 1 on the section line 2+2, and shows connected. The separation lines S1, s2, S3, in a plurality of vanes 0, which may be constructed dicate clearly how the valves I42 and III21 can in various ways. In the present explanation it is be connected crosswise with either pump. the present construction. , In Fig. 16 for instance the single separation convenient to assume that they are arranged line I421 and I41 radially and are formed by thin separating parti s1 indicates that accelerator I38 and valve (controlled thereby) control the pump I311 the the brake III, and that the governor and valve I42 control the motor I31 and 40 brake I35. , . The two separation lines S2 and S3 in combina tion indicate that accelerator I38 and valve I421 control motor I31 and brake I35. tions indicated by the letter 22. It appears in Fig. 2 that the area of the entry into the impeller of ‘each cell between two separating vanes is a,—b—c—.d, and the area of exit e—,f—g—-h. These two areas have to be made approximately equal and the cells between two adjacent vanes ‘may be further separated by concentric thin _ ‘The two separation lines S1 and S2 in combina tion indicate that governor I4‘! and valve I42 control the motor I31 and brake I35. The sepa , walls indicated by two heavy lines extending from , ration lines S1, S2, S3, in Figs. 17, 18, 19 have has to come closer to the outer periphery of the coupling, than the separating wall b—c from the f to g and from b to c for one cell. It is evident from the Figure 2 that the separating wall f-g the same meaning. inner periphery thereof. Therefore in Fig. 1 this wall is indicated by the circle X, which is In all Figures 16, 17, 18, 19, if the accelerator I38 and valve I421 control the brake I35 and the idle runner in the fluid drive, this idle runner excentric to the circular axis Z around the axis of the coupling as a whole. The axis of the wall X is therefore on the outside thereof and placed for instance at Y. In the following ?gures the two explained axes Y and Z are placed concentric, because the Figures 3 to 13 show merely the con structional features of the combination of a hy either serves to slow down the drive shaft ex tending into the gearbox (or to reverse it even in direction, if preferred) in order to effect a gearshift therein by means of the overrunning action of the freewheel associated therewith, or that this idle runner serves to convert the ?uid ‘ coupling into a ?uid torque converter, depending drokinetic torque converter and/or hydrokinetic upon the structure preferred in a given vehicle. 60 coupling together with a differential mechanism in various ways, and in certain converters, having These various structures and combinations, will ' a stationary reaction member, the passages be be discussed hereinafter in detail. tween the vanes or channels differ substantially Before describing the Figs. 3 to 19 in detail, from those in couplings, and in said ?gures the I prefer to give a little bit of theory on hydraulic mechanism‘ more particularly that of the 65 general arrangements of the parts involved is only of prime importance and not so much the Foettinger type, shown in the ?rst seven ?gures, special arrangement on the inside of the hy in order to understand better the meaning of the Figures 3 to 13. draulic mechanism, as will be evident later on. ' Besides in said arrangements of Figs. 8 to 12 Ihave shown diagrammatically a vertical cross 70 one type may be replacedby the other and said Figures 8 to ,12 are to a certain extent almost ‘section of a Foettinger ?uid flywheel. _Re_ferring more particularly to Fig. 1, in which as diagrammatic in their meaning as the ?rst I is, the motor, preferably ‘an internal com ' bustion engine reaching its maximum thermal ' seven ?gures. , _ It is evident from Figs. 1 and 2 that the move > schematically the'outer housing connected to the' 75..ment of the oil around the circular axis Y (around ‘ e?iciency in the higher speed ‘ranges. -2 indicates .. sheets . the axis of the coupling indicated by A in Fig. ,1) is the movement, which mainly transfers the of ' slip) 6 the average difference between the ‘speeds between the impeller and runner will be far less than in the arrangement of Fig.1. There fore it does prevent loss of power by friction, and flow of power from the impeller to the runner. vIf we want to transmit a given amount of power and we desire to use a given quantity of oil and does decrease the amount of eddying between the certain centrifugal speeds proportional to the impeller and runner, and in the dead space be tween said parts, and between said parts and the maximum speed approximately of the motor, we can compute and we know the different radii outer housing 2. indicated and we can compute the all around Therefore the arrangement of Fig. 3 is highly sizes of the coupling necessary to transmit a given 10 preferable over that of Fig. l. - . power. Fig. 4 shows that in given circumstances of light load it would have an advantage to make the side gears 4a and 1 of di?erent diameter as shown , I Assuming that the motor starts to rotate and the wheels 3 are stationary the impeller has to ‘reach a certain speed before the oil is capable diagrammatically in Fig. 4. of moving .the runner vR connected with the 15 Fig. 5 shows that in given circumstances of a heavy load it would have an advantage to make the side gears 4a and ‘I of dilferent diameter in driven mechanism, which offers, of course, an initial inertia. The slip that occurs between the impeller and runner is, when starting of course, reverse order as that of Fig. 4, as shown diagram terri?c and as soon as the runner begins to matically in Fig. 5. x In Fig. 6 is shown a one-Way brake 9—l0 ar move, and the driven mechanism is started, the 20 less the slip becomes until impeller and runner ranged between the shaft 8 and the stationary have approximately the same speed. In that part II, let us say of the housing of the rear condition the oil practically has only a uniform axle. motion around the axis A and little around the If the load is very heavy the shaft 8 would or axis Y, and the only loss is the friction of the 25 might have a tendency to rotate in reverse direc oil on the various surfaces in the hydraulic mech tion and drive the car backwards. To prevent anism. this, it is advantageous to insert a freewheel with When the impeller and runner run at widely rollers in between said shaft 8 and the differ different speeds the oil is rotated fast around the ential housing 3, to prevent the car from going axis Y and is churned at a terri?c rate, and the backwards until the motor is capable to move the friction and the slip causes a great loss in the driven mechanism in the proper direction. It transmission of power. _ is understood, that it should be possible to drive To prevent this loss to a great extent I pro pose to arrange other mechanism between the impeller and motor to decrease said loss to a the car backwards through the same mechanism with a reverse gear drive as shown in Fig. 7-, and the freewheel is so arranged that a pawl Ila, as minimum and the following diagrammatic ?g shown in Fig. 14, operating on the outer element H of the freewheel will allow shaft 8 to rotate the inner and outer element of the freewheel in ures serve to show the general nature of my invention. In Fig. 3 the motor is I, whose crankshaft is connected with a shaft 4 to the outer housing 2 of the hydraulic mechanism. The housing 2 has reverse direction. Another way of preventing this I have shown in Fig. 7, in which I place a gearbox 12 with sliding gears between the differential and the rear axle. However, a sliding gearbox would not do very well internal vanes 6, forming the impeller and the runner has vanes indicated by 5, which’ vanes 'are connected to the hollow shaft 5, in which ro~ ‘tates the shaft 4 connected to the housing 2. The shaft 5 is connected to a differential housing or planetary carrier 6a, and on said differential ‘housing or carrier are rotatably arranged bevel gears 6b. On this shaft 4 is ?xed a differential side gear 4a, geared to said bevel gears 6b. Geared to said level gears 6b is another differ ential side gear I ?xed on a shaft 8 leading for instance to the rear ‘axle 3 of a vehicle carrying said combination. This fundamental arrangment has the advan tage over the arrangement of Fig. 1, that the im peller and runner can be made to run at speeds if the motor I and the rear axle 3 are connected 45 with each other through a hydraulic mechanism without a two-way clutch to separate them, The impeller exerts at all times a reaction on the runner and the runner on the impeller, and to prevent the complication of a two-way clutch, anywhere between motor and rear axle, I prefer to place an overrunning clutch l3 between the gearbox and the rear axle 3. If the driver closes the throttle with his ac celerator, the vehicle (or'driven mechanism in general) can overrun the hydraulic mechanism ‘and a standard sliding gear between the shafts 8 and 811, on either side of the gearbox 12, would allow the shifting mechanism, which may in clude synchromesh means and power-operated explain next. 60 mechanism in that case to operate ef?ciently and smoothly between said shafts B and 8a. (See my If shaft 4 rotates at 1000 R. P. M. (motor I) the Patent No. 2,261,898.) gear 411 rotates at the same speed and if shaft In trucks the arrangement of Fig. 7 has ad 8 does not rotate at all, the housing Ea must ro vantages on hills, where the load becomes too tate at half the speed, if the gears 4a and 1 have ‘the same diameter, assuming that they are shown 65 heavy for a Foettinger clutch and the slip in creases. Although the arrangement of Figs. 3 to in the ?gure. 7 in general would decrease the slip on hills with I _ The vanes s will rotate at 1000 R. P. M., the heavy loads, nevertheless a reduction-gear be vanes 5 will rotate almost simultaneously there tween the shaft 8 and the rear axle will decrease “with at 500 R. P. M. If the kinetic energy of the oil is su?icient to rotate the vanes 5 at 5001/2 10 the slip some more. In the following Figures 8 to 12 I have shown R.‘ P. M., the shaft 8 will make only one revolu l'tion, and the vehicle starts rolling. Therefore slightly different arrangements in details, and ' means showing how to seal the hydraulic mecha from that moment up to the moment that shafts nism against leakage, and I will describe now ,_4_ and 8 are rotating substantially at the same speed (there is almost always a certain amount 75 said ?gures in succession and to explain why which differ substantially from the relative ‘speeds of the same parts in Fig. 1, which I will 2,410,333 7 these figures, no de?nite hydraulic mechanism should be indicated. In Fig. 8 is shown a hydro 8 tates the-least little bit, the housing I01 willrotate at slightly more than half the speed of the shaft I04. When the shaft H3 rotates slowly there kinetic converter, in Fig. 9_ a hydrokinetic cou pling, and in Figs. 10 and 11 a combination of the two. The position of the circle X as explained in Fig. l is kept purposely concentric with Y, but may be shifted in accordance with the. general and runner II2, ‘but in this type of torque con verter-said slip is not a total loss at all, because it converts the relative great rotation of the im three parts of said differential mechanism may pling, except for the slight increase of friction is, of course, a great slip between, impeller III] peller I I0 into a great force at slow rotative speed well known characteristics of the Foettinger on the shaft II3 to drive the car. ‘ clutch or converter in general as explained in Agear reduction as shown at I I4. may be placed Figs. 1 and 2. In these ?gures a two-way clutch 10 between the torque converter and the rear axle is, shown, but it is understood of course, that the I I5 to reduce the resistance so that shaft I I3 may freewheel arrangement of‘ Fig. 'Iv may be applied pick up. speed readily andv so that shaft II3 ro on said modi?cations in addition to said two-way tates quickly with the same speed as shaft I04. clutch. This freewheel always allows to brake the driving shaft for a shift in the gearbox. 15 The reaction member does not cause any more slip than that of an ordinary hydrokinetic cou (It is understood (as shown in Fig. 13) that the caused by the vanes or cells of the reaction mem ber in addition to the friction of the liquid in the connected with the side gears by two concen tric shafts and that the planetary carrier may be 20 two rotors. Therefore unless the vehicle is standing on a very steep grade and starts rolling geared to the driven mechanism.) backwards, there is not the slightest tendency to In Fig. 8, “II is the prime mover. I02, the drive the car backwards. As a. third safeguard crankshaft thereof, I03 the clutch, which con and to insure the possibility of a positive drive for nects- it with a shaft I04, carrying an interme be so arranged that the impeller and runner are diate side-gear I05, geared to intermediate (I06) 25 emergency cases, I apply a brake III on the dif ferential housing IIl‘i. This brake when applied pinion gears rotatably arranged on a differen tial housing I01. Said pinion gears are geared to another intermediate side gear I08 splined on a shaft H3, which is connected to a rotor of a holds the differential housing or planetary gear ing stationary and also the rotor III], splined to the differential housing IG'I. In that case the car is driven backwards to get out of a sudden abnormal resistance at a reduced gear-reduction of the gearbox H4. The rotor H2 operates as an impeller against the stationary rotor H0 and converter, I09. Between said two rotors is a a complete slip has to take place, because rotor torquereaction member I! I, which forms a unit with the stationary housing I 09 of said torque 35 HE is held stationary by the brake III. In so far as the distance driven backwards is negli converter. The shaft I I3 may be connected with gible in the ordinary use of a car, this appre an intermediate gearbox containing two forward ciable loss is practically reduced to a negligible gears, a direct and low gear and eventually a re loss. Besides, by using brake I II we do not need verse gear, although this is not imperative. The to apply a reverse gear in the gearbox at all, be gearbox is, in driving arrangement with, the dif cause for parking purposes, and said emergency ferential rear-axle H5 and wheels H6 of a-ve cases, we can apply the brake I I7 by hand or foot hicle, preferably by means of a freewheel or over“ as desired. running clutch. If a reverse drive is incorporated in the gear Before explaining the mode of operation, I will box Illl, the brake II‘I becomes largely super explain in general the mechanical difference be ?uous. In either case the freewheel shownmust tween a hydrokinetic torque-converter and a hy be eliminated, see Figs. 16 etc. drokinetic coupling. The former is somewhat Another modi?cation of a gear drive resem equivalent to a transformer in the electrical bling that of Fig. 8, I have shown in Fig. 9. world, and the latter is somewhat equivalent to a The prime mover IIB has a crankshaft II9 mere switch, The former consists of three ele connected by a two-way clutch I20 to a shaft I2-I, ments, a runner, a reaction member and an im splined to a hydrokinetic coupling, I22, although peller, the latter has only two elements, an im here, as in the modi?cation of ‘Fig. 8, a hydro peller and a runner. In both devices the runner kinetic torque converter of the design of Fig. 5 and impeller has vanes or cells, directing the could be equally used, if desired. The impeller ?uid (usually light mineral oil in the housing of I22a, forms a torque tube for they shaft I2I, and the coupling) in a circle around the circular axis is connected to a side-gear ‘I29 in a differential of the cells of the runner and impeller. This gearing. The runner I23 is connected toa disc circular axis is in a plane perpendicular to the with a gear I24, geared to the gears I25, rotat common longitudinal axis of runner and im peller. Upon rotation the liquid in‘the coupling 60 ably arranged on a stationary member I26‘in the present construction, and these latter gears are is- subjected to a dual motion. One motion is a geared to a gear I21 forming one part with the tendency of the ?uid in the. cells of runner and differential housing or planetary carrier I28, on impeller to merely rotate in a circle around‘ the which are rotatably arranged the intermediate common axis of the two rotors, when they both rotate in the same direction. The other motion 65 pinion gears I30, which are geared to the inter mediate side gear I3I, on the driven shaft I32 is a tendency of the ?uid to rotate around the connected eventually by gear reduction, as in Fig. circular axis of the two rotors as indicated by the 8, to the rear axle I33 of the vehicle. A hand or arrows in Figs. 8 and 9. foot brake I34 maybe again applied on the dif In Fig. 8, when the motor rotates (let us say ferential housing. Or a'power brake as shown clockwise) the driving gear I05, the ?uid in the in Fig. 17. . _ converter tends to rotate immediately both rotors hydrokinetic torque converter. The differential housing or planetary carrier IB‘I is connected to the. other rotor IIEI of said hydrokinetic torque ' H2 and II!) in the. same direction. If the shaft I I3 offers considerable resistance, the housing IB'I is rotated at half engine speed when the shaft ' II3 is standing still. As'soon as the shaft I I3’ro The operation of this device is somewhat dif ferent from that of Fig. 8. When the. motor rotates the impeller I22a, it immediately tends 75 to rotate the runner I23. in the same direction, so 9 2,410,333 that the driving gearI29 and the pinion-or plane tary gears I30 form a-unit-tending torotate at the 1:0 . thereof. The reaction'member III of Fig. 8 I have/arranged within the stationary member I09, same speed in the same direction. Thereaction, so that a. brake band I35 can be operated from however, of the shaft I32 and gear I 3I, geared a stationary point over the reaction member II'I to the pinion gears I30, tends immediately to re so that the device becomes -a hydrokinetic con; tard the runner I23. Here, as in Fig. 6, if the verter if the brake is applied and a hydrokinetic rotor I23 rotates at half the speed of the impeller coupling if the brake is released. In the latter I22 the motor has a tendency to drive the car case the member III loses its charactervas a re backwards. However, the low gear which may action member and is able to rotate freely so be applied between rear axle I33 and shaft I32 1.0 that the device becomes a mere fluid coupling, the prevents such tendency positively, except in ex member III rotating virtually "at the same speed treme emergency cases. In saidcases the brake as the impeller. , I34 should be applied and the'car freed from the The brake band is contracted by a fluid vmotor emergency by the positive gear drive obtained I31, which is under control of the driver. In the ' thereby, as eXplainedfor Fig. 8. present arrangement it is preferred to control the It is understood that a hydrokinetic torque con member III through the fuel control element or verter may be substituted for the hydrokinetic accelerator I38. In my arrangement of- Figs. 10 coupling shown, if in certain designs the tend and '11 I prefer not to connect the reaction mem ency to a backward drive has to be diminished ber III with. the'runner, but to let the guide f. i. for standard use as in trucks. 20 blades of member I-II rotate free of the runner The application of the overdrive I24 to I21 and free of ‘the impeller. ' . has the advantage that fuel economy can be at I only show the preferred arrangement in Fig. tained under favorable driving conditions down 11. The hydraulic servo-motor receives itsrpres-l grade and with the wind. If the resistance is sure at I310; from any source of oil-pressure, for small, the runner I23 will rotate substantially at 25 instance the lubrication system of the internal the same speed as the impeller minus the slip, but combustion engine using the present device. A the overdrive I24--I21 rotates the housing I28 pipe I311} leads to a valve I42‘to release the pres faster than the shaft I2 I, and therefore the shaft sure coming from I3'Ia in the motor I31; The I32 may rotate at a higher speed than the shaft valve is controlled by twopsolenoids as desired; I2I. .If the resistance is great the slip increases 30 The solenoid I45 actuating ‘the valve I42 is in up to the point where shaft I32 still rotates as an electrical circuit I43, leading to'a switch I44 fast as shaft Hi. If the resistance becomes still actuated by the ‘accelerator only when it is greater, the slip increases still further, and in pressed beyond its maximum throttle'opening. such cases either a gear-reduction of a gearbox This switch I44 closes then the circuit for ener I4 should be used, or a hydrokinetic torque con 35 gising of the solenoid I445, which opens the valve verter. The gearbox may use sliding gears, be I42. The pressure is released in‘ the motor I31 cause it is preferred to use a two-way clutch be and the brake I35 is released and the torque tween prime mover and coupling or differential or converter becomes a hydrokinetic coupling. If planetary gear set. the driver Wants to de-energise the solenoid he Cross combinations of this gear drive as shown has to bring the accelerator back to' the idling in Figs. 8 and 9 are further defined in the ap position. To avoid the 'de-energisln'g of the sole‘ pended claims, and it is supposed that the appli noid I45 at speeds less than maximum throttle cation of planetary gearing and of the two-way opening, it is preferred to use a second circuit I 39 clutch for the sliding gear and clutch, is included and a second solenoid I45, and secondswitch I40, therein. 45 for the second circuit to close the valve-I42. If It is also understood that it would not involve the accelerator is brought back to idling position, invention to place the two-way clutch I43 in Fig. as shown, the circuit I39 is closed and'the valve 8 between the hydrokinetic torque converter H2 I42 is closed, the pressure at. I 3111 actuates the and the gear box II4, if a sliding gear is pre motor I31 again, the brake I35 is contracted and ferred. 50 the device operates as a torque converter, at all Likewise in Fig. 9, it would not be invention to place the two-way clutch I 20 between the dif ferential gearing I3! and the overdrive I24 to I26, or between this overdrive and the hydro throttle‘ openings inclusive maximum. This ar rangement allows the operator to have the great in. Fig. 8- and Fig. 9. option of the" driver through the positioni'ofhi‘s est possible acceleration without loss of e?iciency through slip, under any road condition. When kinetic coupling I22. 55 the‘ car is running at fairly high speed it has an Nor would it be invention over the arrange advantage to let the device act as a v?uid cou ment shown in Fig. 9 to place a freewheel f pling, decreasing the friction of the oil and elim behind the gearboX'to facilitate“ the gear-shift for inating the resistance in the oil-circulation pres a sliding gear and to omit the two-way clutch in sure to the motor I 31'. ~ ' - ~ ~ either arrangement of Fig. 8» or Fig. 9. Or to 60 It is understood that a number of such reaction add a freewheel between the rear-axle and the members I I I could be placed in series and stopped gearbox in the arrangements as they are shown or released in accordance to‘ conditions at the All such modi?cations can be combined with the fundamental arrangement accelerator I38. . _ . > a . shown. The latter modi?cation of the freewheel be hind the'gearboX-I have shown already in. my Pat of the accelerator " I38 has‘ two stops on it a and ent No. 2,261,898; b‘ apart about the distance the accelerator moves The two Figures 10 and 11 show a combination of the Figs. 8 and 9 and show a new- arrangement to convert a converter intoa ?uid’ coupling and a fluid coupling into a converter, during the rotation thereof.’ _ In Fig. 1011 have shown in vertical" cross'section a» torque‘ converter which may be reduced to a Fig. 12 shows’ a modification of the control of the device by a single solenoid. The rod |38a from idling position (in which the accelerator l38'is' shown) and the maximum gas position. I When Dressing on the accelerator the solenoid I45 is not energised‘ ‘and the spring I45a places the valve I42 in open position so that the pressure in motor I31 is released; When it is desired-to ?uid coupling by the driver during theoperation 75 convertthe ?uid coupling into" a- torque converter. 2,410,333 12 11 all the driver‘ has to do is to step on the gas be yond maximum position so that the switch I44 closes the circuit I43 to energise the solenoid. ready in my prior Patent No'. 2,261,898. The same arrangement is applied here where the ac celerator controls the application of the brake The valve I42 is then closed, the brake applied on the reaction member III and the device is a torque converter. When the driver desires to use I34. the device as a ?uid coupling‘, he merely releases suddenly the accelerator so that the stop a re , To decrease the complication of such a brake. I proposed as an alternative, to control a brake - I35 on an idle runner III, between the impeller and runner, having blades in such a direction that the impeller tends to rotate the runner leases, or recedes from, the switch. The switch is caught by any well known ratchet device, so 10 slightly in reverse direction, so that a similar gear shift can be made at all speeds, and even when that if the accelerator recedes, the arm I380: the car is standing still, and doing away with moves through a hole in the switch arm until the planetary gearing. the stop b comes into action releasing the arm The further advantage is that when the free from the switch and thereby de-energising the solenoid so that the spring I45a opens the valve 15 wheel is locked out, the momentum of the car does not reverse the rotation of the engine, but I42 releasing the pressure in motor I31 so that the friction of the motor will brake the car as the brake is released and the device acts as a ?uid coupling. When the driver steps on the gas, in any standard ?uid drive. The valve I42 is then connected not with the inclusive maximum position, the device continues to act as a fluid coupling until again the accel 20 motor I311, operating the brake II1, but with the motor I31, operating the brake I35 on the idle erator is pressed down beyond maximum posi runner III, as described in connection with tion, in which it becomes a torque converter until Fig. 11. the accelerator is released again to idling posi tion. A third variation is that a governor I41 may ' It is understood that the valve I42 could be opened and closed by a centrifugal governor I41, as shown in Fig. 15. On a driven shaft geared either to shaft 4 of Fig. 3, shaft 5 of Fig. 4, or shaft contro1 the motor I31 for the brake I35, but in that case the idle runner‘ has the function of converting a ?uid drive into a ?uid torque con verter. At predetermined speeds it is preferred to transmit the power of the engine at different when the vehicle is going at a fairly high speed 30 rates of speeds between impeller and runner.‘ The fourth variation is, that the accelerator (let us say any speed above 30, 35, or 40 miles an 8 of Fig. 5 by means of gearing M111 and so that hour) the valve I42 is opened and the brake re I38 may control again such an idle runner, so that the characteristics of the torque converter are available at any speed subject to the will pling. At such speeds the resistance cannot be very great and the torque converter characteris 35 of the driver. In the following four Figures 16 to 19, the accelerator I38 controls when released tics can be released as super?uous to drive the the operation of the solenoid I45 and thereby car. The torque converter is only needed if the the operation of motor I31 on brake I35. This motor meets a great resistance at a slow speed leased so that the device operates as a ?uid cou of the vehicle. happens when the idle runner is so constructed 1 Fig. 16 is, as stated before, a combination of 40 that it causes a slight backwards rotation of the runner connected to the driven mechanism. Fig. 8, with Fig. 11 or Fig. 15. The accelerator If said idle runner is so constructed as to I38 controls the switch I40, which controls the solenoid I4 I, which controls the valve I42, which controls the pump I31, which controls the brake II'I, whichv brakes the impeller III] of the ?uid drive‘II'IS, as already described in connection with Fig. 8. Runner H2 is connected to shaft II 3, which is connected with gearbox I M. change the ?uid coupling into a fluid converter, as described before in relation to Figs. 11 and 12, the accelerator I38 closes the circuit for asole noid I45 through a switch I44, and actuates valve I42 to close the passage for the ?uid from motor The operation of this combination is as fol lows. In retracted position of the accelerator I38, the brake I I1 is applied, the differential gears I06 are slowed up, or held stationary with the result that the shaft I I3, connected with the runner I I2, rotates in a direction opposite to that of the engine, due to the action of the freewheel ‘5 I 317. Thereafter a gearshift can be made whether the car is moving or standing still. Of course, when the car is moving relatively faster than the a reaction member, when said accelerator I38 is pressed beyond wide open position, and to open said passage when released. I prefer to have this greater torque available when the throttle is pushed beyond wide open position, but in certain cases it would have an advantage to reverse this, so that the brake I35 on the re-action member would be taken off when the accelerator is pushed beyond the wide open position, and applied when released. This can be motor at any given gear drive, the application of the brake I I 1 is largely super?uous on account of overrunning action of thefreewheel, but if the merely reversed for instance by placing the pas cartis standing-‘still or moving relatively slower, it is not. Inthe latter case a gearshift can be made without declutching a two-way clutch, and , I31 to apply a brake on said idle runner I I I, now sage in valve I42 in a corresponding position so that the passage for ?uid would be closed when the accelerator I38 is released and the brake applied, and said passage opened when the ac celerator is pushed beyond wide open position. the well-known creeping action of the ?uid drive This reversal can be effected in other ways if so is at the same time eliminated. desired. I have shown in the drawings of the two elec ' ‘ If the freewheel is locked" out or will be locked out for reverse drive or for braking purposes in forwards gear drives, the control of the accelera tor I38 on the brake I I1 has to be eliminated, otherwise the momentum of the car would tend ultimately to rotate the engine in reverse direc trical circuits, two cutting lines S4 and S5 for the switch. These cutting lines mean merely that if one circuit is out said idle runner is used as a means to start a backwards rotation of the tion and stall it. Such an arrangement to lock driven shaft or runner, and if the other circuit is cut the fluid coupling is converted into a torque out the control of the accelerator on the gearshift _ converter in two ways, as described. Either one when locking out the freewheel, I have shown al .75 or the other system is applied in a power trans 2,410,333: 13 ‘14 mission. However, it would‘ be possible to apply shift .in- reverse and: when. the-freewheel is‘ locked out; In reverse it must ‘be locked out, and as. explained.- before, when shifting into reverse, the both systems. I It is understood that‘ said cutting lines S4 and 65 may merely indicate a switch on the dash freewheelis locked out, substantially simultane board for both circuits, and that two runners are CI ously. therewith. incorporated to cause either one of 'said effects. In all“ four combinations, the cutting off of. the fuel‘ or the cutting of the ignition, automatically If the switch cuts one circuit for one runner, the accelerator will only operate the circuit to causes a disengagement of the ?uid drive, which cause the other circuit to operate for the other e?ects» the overrunrung action, of the freewheel 10 allowing a manual or power shift. runner, by the movement of the accelerator. It is further understood that any obvious mod Likewise here, in Fig. 18, as in Figs. 16 and i?cations whereby the same effects can be ob 17, the idle runner I II may act as a torque con tained would fall within the scope of this inven verter, controlled either by the accelerator I38 tion and its claims. or by the centrifugal governor M1. In so, far Asit would be too cumbersome to show these 15 as the differential mechanism is missing here, four variations in different drawings, I have th-etorquelconverter may be. assisted by the vari shown in Fig. 16, four dividing lines, indicated ous gears of a‘ gearbox, together with a free by the letter 8, so that the valve I421 controlled wheel, to‘ facilitate shifting without de-clutching by the accelerator I38 may control either the the two-way clutch I25. motor I311, operating the brake H1, or the mo 20 If the freewheel is locked out (front or rear tor I31, operating the brake I35. Or the valve I42, controlled by the centrifugal governor I 42 may control either motor I311 or I31. However, only the control of the brake I35, when the idle runner III may convert the ?uid drive into a ?uid torque converter, is preferably subject to the-centrifugal governor. The accelerator I33 of course, may control the brake I35, when the idle runner is constructed so as to effect a slight reverse rotation of the runner, or when the idle runner is constructed as a means to convert a ?uid drive into a ?uid torque converter. _In Fig. 17, substantially the same variations can‘ be obtained. Here, however, the brake I34 voperates not on the impeller, as in Fig; 16, but on the runner. As described before, an over drive is inserted between the runner of the ?uid driveand the differential mechanism. The accelerator I38, here controls again either one)’ the switch I481 may again ‘be locked’ out, but the momentum or kinetic energy of the car‘ ‘does not“ stop the motor, and if the freewheel . is not locked out the impeller connected: withthe motor may idle conveniently against the run ner, held stationary by the brake I34. There fore the looking out of the accelerator‘ I38 and switch Mil is in this arrangement not impera tive, when the car is standing still. The last modi?cation of Fig. 19., combines the Fig. 13 with Fig. 11 or Fig; 1.5. The engine I is connected to an impeller and to av gear 1 in the differential housing 6a. Theshaftv 4 runs in the hollow shaft 5, connected to the right with the runner, and to the left with the gear 4a. The gears 1' and. do are geared to the gears 6b, rotatably arranged on the differential housing Ba, carrying a gear I5, geared in overdrive to a gear- IB, connected to a clutch I20, gearbox I2, , the motor I31’1 braking the differential housing 40 freewheel 13b, and Wheels 3 of a vehicle. or planetary carrier, or it controls the motor I31 Likewise here, when releasing the accelerator, braking an idle runner, serving either as means to effect a slight reverse rotation, or serving as a means to create a torque converter. switch Mil is closed, solenoid I45 and valve I421 The governor I 41 controls again preferably only the motor I31 for said two purposes. Fig. 18 shows, however, an absence-of the'dif ferential mechanism, but the similar four varia and motor I311, actuated, brake I34 applied; Thedifferential housing is stopped, and the gears " 1‘ and 40,, respectively impeller and runner, are rotated in opposite direction. The engine is re tarded, but not stopped, gearshift‘ can. be made on account of freewheel I31). tions described can be used in the same way. If freewheel I3?) is locked out, the accelerator The brake I34 stops the runner due to the free L 0 control on the brake I34, should be locked out, wheel I32) before or behind the gearbox. (as shown in-Fig. 15C of ‘application 676,646) . When the freewheel is locked out, it cuts out The other modi?cation is again that the ac the brake and the momentum of the car, how celerator I38, or the governor I41, controls a ever cannot reverse the rotation of the motor valve I421 and ‘motor I31, controlling respective because the differential mechanism is omitted. ' 1y either an idle runner III to e?‘ect a gearshift When the runner is stopped by the brake I34 by means of‘ freewheel Iiib, or an idle runner and the accelerator I38, when the freewheel is acting as a torque converter. T'he'torque con not locked out, it may slightly impede the ro verter‘ may be either controlled by the accelera tation of the impeller and engine but not su?i tor, or by the governor, but the idle runner III ciently to stop the motor or stall it. 60 to get a reverse rotation, of course, preferably Of course, the in?nitely variable geardrive only by the accelerator. obtained by using a differential mechanism is _ The separating lines s make it obvious that the lost here. control of ‘the accelerator I38, or of the governor In all four combinations, when the freewheel I'M, can be switched over from motor I311 to v is locked out, the brake on the planetary car motor I315 or reversely, depending which con rier or driven shaft is out out from under the struction is preferred for any given design of control of the accelerator, otherwise the release power transmission in which a sliding gearbox of :the accelerator would stop and brakethe car is involved, without the disengagement of a two in ordinary forward driving. way clutch in addition tothe release of the ac In all-four combinations shown in Figs. 16 to 19, I prefer to use a freewheel either behind, or It is understood, that‘ the various drives may in front of the gearbox to effect an easy shift at use a gearbox between the-‘planetary gearing all times (car moving or standing still). and the axle of a vehicle or not. In all four combinations, I use a disengage It is understood? thatin the mechanism where able two-way clutch anywhere to effect a gear 75 by- the look-out of thevv freewheel is combined. celerator. ' . ' ' 2,410,333. 15 16 - shown in the Figures 16, 17, 18, 19, and the rela with- the look-out of the electrical means asso ciated with the accelerator to control a brake on the runner, driven gear or planetary carrier, the look-out of the electrical means takes place slightly before the look-out of the freewheel. In the following claims this is broadly stated and included by the term “substantially simul tive claims are based on the description in com bination of what is shown. (It would be superfluous to show two sets of drawings for these two cases instead of describ ing these two cases, and basing the di?erentia ticn in claims on the ?gures plus the descrip taneously therewith.” tion.) ' When in the latter case, the freewheel is locked be controlled by a ‘brake under control of the 10 out, the driven mechanism, especially in the case of a car, would tend also reversely to drive the accelerator, and said idle runner may be either impeller in opposite or reverse directions, but for the purpose of eifecting a, reverse rotation of this tendency even if the speed of the car is the driven shaft or the conversion of the ‘?uid high, can be made so small that it will not kill ' drive or coupling into a torque converter, the the engine, even when idling or slightly more control of the accelerator is shown the same for than idling. Therefore the elimination of con both types, but it is understood that for the lat trol of the accelerator would be largely super ter conversion this control is preferably of the ?uous, or the elimination of said control could type of Figs. 11 and 12. That means it is oper be made optionally by means of a control button ated when the accelerator is pushed beyond wide open throttle. 20 from the dash. It is understood that any other motor may be substituted for the hydraulic mo It would be too great a complication to show tor I31, and valve 142 shown. Iit may be a pneu these two variations in another set of drawings matic or vacuum motor, as shown in my Patent similar to Figs. 16 to 19, and. showing the control 2,261,898, and the valve M2 would control the of this idle runner or reaction member in the speci?c way it is shown in Figs. 11 and 12. In 25 admission of atmospheric pressure to a vacuum chamber to release a brake under control of the the following claims the expression “under con accelerator 638. In my following applicationNo. trol of said accelerator” includes therefore the 399,556, of June 13, 1941, I show a modi?ed im speci?c variety shown in- Figs. 11 and 12. provement whereby this brake is only eliminated It is understood that‘ any combination of the when the higher speed ranges are in operation. controlling means shown in ‘Figs. 16 to 19 under And itis also understood that the two-way clutch control of the accelerator, and control of the cen 128 may be operated by a pneumatic motor, ‘as trifugal governor may be combined in one struc shown in said Patent No. 2,261,898. ture as shown in Fig. 18, or as shown in Figs. It is further understood that the brake appli 16, 1'7, 19 combined with the planetary gearing, and that any of said combinations may be com 35 cable on the idle runner between impeller and runner in the Figures 16, 17, 19 would create a bined with the freewheel as shown in Fig. 6, or condition vsimilar to that shown in Fig. 8, in in Fig. '7. which this runner is held’ constantly or continu It is further understood that if the accelerator ously in a stationary position. In this position controls electrical means controlling a source it is capable of rotating the planetary carrier of power to apply a'brake I35 on an idle runner, I97 connected to the vane member H0 at a' which causes a slight reverse rotation tendency > In so far as the idle runner in Figs. 16 to 19 may. higher speed than the shaft 194 and gear 105, on the runner connected with the driven mecha connected to the prime mover. If the runner or nism, that the means of interrupting the circuit vane member H2 rotates faster than vane mem of said electrical means when the freewheel is locked out by the. separate shift lever (see Fig. 45 ber H0 under a decreasing torque, the member H2 becomes the impeller and the member H8 15C of Patent No. 2,261,898) are superfluous. If the car comes to a stop when the accelerator is released and the freewheel locked out, the the runner. An overdrive is established. If this idle runner is freely rotating, as shown in the Figures 16, 17, 19, it may create this over slight tendency of the runner to run in reverse direction, due to the angle of the blades in the 50 drive relation already without being stopped. It is understood that the idle runner, wherever idle runner brought to a stop by the release of placed and in which form, always is located be the accelerator, is not enough to start the car tween impeller and runner (pump wheel and tur rolling backwards. At least not on level ground. bine wheel). It does matter, however, whether Therefore it would not be invention to com this vane member is connected with the plan bine the brake system of Fig. 11 (a brake on the etary gearing or not. If stopped it has a tend planetary carrier) with the said type of idle run ency in all constructions to increase the torque, ner, because on a slant backwards the brake I35 especially in those incorporating the planetary could be applied by power or foot (optionally) gearing. when the freewheel of Fig. 14 is locked in and The advantage of the construction of Fig. 8 the hydraulic transmission could not drive the 60 is further that the impeller is rotated from car backwards. ‘ standing start at a speed which is less than that It is therefore understood that the freewheel of the prime mover, so that a creeping tendency ‘lock-out of Fig. 14 to prevent reverse drive must of the car can be eliminated. be eliminated when positive mechanical reverse drive is established either in the gearbox or the 65 If the planetary carrier rotates at half engine speed the impeller exerts only one quarter of the planetary transmission. driving power of the prime mover to the driven " For the reason that the control of the idle mechanism, because the transmitted hydraulic runner by a brake I35 should be related to the power increases with the square of the speed of lock out of the freewheel in the case the idle runner is braked , for torque conversion, and 70 the pump wheel, or impeller. If the runner III should preferably not be related in the case an ~ idle runner is braked‘ for reverse rotation of the of Fig. 8 can be idle, but can also be braked as shown in Fig. 16, an advantage is obtained over the construction of Fig. 8. It is further understood that the arrangement runner when the freewheel is locked out, is not 75 of Figs. 11 and 12 whereby the idle runner is runner, the elimination of the control of the ‘electrical means to control the brake on the idle 2,410,333 '17 18 braked when the accelerator is pushed beyond wide open throttle may be reversed, so that the ciated with a source of power controlled by the accelerator .of the vengine, said source applying said brake when the accelerator is reduced sub brake on the idle runner in the Figures 16 to 19 stantially to idling position. is applied when the accelerator is released, and 6. An internal combustion engine controlled the brake released when the accelerator is'pushed beyond the wide open position of the throttle. by an accelerator in combination with a ?uid This choice depends upon design. If one desires drive, a gearbox and a freewheel, connected to a great torque for starting, the brake should be the wheels of a vehicle carrying said combi applied on the idle runner to provide greater nation, said ?uid drive having an impeller and torque, and whenthe car has reached suf?oient 10 a runner which is under control of a brake, a speed, eventually through a series of gearshifts source of power for said brake, said source un as explained, the driver can push the accelerator way down and the torque converter becomes a der control of the accelerator, so that upon ap plication of said brake said freewheel may be placed in overrunning condition allowing a gear shift’ in said gearbox, even if said vehicle is stand slip coupling. If the driver approaches a steep hill, however, he has to release the throttle mo mentarily to go back to the torque converter con dition. This being merely a choice of construction, the ing still. '7. An internal combustion engine in combi following claims include both modi?cations, by nation with a ?uid drive comprising an impeller and a runner which is connected to a gearbox, merely stating that the accelerator controls the said geanbox in driving relation with the wheels brake on the idle runner. of a vehicle by means of a freewheel, an ac I claim: 1. In a vehicle the combination of an internal combustion engine connected by means of a two way clutch to a driving shaft, a hydrokinetic coupling including a runner on said shaft and celerator controlling said engine, said accelera tor controlling means which operate a brake which effects the retardation of the speed of rotation of the gears in the gearbox, so that upon release of said accelerator, said freewheel is placed in overrunning condition allowing thereby a gearshift in said gearbox even if ‘the said shaft extending through said .coupling and through the runner of said hydrokinetic cou pling, said shaft connected to an intermediate sidegear in a, differential gearset, said runner con- i nected to the housing of said differential gear set by means of an intermediate overdrive between said runner and said differential housing, said side gear geared to intermediate ‘pinion gears rotatably arranged on said differential housing, said pinion gears driving another side-gear on a propeller shaft connected with the wheels ofsaid vehicle is standing still. ‘ 8. The combination of a prime mover and accelerator with a ?uid drive, a two-way-clutch and gear transmission connected by means of a freewheel to a driven mechanism, said clutch and freewheel being operatively independent of each other in this sense that engagement or disen gagement of said clutch does not affect the:free wheeling action, said ?uid drive comprising an 2. A prime mover, having an accelerator con nected to a differential mechanism, including a impeller and a runner, said runner connected with said transmission, a brake on ‘said ‘runner, means to control said brake, said means being ‘housing, a ?uid drive including :an‘impeller and under control of said accelerator. runner, one gear of said mechanism connected to the engine, ‘and another :gear thereof con 9. The combination of claim 8, in combination with means to lock out said freewheel, when shift ing into reverse. vehicle. ' nected to the runnerof .the ?uid drive, said gears geared to gears rotatably arranged on a differen ' ?uid drive, said runner ‘connected, to a gearbox, a freewheel behind said gearbox, :a brake oper 10. The combination of a'prime mover and ac celerator with a ?uid drive, a two-way clutch and gear-transmission connected by means of a free wheel to a driven mechanism, the ?uid drive able on said differential housing to stop said hous comprising an impeller and runner and a ‘reac ing and to effect operationof said freewheel, said brake being power'operated :and vcont-rolled by tion member between the two, said ?uid drive runner connected to said driven mechanism by the accelerator of said prime mover. 3. The combination of claim 2, in which said brake is applied when said accelerator is re ber, means to control said brake, said means un tial housing, connected to the impeller of said leased substantially to idling vposition, effecting ‘thereby the operation of said freewheel and of said brake. ' ' v4. The combination of claim 2, in which said means of a shaft, a brake on said reaction mem Cu Cl der control of said accelerator. . 11. The combination of claim ‘10, in combina tion with means to lock out said freewheel, when shifting into reverse. 12. The combination of a prime mover with a ‘?uid drive is provided with a brake for said run ?uid drive, comprising an impeller and ‘a runner ner, said brake being applied when said accelera 60 and a reaction member between the two, a brake tor is moved to substantially ‘idling position, for said reaction member, said ?uid drive runner means to lockout said freewheel, simultaneously connected to a driven mechanism by means of looking out the operation of said brake. a shaft, a centrifugal governor driven by said -5. An internal combustion engine controlled by prime mover and adapted by electrical means to an accelerator, in combination with a ?uid drive, " release said brake on said reaction member, when said ?uid drive having an impeller and a run said prime mover. reaches a de?nite high speed, ner which is associated with a ‘gearbox and a and to apply said brake when a de?nite slower freewheel behind said gearbox, said freewheel speed has been reached by said prime mover. connected with the wheels of a vehicle carry 13. The combination of a ‘prime mover with a ing said combination, a brake operating on the 70 fluid drive, comprising an impeller connected to runner of said ?uid drive so as to retard the said prime mover and a runner connected to a rotation of gears in said gearbox in relation with driven mechanism, a reaction member in opera the speed of said vehicle so that said freewheel tive association with said impeller and runner, is placed in operation‘and so that a gearshift a brake for said reaction member, a source of -may be effected in said gearbox, said zbrake asso power to actuate said brake, electrical-means to 2,410,333 19 20 control said source, and said electrical means engine and accelerator with a ?uid drive, com vbeing controlled by a centrifugal governor asso prising an impeller and runner, and a driven mechanism, a reaction member between said im peller and runner, power means to operate a brake on said reaction member, means to control ciated with said mechanism and operating said brake at predetermined speeds. 14. The combination of a prime mover and ac celerator with a ?uid drive, comprising an im peller and a runner in driving relation with two said power means, said latter means under con trol of said accelerator in such a way that said members of a planetary gearing respectively a driving member and a driven member, and the third member being in driving relation with a driven mechanism, a brake on the planetary car rier of said gearing, said brake operated by a brake is released when said accelerator is pressed beyond wide open position, and said brake ap~ plied when said accelerator is released to idling source of power, said source controlled by elec~ trical means, and said electrical means under tion with controlling means for said power means under control of a centrifugal governor, said gov 15 ernor associated with said engine. position. 23. The combination of claim 22, in combina control of the said accelerator. 15. The combination of claim 14 in combina 24. The combination of claim 22, in combina tion with a freewheel and gear transmission be tion with electrical means for control of said tween said third member of said planetary gear power means, said electrical means under control of said accelerator. ing and said driven mechanism, means to lock out said freewheel, when shifting into reverse. g0 ‘ 25. The combination of claim 22, in combina 16. The combination of claim 14 in combina tion with electrical means partly under control tion with a reaction-member between said im of said accelerator and partly under'control of peller and runner, a brake for said re-action 'a centrifugal governor associated with said com member, said brake under control of electrical bination, said electrical means controlling the means, said electrical means under control of 25 power means for said brake on said re-action said accelerator. ‘ member. 17. The combination of claim 14 in combina ' peller and'runner, a brake for said re-action member, said brake under control of electrical 26. The combination of a prime mover and accelerator with a ?uid drive between said prime mover and a driven mechanism, said ?uid drive comprising an impeller connected to said prime means, said electrical means under control of a centrifugal governor associated with said com mover and a runner connected to said driven mechanism, an idle runner in said ?uid drive tion with a reaction member between said. im binaticn. in operative association with said impeller and 18.'The combination of claim 14 in combina runner, a brake on said idle runner, power means tion with an idle runner between said impeller 35 to apply said brake, said power means under con and runner, said idle runner when stopped tend trol of the accelerator in such a way that said ing to drive said runner in reverse direction, a brake is applied when said accelerator is pressed freewheel and gear transmission between said beyond wide open position, and released when planetary gearing and driven mechanism, a brake said accelerator is released. for said idle runner, electrical means operating 40 27. The ‘combination of claim 26 in combina said brake, said electrical means under control tion with a gear transmission between said run of said accelerator. ner and said driven mechanism and a freewheel ‘ 19. The combination of an internal combustion engine, accelerator, ?uid drive comprising an im peller and runner, and friction clutch and a slid ing gear transmission beyond said clutch, said transmission including at least two speeds for ward and a reverse gear drive, an overrunning clutch between said transmission and a driven between said transmission and said driven mech anism,'means to lock out said freewheel. 45 28. The combination of claim 26, in combina tion with a gear transmission between said run ner and said driven mechanism, and a freewheel between said transmission and said driven mech anism, said brake when applied on said idle run mechanism, means to lock out said overrunning 50 her tending to drive said runner in reverse direc clutch simultaneously with a shift of shifting tion, means to lock out said freewheel so that said means in said transmission into reverse, a brake brake creates aslight reverse drive on said driven mechanism on said runner, said brake mecha mechanism through said gear transmission. nism adapted to be applied when said accelerator 29.’ The combination of claim 26, in combina is pushed beyond wide open position, and re 55'tion with a, gear transmission between said run leased when said accelerator is released to idling ner and said driven mechanism, and a freewheel position, said brake being independent of any between said transmission and said driven mech mechanism operating said friction clutch between anism,’said brake when applied converting said engine and transmission. fluid drive into a torque converter, ‘means to 20. The combination of claim 19, in combina 30 lock out said freewheel, said means when locking tion with an idle runner between said impeller out said freewheel eliminating substantially si and runner of said?uid drive, power means to multaneously therewith the control of said accel operate a brake for said idle runner, said run erator over said brake, , ner when braked effecting a slight reverse rota 30. The combination of an internal combustion tion of said runner, electrical means to operate 65 engine and accelerator with a ?uid drive, com said power means, said electrical means under prising an impeller and runner, in combination control of said accelerator. with a planetary gearing composed of three parts, 21. The combination of claim 19, in combina the driving member, the driven member and the tion with a re-action member between said im planetary carrier, said impeller in driving con, peller and runner of said fluid drive, power means 70 nection respectivelyv with said driving member to'operate a‘brake on said re-acticn member, and said runner connected to said driven mem means to control said power means for said her to e?ect thereby temporarily a, reverse'hy brake, said latter means under control of said draulic drive through said planetary carrier when accelerator. stopped, an overrunning brake between said driv ' 22. The combination of an internal combustion 75 en member" and a stationary member whereby 2,410,333 21 22 said reverse drive is checked before it reaches the driven mechanism, and means to eliminate said overrunning brake, so that said driven mecha 33. The combination of claim 32, said ‘control of said accelerator being such that said brake is applied when said accelerator is pushed beyond Wide open position, and released, when said accel nism can be driven in reverse direction. 31. The combination of a prime mover and accelerator and gear transmission with a ?uid drive, said prime mover connected to the impeller thereof and said runner being connected with a driven mechanism, an idle runner in operative association with said impeller and runner, said idle runner when stopped tending to drive said runner in reverse direction, an overrunning brake between said runner and said driven mech anism, and means to eliminate said overrunning brake when a mechanical reverse drive is effected by means of said gear transmission between said runner and driven mechanism, said overrunning brake operating between said runner and a sta erator is released. 34. In a vehicle on wheels, the combination of an engine and accelerator and a ?uid drive of the constant liquid content, said ?uid drive having an impeller and a runner, a reduction 10 gearing between said engine and impeller so tionary part. 32. The combination of a prime mover and -' accelerator with a hydraulic power transmission of the Fiittinger type comprising an impeller and runner connected to two parts of a planetary gearing, comprising three parts, a driving gear, a planetary carrier and a driven gear, said third part being connected to a driven mechanism, an idle runner positioned in operative association with said impeller and runner, said idle runner capable of imparting a variable speed to said that said impeller is driven at part of the engine speed, an idle runner in said ?uid drive tending to vary the speed of rotation of the driven mech anism when held stationary, said idle runner having a, tendency to vary the pressure of said impeller on said runner, when said idle runner is held stationary by means of a brake under con trol of the accelerator of said engine. 35. In a vehicle the combination of an engine and ?uid drive of the constant liquid content with a planetary gearing composed of three gears, a driving member, a planetary carrier and a driven member connected to a driven mecha nism, said ?uid drive comprising an impeller and a runner, said engine being connected to the driving member of said planetary gearing, said impeller to the planetary carrier, and said run ner to the driven mechanism, an idle runner in said ?uid drive, said idle runner haw'ng a tend planetary carrier associated with said planetary 30 ency to vary the rotational speed of said plane gearing, and thereby a variable speed to said tary carrier and thereby the speed of rotation of driven mechanism, a brake for said idle runner, said driven mechanism, and means to hold and said brake being under control of said accelerator keep said idle runner stationary at will. of said prime mover connected to said impeller. JEAN A. H. BARKEIJ.