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Oct: 29, 1946.
.Filed Nov. 21, 1941
5-Sheets-Sheet 1
/-§/ Geozyejh?z'ace .
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Oct. 29, 1946.
Filed Nov. 21, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Oct. 29, 1946.
‘ Filed Nov. 21, 1941
s Sheets-Shéet a
6/ Geozye A. Brae;
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
George A. Brace, Washington,v D. C., assignor to.
The Hoover Company, North Canton, Ohio, a
corporation of Ohio
Application November 21, 1941,, Serial No. 419,815
13 Claims.
This invention relates to certain novel con
structions and arrangements. of refrigeration ap
paratus, and to improved methods of producing
While the invention, in certain of its aspects.
is applicableto various types of refrigeration. sys
tems such as the motor-compressor and the con
(Cl. 62—.5)
As will be manifest from the foregoing, the in
Vention, has special applicability to_ domestic
household refrigerators in- Which it is desired to
maintain substantially uniform food storage tem
peratures, a high relativehumidity and a readily
available supply of ice in small pieces. In such
an application of the invention, the water recep
tacle replaces the conventional sharp freezing
tinuous absorption types, yet it has particular
chamber and ice trays. In addition to serving
utility. when embodied in an intermittent type of
system. This latter type, although having ad-.' 10 as an ice maker andlcold water storage vessel,
this arrangement functions as a thermal ?y
vantages over other conventional systems, has
wheel capable of maintaining uniform tempera
certain disadvantages which have prevented it
ture conditions in the food compartment at all
from enjoying popular acceptance. These de
times,pand particularly during that portion of the
fects have been overcome by this present in
15 refrigeration. cycle in which no refrigeration, is
being produced in the evaporator proper.
For example, intermittent systems have not
It will also be appreciatedthat very little frost
been suitable where continuous refrigerator is
ing of the evaporator will occur since the large
required or desirable. Furthermore, great diffi
body of Water constitutes the principal load.
culty has been experienced heretofore in control
ling the production of refrigeration in these sys--. 20 Moreover, the arrangement is automatically self-v
defrosting) at the end of each evaporation period‘.
tems. While there have been various proposals
Frosting can be, eliminated if the evaporator
to remedy these and other de?ciencies, the sug»
proper is heat insulated except for those areas
gested constructions have been ineffective, com
in contact with the water receptacle.
pleX, and costly to construct and maintain. For .
instance, in endeavoring to provide continuous re 25 As will be obvious from the, foregoing, the
principles of this invention are applicable either
frigeration, it has been proposed to employ a va
to a single or a multiple unit intermittent ab
riety of cold hold-over expedients such as eutectic
it being understood that a mul
arrangements, brine tanks, metallic accumula
tiple unit comprises two or more similar units
tors, and other equally cumbersome andunsatis-~
arranged to refrigerate the. same space but so
factory constructions. It has also been proposed ~
controlled as to operate out of phase with one
to utilizerthev cold storing capacity-of ice in con-1
ventional ice trays to provide refrigeration dur
It is accordingly anobject of the invention. to
ing the reversal of therefrigeration cycle. In
provide a new method of refrigerating a space
addition; to being only‘ partially effective, even
when the trays remain?lled with ice, this latter 35 in which evaporation of the primary refrigerant
or working medium takes place in a non-con.
practice entails themany well known disadvan
_ tinuous manner. Morespeci?cally, an object of
tages: attending the useof- ice trays.
the invention is to providefor the continuous
According tothe present invention, a refrigerar
refrigeration of a space by evaporating a refrig- ‘
tionapparatus is provided having an exceedingly
erant medium periodically to congeal a portion
simple combined evaporator and cold» accumula
of a body of water and utilizing the cold thus
tor which entirely eliminates the many disadr
accumulated to maintain a desired temperature
vantages of prior constructions. More Speci?
until the resumption of evaporation of refrigerant
cally, a-plainwater receptacle is arranged inyheat
irrespective of Whether the refrigerant is derived.
exchange. relation to. the space to be cooled and
from a single or a multiple source.
to an. evaporator, and vpreferably in such fashion
Another object of the invention is to provide
that a plurality of pieces of ice will form on the
a refrigeration system having a. novel evaporator,
inner wall of the receptacle while refrigerant is
ice-maker, and cold'_ hold-over construction.
evaporating. and become freed for ?otation in the .
More particularly, it is an; object of the inven
water when. evaporation ceases. The pieces of
ice and the, large body of water thus coolednearly I 50 tion to provide a domestic type refrigerator oper
ating discontinuously but capable of maintain
to’ freezing temperature provide, a refrigeration
ing substantially uniform temperatures and a
source ofconstant temperature and vample capac~
high. relative humidity in the storage compart~
1W. t0 Carry thereflii'seration. load-untiltherje
frigerationcycle has reversedor a new, supply of. 55 ment thereof.
It isa further object of the invention‘ tomerefrigerant has been. generated
vide a novel and greatly simpli?ed intermittent
absorption refrigeration system of either the sin
gle or multiple unit type and which is provided
with a unique thermal ?y-wheel which imparts
to the system as a whole highly superior operat (2
ing characteristics, lower construction and oper
ating costs',;longer'life, and greater e?iciency than
systems heretofore~ available.
A still further object of the invention is the
provision of a new evaporator and ice-maker
ribs (not shown) for the purpose of providing?
for the better transfer of heat from the electrical.
heating element 32, which is positioned in the
interior of the inner wall 28 to the solid absorbent’
in the generator-absorber proper.
The upper end of the space between the walls‘
IS and 20 is connected by conduits 34, 3G’. to the
secondary condensers 36, 3'5’. The secondaryv
condensers 36, 38’ have a continuous downward‘.
slope throughout and lead to a reservoir 38. The
_ reservoir 38 is connected by conduit 49 to a valve
Another object is the provision of a simple
and effective mode of controlling the production
of refrigeration by either a single .or multiple
unit intermittent absorption system.
It is a further object of the invention to provide
a novel system for making and harvesting pieces
of ice automatically and independently of control
chamber 42.
The valve chamber 42 is connected
by conduits 44, M’ to the lower end of the space
between the walls, 18 and 29. The valves 46, 46’
are designed to be operated by a snap acting
device 48 of any suitable construction.
' The conduits 5!], 5B’ of the evaporator
extended downwardly from the bottom of the
devices responsive to a condition of the evapo
receiving chambers M, M’. The conduits 50,
rator, and independently of control devices within 20 59’ are bent forwardly and backwardly to form
the refrigeration apparatus proper. 7
sinuous portions 52, 52' which have a continuous
Other objects and advantages ofv this vinven-i
upward slope and enter the receiving chambers
tion will become apparent as‘ the description
proceeds when taken in connection with the ac
companying drawings in which:
Figure l is a diagrammatic representation of
the refrigerating apparatus and control therefor
according to this invention;
‘Figures 2 and 3 are detailed views of one of the _
generator-absorbers of Figure 1;
Figure 4 depicts the refrigerating apparatus of
Figure 1 in assembled relationship with a domestic '
refrigerator cabinet;
Figure 5 is a detailed View of the evaporator
with the combined ice freezing, humidifying, cold
water storage tank and cold accumulator sup
ported on the evaporator;
Figure 6 shows an arrangement in which the
invention is applied t0 a single refrigerating unit;
Figure 7 shows a modi?ed form of evaporator
and water tank according to this invention.
Referringto the drawings, A, A’ represent two
generator-absorbers, C, C’ two primary con
densers and E, E’ two evaporators. The genera
tor-absorbers A, A’ are connected by conduits
l9, It!’ to the condensers C, C'. The condensers
C, C’ have a downwardly inclined slope through
l4, l4’ above the point of connection of the con- ‘
. duits 5B, 50'. The sinuous portions 52,‘ 52' are
arranged closer together at the bottom so as to
form a sort of V-formation as viewed in Figure 5.
A water tank 54 of similar cross-sectional shape
is supported on the V-shaped formation. The
sinuous portions 52, 52’ of the evaporators E, E’
have a plurality of heat conducting pads 55
bonded thereto so as to form a good thermal path
between the tank 54 and the evaporator coil at
a plurality of isolated points, leaving the re;
vmainder of the walls of the tank insulated from r
the evaporator coils by an air space.
Thermostatic bulbs 56, 58' contact the outer
surfaces of generator-absorbers A, A’ and are con-L.
nected by capillary tubes 58, 58’ to bellows
60' which upon expansion and contraction
adapted to operate the snap acting device
The bulbs 56, 5'", tubes 53, 58’ and bellows 6Q,
are ?lled with a suitable vaporizable ?uid so
that the bellows 60, 68’ will expand and contract
upon variation in temperature of the bulbs 56, 56‘
as is well known in the art.
A snap acting switch I
62 is positioned to be actuated by the snap acting
device 48.
A thermostatic bulb 64 is positioned adjacent
the evaporators E, E’ when the apparatus is posi
out and are connected by conduits l2, £2’ to re
ceiving vessels l4, [4’ which form a part of the 50 tioned in a refrigerator cabinet as will be later
evaporators E, E’.
Each generator-absorber comprises an outer
cylindrical wall 15, an intermediate cylindrical
wall 18 and an inner cylindrical wall 28. The
outer wall !6 and the intermediate wall is are
connected at the ends by end walls 22 to form
a closed annular space which is divided into a
plurality of chambers by plates 24 which may be
welded to both the outer. wall it and the inter
described and is responsive to the temperature
of the air in the interior of the cabinet. The
bulb 64 is connected by a capillary tube 66 to a
bellows 68.
The bulb 64, tube 66 and bellows 68
are ?lled with suitable vaporizable ?uid so that
the bellows 68 will expand and contract upon
Variation in temperature of the air in the cabinet,
as is well known in the art. Upon expansion and
contraction the bellows 68 is adapted to actuate,
mediate wall l8.
Each of the plates 24 has a 60 a snap acting device 70 which in turn operates:v
plurality of openings 25 therein. Afunnel-like
the valve 12 in the conduit 40 and an electric;
member 28 is ?tted into one set of the openings
switch 14.
26 and is positioned immediately below the vapor
One side of the power line is connected to one‘
tube Ill. The chambers formed by the plates
side of the switch 74. The other side of the
24 are suitably charged with a solid absorbent - switch 74 is connected by suitable conductors as;
such as strontium chloride (Sl‘Clz) .
shown to two of the contacts of the switch 62.
The inner Wall 20 and the intermediate wall
The other two contacts of the switch 62 are con‘
l8 extend beyond the ends of the outer wall 16
nected by suitable conductors to one side of the
and are joined by end members 30. The space
heating elements 32, 32', the other side of which
between the inner wall 20 and the intermediate
is connected to the other side of the power line.
wallrlil forms cooling chambers or heat exchange
The generator~absorbers A, A’ are charged
devices of indirect cooling circuits for the genera
with a suitable solid absorbent such as strontium
ator-absorbers A and A’. The space between
chloride and a'refrigerant such as ammonia as is
the intermediate wall l8 and the inner wall 28 is
well known in the art. When strontium chlo
preferably provided with a plurality of radial 75 ride absorbs ammonia, addition compounds, such‘
‘as SrClalNI-Is, SrClaZNHa, lSrChA-NHa, and
SrClaBNI-Is are formed.
As the- addition com
pounds are formedhthe strontium chloride ex
pands'and when 8 molecules of ammonia :have
been absorbed, it willoccupy a volume approxi
mately 21/2 times its original volume. Prefera
bly, su?icient strontium chloride is charged-into
the generator-absorbers that the walls thereof
will remain under pressure due to the expanded
strontium'chlorideeven at-vthe end of a generat
ing phase -of a vparticular generator-absorber.
When a generator-absorberis fully=charged with
will ?ow. downwardly through. the. tubes .Qf .;the
condenser C into the receiving vessel L4 and ‘fill
the tubes 5!} and 52ofgthe eyaDoratOrE. During.
the generation ,of refrigerant in the generator
absorber A some of the refrigerant NBJDQI'. may
condense in the conduit Ill and, flow backwardly
into the generatoreabsorber A. The funnel
member 28 isprovided to prevellt .thisqqndensed
refrigerant from contacting the solidv absorbent
in the generator-absorbers. and deteriorating ;it.
Instead the condensed refrigerantwill flow to the
bottom of the generator-absorberandbe vapor
ized so as not to ‘contact the solidabsorbentwhlle
ammonia, its walls will 1of course be under .a
in liquid form.
. .
greater pressure due to thee-xpanded absorbent.
During the heating of the generator-absorber
The-indirect cooling circuit for the-generator.. 15
A, the auxiliary cooling liquid in the space be".
absorbers A, A’ is suitably charged» with .a'vapor
tween the cylinders 18 and 20 of thegenerator
izable liquid such as methyl chloride. The pres
absorber A will quickly vaporize and?ow byqoon
sure-within the indirect ‘cooling-circuit .isnot high
duit 34 into the secondary condenser 36, The
so thatthe snap acting device 48 may \beled into
?owing over the ?ns of the condenser 363N111
the interior-of the valve‘ chamber A2 .througha
carry away the heat of, condensation of theaux
suitable ?exiblejoint 16.
iliary ?uid whereby it will condense and flow
The refrigerating apparatus just described and
downwardly through the tubes of the condenser
shown diagrammatically in Figure adapted to
35 into the reservoir 38. This liquid auxiliary
be arranged so as to besmounted in a domestic
cooling ?uid cannot return _-to the ‘generator-l
refrigerator cabinet as-shown in Figures 4 and .5.
absorber A at this time because. the .yalve._4? is
The cabinet comprises a black insulated wall 89,
lower insulated wall 82, front‘access door 84 and
top access door {86. Atithe rearofthe cabinet
is provided'a ?ueI83for the circulation of air over
In the meantime absorption of refrigerant
vapor is'taking place in the generator-absorber
the heat rejecting parts of the apparatus. .An 30 A’ in a manner which will be described‘in con
nection with the absorption which takes place in
opening 9!] at the bottom of the ?ue .88 provides
for theentranceotcooling air and a screen 92
provides .for its .exit. The generator-absorbers
A, A’ ‘areimbedded in insulation @1101! and .are
arranged at the sides of the ?ue 88 so asnot to
interfere .withthe air circulation. Theprimary
condensersC, C’ extend .across'the ~?ue ,88 near
its upper end and the secondary condensers 35,
3.6’ are. similarly arrangedbelow the primarycon
The collecting :vessels L4, .l4'.,and.the.down
wardly extending conduits 15!], .50’ are imbedded
in an insulatingenclosuregil for an opening in
the back of the cabinet. The evaporatorst-E, E’
- the generator-absorber vA when-the control .op
erates to shift the generator-absorberAfrom the
generating phase to the absorption phase and
the generator-absorber‘A' from the absorption
phase to the generating .phase.
When sufficient refrigerant is driven from the
absorbent in the generator-absorber-k-A, the gen
erator-absorber A will quickly Irisein tempera—
ture. This rise in temperature will be “quite
abrupt even though the heat supplied to the gen
constant. .
comes about by‘ reason of the fact that while
refrigerant is being driven from the solid ab
heat supplied thereto is ‘being
utilized to vaporize the refrigerant, but whenthe
refrigerant is vaporized the heat supplied quickly
raises the temperature of the generatoreabsorber
are supported by suitable brackets .96. ‘ The tank 45 sorbent the
54 is adapted to be lifted bodily out of the cabinet
through the access door~.86 and has a spigot 98
so that .water can be dispensedtherefrom. The
to a much higher value.
entire operating parts ofthe'refrigerating appa
ratus including the evaporator'zand the closure194 50 This will cause the liquid in the bulb 5,8 to
vaporize whereby the bellows .50 will be expanded.
are adapted to be removed _bodily:from: the cab
inet proper.
As shown in Figure 1 the vvalve~l2<isopen and
the switch 14 is.closed. The-switch 62 is set so
thatelectricity will be iconducted'togthe heating
element 32 of the generator-absprber A which
will be heated. 'Thetbulbg?iliis contracted and
the bulb 60' is expanded by a previous heating
of the generator-absorber~A'as will be described
hereinafter. Thus :thesnap acting device-will .
be positioned to the left, lt'he val-ve:-4>6»will .be
closed and the valve 46'open.
At this time the bellows 58' will be contracted
because absorption is taking place in the gen
erator-absorberA' and the'?uid in bulb 56’ will
be condensed. Expansion of the bellowstil will
push the snap acting. device A3 to the right. .As
the snap acting device 48 moves to the right, it
will operate the switch 52 to de-energize the heat
ing element 32 and to'energize the (heating ele
ment 32'. At the same time it will operate to
open the valve 45 and-to close-the valve 46’.
The indirect cooling system ischarged with
sufficient auxiliary cooling medium that the
reservoir 38 will always contain liquid cooling
of the generator-absorber A will drive-refrigerant
vapor from the solid absorbent contained there- » 4 medium. When the control operates to open the
valve 66 the liquid in the reservoir 38 will be
in. The heat from theheating element 32 is
>Withthe control set as in.Figure.l the heating
transferred tothe solid absorbentin the gener
ator-absorber A bythe ribs (not shown) inthe
space between the walls I8 ‘and 20 andjby the
partitions 24. This refrigerant Vapor‘ will pass
by the conduit lllto the condenser C where it
will condense and the'heat of condensation will
be carried away by air'?owing over the heat re
jecting. ?ns mounted on the tubes of the con
dumped into the space betweenithe walls ~18 and
20 of the generator-absorber A. ‘ Since'the gen
erator-absorber A is hot at this time the aux
iliary cooling liquidewill be quickly .vaporized- by
the transfer of .heat .of ‘vaporization of the
auxiliary liquid vfrom the generator-absorber ‘(A
and the generator-absorber A?will be-quickly
cooled. The cooling ofthegeneratorfabsorberiA
denser. ‘Upon condensing the'liquid refrigerant ' 75 will reduce the vapor-pressure~thereinandlthe
solid absorbent will begin to absorb refrigerant
vapor and vaporization of the liquid refrigerant
in theevaporator E will begin.
uniform even though the rate of evaporation
decreases‘ ‘toward the end of an evaporation
phase. ' Ice will‘ automatically be‘ frozen and
melted loose as before and each evaporator will
be .automatically defrosted without the neces
sity ‘of a specialized control, other than for the
control of the energization of the apparatus
When the evaporation of. the liquid re
frigerant in the evaporator E1 begins, the vapor
will’return to the generator-absorber A by con
duit vl2, condenser C and conduit lll. At the end
of the generating ‘period of the generator-ab
sorber A,v there is ‘liable to be some liquid re
As‘the evaporation and absorption is taking
frigerant in; the condenser C and the conduit Hi. 10 place in the evaporator E and the generator
This liquid refrigerant is liable to be carried back
absorber, A, the generator-absorber A’ is being
tofthe" generator-absorber A by the returning
heated by heating element 32'. Vapor is being
vapors: If this returning liquid refrigerant
driven from the solid absorbent in the genera
should contact the solid absorbent in the gen
tor-absorber A’, condensed in the condenser C’
orator-absorber A it would rapidly deteriorate the 15 and collected in the vevaporator E’, as previously
solid absorbent. However, the funnel member
described in connection, with the evolution of
28 is provided to catch this liquid refrigerant and
vapor from the generator-absorber A,
leadit to the bottom of the generator-absorber A
By the time that substantially all the liquid
where it-iwill collect and be vaporized during the
refrigerant in the evaporator E has evaporated
next succeeding generating period and will not 20 the‘ refrigerant vapor will be driven from the
contact the solid absorbent while in liquid form as
generator-absorber A’. This will cause the me
previously described in connection with the vapor
dium in the bulb 56’ to expand the bellows 60’.
condensed in conduit it! during the generating
The snap acting device 48 will be moved to the
left as viewed in Figure 1 whereby the valve 46
will be closed, the valve 46’ opened and the
absorption proceeds in the generator-ab
sorber A the heat of absorption is transferred to
the auxiliary cooling liquid in the space between
the walls l8 and 20. This vaporizes the auxiliary
liquid and this vapor flows to the secondary con
32'.‘ ‘This will cause vaporization to take place in
the generator-absorber A and absorption'in the
denser 36 by conduit 34. Here the vapor is con
densed and the heat of condensation carried
viously described.
switch’ 62 operated to energize the heating ele
ment 32 and to de-energize the heating element
generator-absorber A’ which will proceed as 'pre
away by air ?owing over the heat rejecting ?ns of -
As the liquid refrigerant again collects'in the
the condenser 36. The tubes of the condenser 36
evaporator E, it will be comparatively Warm.
have a continued downward slope and the liquid
The heat from the warm liquid refrigerant will
auxiliary cooling ?uid returns to the reservoir 38 35 be transferred through pads 55 to the walls of
to be returned in due time to the space between
the tank 54 in contact therewith and the blocks
walls l8 and 20 for further cooling action.
of ice on the interior of the 'walls of the tank 54
Preferably, the space between the walls I8, 25
at that point will be melted loose, whereby they
and the radial ribs (not shown) may be very
will ?oat to the surface of the water in the tank
narrow and the tubes 34, 34’ of small diameter 40 54 as shown in Figure 5. Ice will be frozen to
so that the vapor formed therein during the ab
and melted loose from the walls in the tank 54
sorption process will form bubbles between slugs of
where ‘they are in contact with the pads 55 of
liquid and positively circulate the liquid cooling
?uid by vapor lift action to augment the cooling of
the generator-absorber.
In the evaporator E, the tubes 50 and the col
lecting .vessel M are insulated while the sinuous
tube 52 is exposed to ambient air and is in con
the evaporator E’, the same as described in con
nection with the evaporator E.
The evapora
tors will be automatically defrosted periodically
as the control shifts each unit to the generating
phase and the-tank 54 full of ice and cold water
will act asla thermal ?y-wheel'to maintain the
tact with the tank 54. This will cause a rapid
temperature of the cabinet substantially uni
evaporation of liquid refrigerant in the sinuous 50 form. In connection with'the automatic de
tube 52 and practically no evaporation in the
frosting of theeVaporators, a drip tray is pref
tube 50. This action together with the fact that
erably provided beneath the evaporators ‘for
the tube 52 enters the vessel [4 at'a point above
catching the condensed moisture and leading it
the tube 50 will cause the liquid refrigerant to be
to any suitable place of disposal.
circulated up through the tube 52 and down 55 As ‘previously stated, the vtwo units may be
wardly through the tube 50. This circulation will
charged with suiiicient refrigerant so that the
continue until substantially all the liquid re
evaporators are never entirely empty and the
frigerant in the evaporator E is evaporated. This
vessels l4, M’ will also contain some liquid re
circulation and the evaporation of the liquid re
frigerant at the end of the evaporation period.
frigerant will‘ cause the sinuous tube 52 and the 60 In that case the ice blocks formed by a particu
pads 55 to become very cold. Where the pads
lar unit will melt loose more slowly during the
55 contact the walls of the tank 54 the heat from
generating period of that unit, the evaporator
the water at'that point will be quickly trans-.
will be automatically defrosted and the tank 54
ferred to the evaporating refrigerant in the tube
52 and blocks of ice ‘wil be formed as shown in 65 full of cold'water and ice will act as a thermal
Figure 5.
fly-wheel as before.
The control will operate to operate alternately
An alternative method is to charge the units
the generator-absorbers A, A’ on a generating
with su?icient refrigerant that the tubes 50 and
period and an absorption period as just described
52 and 50’, 52’ will contain liquid refrigerant at
the end of the evaporation phase. In that case 70 until the temperature of the air in the storage
space goes below a predetermined limit. Atthat
hot liquid refrigerant would not be dumped di
rectly into the tubes of the evaporator. How
time the bulb 64 will operate to collapse the bel
ever, the use of the tank 54 full of cold water
lows B8 and operate to-close the valve 12 and
and ice would still act as a thermal flywheel to
open the switch 14. This will operate to- de
maintain-the cabinet temperature comparatively 75 energize the ‘generator-absorber which is then
t 10
in a, manner similars'tojthat shownin Figure 5.
In .thiscase the evaporator-will havetwocon
duits ,5!) and ,twoconduits .52 in thermal ‘contact
being energized and-to ‘stop the flow o‘fkcooling
liquid inthe indirectcoolingncircuit. ’
The liquidtcooling medium in the space bee
tween the walls l3 and 20. of. the generator-ab
with the water tank-
As shown in Figure 6 the bellows. 69 isexpanded
and the snap actingadevice ii?ispositioned to
the right sothatthevalve inuthe chamberrm
sorber which is operatingon the absonption cycle
‘will soon vaporize due to the-heat ofabsorption
and will pass through the secondary condenser
vwhere it will be condensed. Since the tubes- of
the secondary condenser slope toward the res
is openas ,is- the snap acting switch62.
The generator-absorber. A will be on the- ab
. ervoirts, this condensed liquidcannotreturn to 10' sorption phase and the cooling fluid will .be evap
. oratedjin the cooling pocket. of the. generator
v-the cooling space-oi the generator-absorber‘be
absorberA bythe heat of. absorption. ,The vapor
of the-coolingmedium willpass by conduit “to
the secondary condensert?v where it ,will vvbe con
densedand flow to therreceiver??. Fromthe
receiver”. the liquidcoohng. medium will flow
by conduit .46, valvechamberdl and conduit. 44
back tothe cooling jacket of‘ the generator=ab
. ingv-cooled but will flow to the reservoir .Biiand
be trapped out of the circuit ‘by theclosed valve
When the absorption of a refrigerant vapor
.in the generator-absorber being cooled ceases,
- no more liquid refrigerant will evaporate in the
evaporator. Thereafter the temperature of the
air in the storage space will slowly .rise .until'the
sorber Aror further coolingof the‘ generator
control bellows 68 again/acts to open the valve
12 and close switch ‘Ill. The two units will then. 20
The absorption of ammonia in the generator
continue to operate cyclically as [previously
absorber A causes a decrease inthe vapor pres
sure of the ammonia .in the evaporator. so that
If desired the valve 12 can be omitted in which
the liquid ammonia therein will evaporate to pro
case'the units will operateialternately asbefore
duce refrigeration in they manner. described in
. but when they switch‘ ‘M 'operatesto de-energize 25
connectionwith Figure ,1. ' When all of‘ there
» both units,revaporation will continue-in the-unit
frigerant in the evaporator is evaporated‘absorp
tion will ceaseinthe generator__-absorber A with
which is’ operating Qnthe absorption-evapora
tion phase until all of the refrigerant iniits evap
orator is evaporateddue to the vfact that circula
tion of the indirect coolingmediumwillcontinue
as before until the generator-absorberion- the
absorbing phase is fully charged with refrigerant.
It is Within the purview of this inventionto
theresult thatnomoreheat will ‘be generated
therein and itstemperature will be lowered to
substantially room temperature by'the' circulat
ingcooling medium. ‘ This will cause the fluid in
the bulb 56 to'contract sufficiently to ., collapse
the bellows 60 and toshift thesnap acting device
use the tank 54 in connection-with a singlevvinter
mittently operating absorption unit» of thegen
eral type disclosed in connection with Figures 1
and 2. Thus the proper-humidity and- tempera
fl-iS to the left.
The Valve in the chamberAZ will be closed so
. that the coolingymedium cannot flow to the gen
erator-absorber A through the conduit‘ ‘iii, and
ture in the cabinet can be maintained, ice will
be automatically frozenand melted looseya-nd- the
evaporator automatically defrosted byv the ‘use’ of
a single unit and the thermal fly-wheel effect
of the tank 54 ?lled with cold water and ice,
utilized to its fullest-extent. Figure'fi shows such
the switch 52 will be closedso as toenergize
the heating element 32. The ?uid in; the cooling
pocket of the generator-absorber A will be quickly
vaporized therein by the heat supplied by-the
a modi?cation.
where it is trapped out of thevcooling. pocket of
The same reference characters will be applied
to Figure 6 as applied to Figures ’1'- and ‘2 insofar
the generator-absorber A as described in con
nection with Figure 1.
as they apply,‘
Refrigerant vapor will be driven from the solid
absorbent in the generator-absorber A, will pass
heating element 32, will pass to the condenser 36
where it is lique?ed and ?ow to the receiver 38
The ' generator-absorber .A is
charged with strontium chloride as the absorbent
and ammonia as the refrigerant and theindirect
cooling system is charged with methyl chloride
as in the modi?cation of Figure '1. The .-bellows
B0 is connected to the snap acting'device 48 by‘ a
lost motion connection and the switch ‘62 is modi
‘?ed in that it has only two contacts. One con
tact of the switch is connectedto oneside. of a .
power line and the otherto one sideoi the heat
to the condenser C‘ where it is lique?ed andiiow
into the receiver l4 and the tubes 5%} and52 ‘of
the evaporator. This comparatively warm liquid
refrigerant will'melt ice loose from the tank 5t
as described in connection with Figure 1. At the
same time the frost previously frozen to the evap
orator will'be melted. ‘The large body of cold
water in the tank .Mtogether with’ the melting
ing element32. The otherside of- the heating
element 32 is connected to the other side of the
power line. One of .the valves'in the valve cham
ice will provide athermal‘?wwheel‘so that-thev
ber 42 as shown in Figure 1 is omitted'leaving only ‘
'at a‘ substantially constant temperature and
the valve which controls the opening to conduit
The snap acting device 48 and the bellows 68'
are so adjusted that the snap acting device ‘48
will besnapped to the'position shown innFigure 6v
by the high temperature resulting'at‘the end ‘of
the generating phase of the generatoreabsorber
A as described in connection'with Figure 1 but
will not be‘snapped to the reverse positionnuntil
the bulb 56 has reached the highestzroomtem
perature likely to be encountered fora purposeito
7‘ be later ‘described.
In Figure 6 thetwo evaporators shown in Fig
7. ~;ures 1 and 5 have been combined into arsingle
. evaporator so that=it will support the water tank 75
hot refrigerant will notiunduly heat ‘the air in
the cabinet and the cabinet will‘ be maintained
When the solid‘ absorbent: in ‘the generator
absorber A has beenzsubstantially ‘freed -' of ' am
monia, the temperature of the generator-absorber
Awill quickly rise and expand the bellows G?
sufficiently to move-the snap acting device~li8
back to the position show-n inFigure 6 whereby
the. absorption-evaporation. will- begin . as. .previ
ously explained.
. ~
Thegenerator-absorber will thus automatically
operate alternately on the absorption andgener
ating phase as the temperature thereof rises-‘and
falls without the necessity of providing any addi
tional, control. Preferably, however, a. control
similar to the. switch 1,4,,valve. 12,,snap acting de
cabinet; each unit comprising a generator-ab
1‘8, inbellows
and "bulbf?duishown‘
1 is also
sorber, a condenser and an evaporator connect
vided so that the machine will cease to operate
ed by conduits to form a closed system; said
'evaporators being positioned on the interior of
said cabinet; and an open combined ice freezer,
‘temperature and humidity stabilizing water tank
when the temperature of the air in the cabinet ,_
is reduced sui?oiently;
Figure 7 shows a modi?ed evaporator and water
tank in which'the evaporator?coils H0 are com
in thermal contact with the evaporator of one
‘ pletely insulated from the air in the cabinet so
of said units; said tank being of large capacity, in
that there is no danger of frost forming on the, ,1 open communication with the interior of said
I evaporator coils. In this modi?cation the interior" l0 cabinet and exposed to air circulating within said
of the cabinet will be cooled solely by the cold
surfaces of the water tank. This will insure that=
the air in the cabinet is not dehydrated by frost
forming on the evaporator coils and at the same
time the cabinetinterior. will be'maintained at '15
the proper temperature and humidity by the large
1' body of water and ice in the water tank.
In this modi?cation the coils are arranged in
cabinet; the arrangement being such that ice is
frozen to the Walls of said tank below the water
level therein by the evaporation of refrigerant
during the absorption-evaporation period of op
eration of said one unit and melted loose there
from to ?oat to the surface of the water in said
tank ‘by Warm liquid refrigerant introduced into
‘said evaporator during the generation-condensa
the form of an inverted V and the tank H2 has a
tion period of operation of said one unit.
‘ similarly shaped depression in its bottom so that’ 20
2. An absorption refrigerator comprising a
it may be properly supported by the coil Hi! and
cabinet, said cabinet comprising a food compart
the walls of the depression will be in thermal
ment and an air flue extending upwardly along
contact with the coils lil?. Preferably, heat con
one side of said food compartment; an absorp
ducting padstmay be. bonded to the coils H9 as
tion refrigerating apparatus assembled with said
" in the modi?cation shown. in Figure 5.’ The coils 25 cabinet comprising two intermittently and alter
I I0 are insulated from the cabinet air by insulat
ing material H4.
nately operating absorption refrigerating units;
each unit comprising a generator-absorber, a
This modi?ed evaporator may be used with a primary condenser and an evaporator connected
dual system such as‘ shown in Figures 1 and 5 or
by conduits to form a closed‘ system; means ar
g with a single system such as shown in Figure 6. 30 ranged in operative relation to each of said evap
A reservoir vand ‘downwardly extending conduit
similar to the reservoir '14 and conduit/50 of Fig
ure 6 have not been shown but are positioned
to the rear of the tank H2 as viewed in Figure '7.
orators whereby blocks of ice are being formed
by one of said evaporators while‘yblocksof ice
‘previously formed by the other evaporator‘ are be
ing freed, an indirect cooling circuit for each gen
The use of the water tank 54 in the food storage 35 orator-absorber comprising a heat exchange de
; space, whether it be used with a single or dual
vice associated with each generator-absorber and
unit. maintains the humidity of the storage space
a secondary condenser connected to said heat
at its proper value so that food stuffs stored
exchange device to form a closed circuit, said
therein will not be dehydrated and at the same
primary and secondary condensers being posi
time provides an ample supply of cold water for
tioned in said air flue one above the other and
.said evaporators being positioned in said‘ food
The alternate freezing and melting loose of the
drinking purposes.
ice blocks insures an adequate supply of ice for
use as desired without the necessity ofany con
. trol other than that for the operation of the ap
paratus itself.
l '
The large body of cold water with the ice ?oat
ing thereon acts as a cold accumulator or thermal
fly-wheel to maintain the food’ storage space at
an even temperature in spite of the fact ‘that
warm liquid refrigerant is periodically introduced
into the evaporators or the evaoorators are al
lowed to rise in temperature during the genera"
ing phase at the same time the evaporator: or
evaporators are automatically defrosted without
any special control for that purpose but by the
normal cycling of the apparatus.
3. In combination, two intermittently operating
absorption refrigerating units, each having an in
45 dependent evaporator, an open water tank sup
ported by said evaporators in heat transfer rela
tionship therewith at a plurality of areas, means
for alternately heating the generator-absorber of
each unit to evolve refrigerant vapor from the
absorbent and supply said refrigerant in liquid
state to the evaporator of each unit, and means
for alternately'cooling the generator-absorber of
each unit to reabsorb the refrigerant from the
I evaporator of ?rst one unit and then the other
whereby the evaporator of each unit is alternately
cooled below; the freezing temperature of water
and heated to a temperature above the melting
The provision ofHa-bulb 64 and its associated
temperature of ice and ice is alternately frozen
control element insures that the temperature of
the food storage compartment will not go to too '60 to and melted from the Walls of the tank oppo- low a value even though a cooling cycleis not com
pleted at the time the temperature of ‘the storage
compartment reaches a proper low limit.
While I have shown but a'number of embodi
ments of myinvention it is to be understood that
these embodiments are to be taken as illustrative
only and not in a limiting sense. I do not wish to
be limited to the particular structure shown and
site said heat transfer areas.
4. An absorption refrigerating apparatus com
prising, two independent intermittently operat
ing absorption refrigerating units; each of said
' units comprising a generator-absorber, a con
denser and an evaporator connected by conduits
,to form a closed refrigerating system; a water
tank having portions in thermal contact with
each of said evaporators at a plurality of spaced
thereof except as ‘limited by the scope of the 70 points below the water level therein and means
described but to include all equivalent variations ‘
I claim:
for intermittently and alternately operating said
1. An absorption refrigerating apparatus com
‘ prising, a cabinet, two intermittently operating
units on the generating and absorption phases
‘ the arrangement being such that ice will be frozen
‘to portions of said tank in contact with the evap
absorption refrigerating units assembled with said 75 “orator‘of one unit while it is being melted loose
densers and a common portion: means for'he‘at
from portionsof the tank in contact with the
evaporator of the other unit.
ing said generator-absorbers‘, means for alter
nately rendering said heating [means and circuit
I 5. An intermittently operating absorption re
operative to heat one generator-absorber and’ to
cool the other and means responsive to the tem
perature of said cabinet for controlling the flow
of ?uid through said common portion of said
frigerating apparatus comprising, a ‘generator
absorber, a condenser, an evaporator; conduit
means connecting said‘generator-absorber,‘ con
denser and evaporator to form a closed refrig
crating system; said system being charged with
cooling circuit.
9. In combination, a plurality of independent
having walls in thermal contact with said evap 10 evaporator vessels, a container for water having
a plurality of areas in heat exchange relation with
orator in a plurality of separated areas below
each of said evaporators, a ?rst refrigerant con
the level of water therein, means for heating said
densing means operatively'associated ‘with one
generator-absorber ‘to evolve refrigerant vapor
of said evaporatoraa second refrigerant con
from the absorbent for condensation and supply
densing means independent of said first supply
to ‘said evaporator in liquid form during said
a refrigerant and an absorbent, a, water ‘tank
means and operatively associated with another of
heating period, and means to alternately cool
said evaporators, and a common control means for
said generator-absorber to reabsorb refrigerant
said ?rst andsecond refrigerant condensing means,
said control being so constructed and arranged
as to alternately supply liquid refrigerant to one
of said evaporators while the supply is cut off
from the other evaporator, the arrangement be
ing such that the supply of liquid refrigerant to
each evaporator melts ice blocks free from the
walls of said container at said plurality of areas
which had previously been frozen thereto dur
ing the period when the supply of liquid refrig
vapor and cause evaporation of the liquid refrig
erant in the evaporator to freeze portions of the
water in said tank opposite said areas during
the absorption phase, the arrangement being such
that the frozen portions of water are melted free
of the tank by the sensible heat of newly con
densed refrigerant during the generating phase.
6. In the operation of an intermittent absorp
tion refrigerating apparatus of the type in which
two intermittently operating absorption refrig
erating systems are alternately heated to evolve
refrigerantvapor ‘from the absorbent in the gen
erator-absorbers and condense it in the con
densers and the generator-absorbers are alter
erant thereto was cut off.
10. Refrigeration apparatus comprising means
30 for receiving liquid refrigerant, an evaporator in
nately cooled to reabsorb the refrigerant vapor
evaporating in the evaporators, that improvement
which comprises freezing ice to the walls of an
ice tank below the surface of water in said tank .1
at a plurality of spaced points in thermal con
tact with the evaporator of one unit by the evap
oration of refrigerant in the one evaporator while
melting ice loose from the walls of the ice tank
below the surface of water in said tank at a plu 40
cluding a plurality of conduits having their op
posite ends connected to said receiving means at
vertically spaced apart points, said conduits each
having a downwardly extending portion com
municating with a lower portion of said receiving
means and an upwardly extending portion com
municating with a portion of said receiving means
above said lower portion, the arrangement of said
conduits being such that refrigerant vapor serves
to circulate refrigerant liquid therethrough, a
water receptacle, said receptacle having zones of
rality of spaced points in thermal contact with
contact with the upwardly extending portions of
the evaporator of the other unit by warm liquid
said conduits, and means for supplying liquid
refrigerant flowing thereto.
refrigerant to and withdrawing refrigerant vapor
'7. An absorption refrigerating apparatus com
prising a cabinet, two intermittently operating 45 from said receiving means and said evaporator.
11. An absorption refrigerating apparatus com
refrigerating units associated with said cabinet;
prising a cabinet having a food storage compart
each unit comprising a generator-absorber, a pri
ment, an apparatus compartment, in the form of
mary condenser, and an evaporator connected by
a ?ue for the circulation of air, an absorption re
conduits to form a closed refrigerating system;
an indirect cooling circuit for said generator-ab- ~_~.
sorbers including secondary condensers, each
evaporator being positioned. in said cabinet; a
combined ice freezer, cabinet cooler and cold ac
cumulator in thermal contact with said evap~
orators; means for heating said generator-ab- ,
sorbers, means for alternately shifting said heat
ing means and cooling ‘circuit from one generator
absorber to the other and means responsive .to
the temperature of said cabinet interior for ren
dering both said heating means and said cooling
circuit inactive to heat or cool either generator
8. A refrigerating apparatus comprising, a cab
inet, two intermittently operating absorption re
frigerating units associated with said cabinet;
each unit including a generator-absorber, a pri
mary condenser and an evaporator connected
by conduits to form a closed refrigerating sys
tem; said evaporators being positioned in said
cabinet; a combined ice freezer, box-cooler, cold
accumulator and cabinet humidi?er in thermal
contact with said evaporators, an indirect cool
ing circuit for said generator-absorbers; said cir
cuit including a heat exchange device associated .
with each generator-absorber, two secondary con
frigerating system associated with said cabinet,
said system comprising two intermittently oper
ating absorption-refrigerating units; each unit
comprising a generator-absorber, a condenser and
an evaporator connected by conduits to form a
closed circuit; said evaporato-rs being so con
structed and arranged as to form supports, a
water tank supported in thermal contact with
said supports, a closed cooling system for each
generator-absorber comprising a heat exchanger
associated with each generator-absorber connect
ed by a conduit to a secondary condenser, said ap
paratus being so associated with said cabinet that
the primary condenser and secondary condenser
are positioned in said flue and said evaporator
positioned in said food storage compartment so
as to be removable from the cabinet as a unit.
12. The method of making ice which com
prises; absorbing a refrigerant in a body of ab
sorbent to cause evaporation thereof while in heat
exchange relation with one wall of a water tank
at a plurality of spaced points below the water
level in said tank to freeze blocks‘ of ice to said
one wall at said plurality of spaced points while
driving refrigerant vapor from a second body of '
‘ absorbent, condensing said vapor and leading the
jwarm condensate‘into heat exchange relation
freeze new blocks of ice to said second wall. at
with a second wall of said tank at a plurality of
said spaced points and continuing the foregoing
steps to alternately freeze ice to said‘ ?rst wall
spaced points below the water level in said tank
to free previously frozenv blocks of ice from the
while freeing ice from said second wall and vice
second wall at said spaced points; driving the 171 versa.
previously absorbed refrigerant vapor from said
13. An absorption refrigerating apparatus com
?rst body of absorbent, recondensing» said vapor
prising, two intermittently operating absorption
and leading the warm condensate again into heat
refrigerating units each including a generator
exchange relation with said ?rst wall at said
a condenser and an evaporator connect
spaced points to free the blocks of ice produced
ed by conduits to form a closed system, said evap
by the original evaporation of the refrigerant
orators being spaced apart to form a pairof
while reabsorbing refrigerant in said second body
spaced supports and an open water tank sup
of absorbent to cause evaporation of the refrig
ported between and in thermal contact with said
erant in heat exchange relation with the sec
ond wall at said plurality of spaced points to
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