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Oct. 29,- 1946.
‘2. w. CRAINE
Filed Oct. 27, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet l
-e| |/|
Oct. 29, 1946.
\ v
Filed 003;. 27,.l942
‘2 Sheets-Shed 2
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
Muir-so stares PATENT OFFICE
Zur ‘W. Craine, Norwich, N. Y., assignor > to
Craine, Ina, Norwich, N. Y” a corporation-of
New York
{application October 2'2‘, 1942, Serial No. 463,501 1
(Cl. 72-45)
This invention relates to improvements in the ' metals without appreciably increasing the cost
construction offarm silos. of thetower type. as
of labor and/or materials.
distinguished from stack. silos‘and trench silos.
A furtherobject of myinvention is to pro
More particularly, my invention relates to im
videin combinationwith a tower siloand-pref
provements in means for draining tower silos $1 erably when the same isinitially constructed, a
which are designed and adapted fortheproper
drainage means which will e?iciently and effec
storage and curingof green silage crops having
tively dispose of the excess moisture ensi-led ‘with
both a high moisture contentand a tendency to
suchforage crops.
become packed downer ?rmly matted together
Other objects and advantages of my invention
when the same is stored therein in large ..quan
will either become apparent or be more speci?
tities, such for example as grass silage.
cally referred to in the following description
Until grass and other silage'of a high mois
thereof, written in connection with’ the appended
ture content came to be used no serious di?iculty
was experienced in making tower silos at- a cost
drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment
thereof, andin which,
which the farmer could pro?tably payforstor
ingsuch forage crops. While occasionally there
'Figure 1 illustrates in perspective therlower
portion and foundation structures of a tower
occurred an objectionable seepage through-the
silo constructed in. accordance with the teach
joints in the walls of such silos of the juices and
ings of my invention, and having a portion’ there
other'moisture therein, this .did a
of broken away to show details of its construc
real structural or it 20 tion.
does now in the case of providing.-.silos,~suitable
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate modi?cations of por
forthe storage and curingof green grass, silage.
tions of the structure shown in Figure 1.
Because of the comparatively low "moisture
. Figure 4,15 a fragmentary sectional plan view
content and other'physical propertiesof corn
of the Wallstructure of a silo embodying my in
silage and the like,»it has all along been pos
vention taken on lined-Al of‘ Figure 1 and look
sible to constructeconomically a tower-silo for
ing inthe direction. of the arrows.
such usewhich would nevertheless be sufficiently
strong and suitable to withstand without exces
sive leakage the semi-hydrostaticpressures .to
which the walls and joints of said silos were sub
Figures 5 and6 show details of the _material
used in theconstruction of the device shown in
Figure, 1.
Figures '7 and 8 show fragmentary sectional
jected while in use. The/natureof such econ
plan views ofv modi?ed forms .of wall structures
omies‘ are easily recognized-when it is realized
which may also 1be employed in the construction
that a tow-er silo is not constructed-or intended
of silos of the class described.
.Referring now to the drawings, and particu
to serve as a water tank. When however, it was
desired to store and cure green grassisilage in. a 35 larly to. Figure 1, my tower silo is indicated gen
erally by thenumeral l0. It will .be seen that
tower silo of the class 'describedherein, it -Was
discovered \that free liquid pressure developed
the same preferably comprisesa cylindrical foun
therein and increased to almosthydrostatic pro
dation I I constructed of concrete, masonry, brick
portions, thereby requiring heavy additional steel
reinforcing, yet greatly increasing the tendency
many other suitable material erected upon any
40 suitable footingelil.
The central or body portion
of the silo- lll .iserected upon the foundation
sulting in silage of inferior quality.
H and preferablycomprisesa wall structure I3
An important object ofmy invention is, there
built up of. a-suitable, type of hollow pro-formed
building blocks. Ill laidi-n tiers on and around the
fore, to provide a tower silo for the storage and
curing of high moisture content foragev crops 4.5 foundation. l l with the hollow portions 15 there
to leakage and further, this excess moisture re
without appreciably increasing thecost- of labor
of disposed in vertical alignment. Preferably the
and material.
blocks ill arelaidso that the joints in one ver
tical tier will be spaced or disposed between, .or
An important object of my invention is, there
fore, to provide a tower silo for the storage and
break,- thevjoints between the‘ blocks of, an adja
curing of high moisture content green forage 50 cent tier. It will .be understood that care-is
used so that the mortar, caulking, joint ?ller
crops with self-contained means built therein for
and/or gaskets used in these tier joints does not
reducing such high moisture content to around
the preferred normal good silage requirements of
about seventy per cent, thereby reducing pres
sures and conserving critical extra reinforcing
clog the hollow portions’ l5.'
As the walls of the silo are so constructedany
suitable means may be‘used for setting together
or joining the block of adjacent tiers such as
making these joints of mortar, joint ?ller, caulk
ing and/or gaskets, cement, or if desired, adja
cent tiers of blocks may be keyed together in any
concrete floor 32 under which is laid a plurality
of radially disposed drain pipes 33 connecting the
recess I‘! with the sump 2|.
Figures 7 and 8 illustrate modi?cations of wall
structures which may be used in the construction
other well known manner, such as indicated at
of silos embodying my invention and in which
18 in Figure 6.‘ Tiers of blocks progressively so
tiers of suitably shaped solid preformed concrete
constructed and positioned are held ?rmly in
sections or blocks 34 are used in combination with
place by a plurality of spaced hoops or bands l6,
hollow tile or other blocks 35 or 36 of insert ma
disposed about the same and tensioned in the
usual way to add the stiffening necessary for a 10 terial having a suitable cross-sectional structure,
yet different from that shown in Figure 4.
structure of this sort. Finally, it will be under
In Figure 5 I illustrate a further modi?cation
stood that this cylindrical wall structure may be
of the manner of erecting a silo embodying my
built up to any height and capped with any suit
invention in which a sectional block 31 made up
able form of roof or cover, not shown. In my
silo thus constructed it will be seen that through 15 in the form of a piece of tile or brick may be
used by being placed on top of the foundation l l
out the height of the body portion forming the
and under the ?rst course of silo stave or block
side walls thereof a plurality‘ of openings [5
units I4, instead of the annular recess I‘! above
are formed by the end-to-end disposition of the
described. These blocks 31 are formed with suit
hollow blocks l4 above described. The top of
the foundation H is constructed to form an an 20 able holes or recesses 38 so that the openings I5
in the silo wall communicate with the recesses 38
nular recess I‘! so positioned that when the
and in turn permit liquid to drain from the walls
wall blocks M are erected upon said foundation
to either the outside or inside of the silo, as de
the vertical wall openings l5 above described will
sired, by merely plugging up the recess at one
register with said recesses II.
In the form of the silo here shown a floor 28 25 side or the other. When such a construction is
employed the drainage will be to the inside of
of inverted conical form is constructed, having
the silo only when the outside portions of the
at the center thereof a sump 2i into which sur
holes 38 are plugged or when the inside portions
face liquid from the ?oor of the silo will drain,
of the holes are plugged drainage will be out
and from which said liquid is conducted by means
of a pipe 22 and permitted to drain off into the 30 wardly.
While I have now described what seems to be
ground or otherwise be suitably disposed of. EX
a preferred embodiment of my invention, it is con
tending radially from the sump 21 to the foun
ceivable that various modi?cations in the con
dation, as shown, I provide a plurality of hollow
figuration, composition and disposition of the
drain tiles 23 having their inner ends in commu
nication with said sump and their outer ends in 35 component elements making up the same as a
whole, may occur to those skilled in the art as a
communication with the vertical openings 15 in
result of my teachings here. Accordingly, no un
the side walls of the silo I5 through the medium
necessary limitation of my invention is intended
of the annular recesses l1. Also, the tiles 23 may
by the phraseology of the foregoing description
be provided, if desired, with openings 24 into
which surface water from the floor of the silo 40 or the illustration of said preferred embodiment.
What is claimed is:
may drain,
‘ 1. A tower silo comprising a foundation having
In each of the .building blocks Hi used in the
a grooved surface at least at the periphery of
construction of my new silo are formed one or
the foundation to form liquid outlet means, a
more openings or weep holes 25 extending from
the inside surface of said block to the vertical ‘ body erected in the form of a wall upon said
foundation and over the grooves to form an en
openings l5 therein through which juices and
closure for silage thereabove, the wall being nar
other moisture is adapted to drain from the silage
rower than the grooved surface and located with
stored therein down through the openings 8 5, the
respect thereto so that the ends of the grooves
recesses l1 and to the sump 2i, These openings
25 may be of any suitable size or shape, such as 50 are exposed at the inner and outer faces of the
wall to form liquid drainage outlets, the wall be
the round holes shown in Figure 5, or the rec
ing of vertical sections a plurality of which have
tangular openings shown in Figure 6. It will
liquid drainage inlets communicating with the
also be understood, as shown in Figure 6, that
interior of the wall of said enclosure at diiferent
sections of the openings 25 may be constructed at
the ends of the blocks so that the openings or ; elevations, passage means within the wall leading
from said inlets to said liquid outlet means, means
weep holes 25 are formed, if desired, at the joint
between superimposed blocks.
My invention therefore comprises the construc
tion of a tower silo having in combination drain
age inlets located at various points and prefer
ably at different elevations on the inside surfaces
of the silo wall and extending from the said in
terior surface to the founation thereof down
wardly through the inside of the walls so that
juices and other silage moisture may drain oif
from the silage at any one of a plurality of lev
els, and be conducted to the foundation and there
interlocking adjacent sections together, and
means for draining away from said foundation
liquids conducted to said outlet means from dif
f erent elevations within said silo.
2. A tower silo comprising a founation having
a grooved surface at least at the periphery of the
foundation to form liquid outlet means to the
exterior of the silo wall, a body erected in the
- form of a wall upon the grooved surface of the
foundation and forming an enclosure for silage
thereabove, and the wall being narrower than
suitably disposed of.
the grooved surface and located with respect to
means of a plurality of pipes 30 leading from
the recess I‘! and empty into a ring of farmer’s
forming a. plurality of liquid drainage outlets
communicating with the interior of the wall of
said enclosure.
the grooves so that the ends thereof are exposed
Figure 2 illustrates a modi?cation of the man
at the inner and outer faces of the wall thereby
ner in which moisture may be conducted by
drain tile 3| disposed outside of the foundation.
1 Figure 3 ‘shows a further modi?cation of a
foundation drainage structure comprising a solid "
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