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Nov. 5, 1946.’
J. BELLEZZA, JR
'
2,410,419 ~- . -
SNUBBER ROLLER
Filed Aug. 19, 1943
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I 2,410,41a
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
ourrso "stares ‘PATENT, orrica
James Bellezza, Jr., Richmond, Va., assignor to
‘E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wil
mington, Del., a corporation of Delaware
Application August 19, 1943, Serial‘No. 499,285’
12 Claims.‘ (Cl. 5'7—-1)
1
.
This invention relates to a snubber roller for ‘
displacing a yarn passing about a roller one or
more times to prevent the yarn from tracking
on itself and from wrapping upon said snubber
roller.
>
'
Although the invention is capable of many dif
ferent uses, for convenience it will be'described
in connection with‘ the stretching of yarn between
two positively driven feed wheels and wherein the
yarn is passed a plurality of times around at least 10
the second feed wheel.
_
In copendingapplication of Emerson A. Tip
petts and Howard W. Swank, Ser. No. 499,162,
filed on even date herewith, there is disclosed a
2
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,
i
that permits easy removal of any ?lament wraps
which may occur. Other objects of this inven
tion will become apparent hereafter.
The objects of the invention are generally ac- I
complished by providing‘ a snubber roller with a
plurality of stepped thread-contacting portions
constructed with a slight taper toward the front
of the roller and a ?anged portion in advance of
‘each step. The snubber roller is so positioned
relative to the feed wheel that each successive
passage ofv the yarn from the feed wheel to the
snubber roller will first contact the respective
flanged portions and be rolled onto the- corre-‘
\sponding thread-contacting portion, whereby
procedure for stretching of a freshly produced 15 twist will be imparted to the yarn. In each suc
cessive passage from the snubber roller back to
yarn between two positively driven feed wheels
the feed wheel the twist leaves.
wherein the yarn passes one or ‘more times around
The details of the invention‘ will become more
the ?rst feed wheel and a. plurality of times
apparent by reference ‘to the accompanying draw
around the second feed wheel and, during the
ing when taken in connection with the following
_ passage over and around the feed wheels, the yarn 20
detailed description.
is passed under a freely rotatable displacement
In the drawing,
snubber roller to prevent the yarn from tracking
Figure 1 isv a diagrammatic perspective. view
on itself on the successive-passage oi’ the yarn
generally
showing the arrangement of two posi
about the feed wheel and to impart atwist there'
to. The twist is imparted to the yarn at a point 25 tively driven feed wheels for stretching yarn and
the snubber rollers;
immediately prior to its contact with the snubber
Figure 2 is a side elevation showing the ar
roller. Because of the twist, the yarn passing
rangement of the feed wheel and the snubber
under the snubber roller is well bundled and ,
broken ?laments are not picked up and wrapped
roller;
around the snubber roller but are carried along 30 Figure 3 is a top plan view, partly broken away
- for clarity, to more clearly show the arrangement
as part of the continuous‘?lament bundle. In its
of the snubber roller and the feed wheel;
travel from the snubber roller back to the feed
Figure 4 is a cross-section of one form of the '
wheel, the twist is removed. However, due to the
snubber roller; and '
.
brief existence of the twist, the many filaments
comprising the yarn are more closely bundled to-" 35 - Figure 5 is a cross-section of the preferred form
of snubber roller.
.
'
gether than they would be otherwise and the yarn
Referring now to the drawing wherein like ref
is prevented from being spread out as a wide
erence numerals designate like parts, the refer
ribbon.
I
,
ence numeral 10 designates a multi-?lament yarn
The said copending application of Tippetts and
Swank disclosesa one-piece snubberv roller for 40 withdrawn from a‘ spinning bath in which a vis
cose solution is extruded through a multi-ori?ce
use when the yarn passes a plurality of times
spinneret (the spinneret and the bath not being
about the feed wheel. That snubber roller is pro
shown) by a positively driven feed wheel l2
vided with two or more thread-contactingpor
around which the yarn is wrapped one or more
tions of the same diameter and a corresponding
times.
In its passage over and around the feed
45
number of ?anges projecting from the respective
wheel, the yarn is passed under a freely rotatable
thread-contacting portions. When any filament
snubber ‘roller Hi. From the wheel l2, the yarn
wraps occur, they may bev removed only with
is passed over and a plurality of times around a
di?iculty as, for instance, by removing the roller
second positively driven feed wheel H5. The yarn
from its shaft and cutting the wrap therefrom.
iii, in ‘its passage around the second feed wheel
An object of this invention is to provide a new 50 l6, also passes-under a freely rotatable snubber
and improved snubber roller which will impart
roller l8. The feed wheels i2 and it are mounted
a temporary twist to each successive passage of
on shafts 2i] and 22 respectively, which are driven
the yarn from the feed wheel to the snubber
‘by
means (not shown) at such rates that the
roller. Another object of this invention is to pro
peripheral speed of the wheel i6 is greater than
vide a snubber roller which is of a construction 55
2,410,419
that of the wheel l2 whereby the yarn between
the feed ‘wheels is stretched. After leaving the
feed wheel IS, the yarn is wound in a suitable
collection device (not shown).
If desired, a hot aqueous liquid jet may be ap
plied to the yarn III while it is on the feed wheel
12, as fully explained in said copending applica
4
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'
coming from the feed wheel ?rst contacts the
snubber ‘roller at the inclined portion 42, and,
due to the askew position of the snubber roller,
rolls down into the thread path of the large step
38. ‘Because the yarn rolls on itself in coming
from the inclinedportion 42 to the thread path
on the large step 38; it develops temporarily a
certain amount of twist. The twist actually
‘takes place-between the point at which the yarn
tion of Tippetts and Swank.
Each feed wheel is provided at the rear thereof
with an upwardly inclined ?ange 24, from which 10 leaves the feed wheel and the contact point with
any liquid applied to the feed wheel is discharged
the snubber roller'36, so that the yarn contact
ing the snubber roller 36 is well bundled and
moved by a conduit 28. In order that the liquid
broken ?laments are not picked up and wrapped
be discharged from the feed‘ wheel only at the
around the snubber roller but are carried along
flange 24, the thread-contacting portion 3|) of the
as part of the continuous ?lament bundle. When
feed wheel is constructed with a. slight taper, as
the yarn passes from the large step and travels
‘indicated by the reference character A inFigure
back to the feed wheel, the twist is removed.
2, to insure that the centrifugal force will drive
However, due to the brief existence of the twist,
the liquid from the thread-contacting portion 30
the many ?laments comprising the yarn are more
of the feed wheel to the point of the ?ange 24 20 closely bundled together than. they would be
before discharging it from the wheel. While this
otherwise. The yarn, in passing back to the feed
taper A may be as little as 1°, it is preferably
wheel, passes around the feed wheel in. spaced
greater than 3°, but in no case more than 6°
relationship to the prior pass of the yarn there
Or 8°.
about, and the yarn leaving the feed wheel in
The feed wheels are constructed of such sur 25 this second pass, in its passage to the snubber
face materials that sulfur and sludge from the
roller, contacts the snubber roller in its second
bath will not adhere in the yarn path, forming
passage thereto at the inclined portion 44, from
ridges from which any liquid will be discharged ' which it rolls into the thread path on the small
without ?owing to the ?ange. A glass surface
step 40. The twist is imparted to the yarn dur_
has given satisfactory results.
30 ing this operation and it leaves the yarnin its
The snubber roller M, in the event that the
passage back to the feed wheel as previously de
yarn is passed only once thereunder and the ten
scribed in connection with the large step. It is
sion differential between the oncoming yarn and
clear that the yarn in each successive passage to
the leaving yarn is not too great. is of the type
the snubber roller 36 is given a twist.
and design and position as described in said co
The slipping of the yarn on the small step 40
pending application of Tippetts and Swank. 35 of the snubber roller 36 is eliminated by making
However, when this differential is large, then the
the percentage difference between the circum
yarn is given two or more passes around the feed
ferences of the two steps not greater than the
' wheel, and a snubber roller of the type shown in
yarn is capable of absorbing through contraction
Figures 4 and 5 is used. Since the tension dif
40 and subsequent stretching at the desired tension
ferential between the oncoming yarn and the
in the yarn'between the point it leaves the small
yarn leaving the second feed wheel I8 is rela
step and the feed wheel, The same effect may
tively large, the snubber roller shown in Figure
be accomplished by utilizing a feed wheel having
4 or 5 is generally there used.
a taper suf?cient to permit the yarn to contract
Referring now to Figure 4, the reference nu
between the two wraps around the snubber roller
meral 36 designates a one-piece two-step snub 45 to
a degree almost equal to the percent difference
~ber roller, in which the reference numerals 38
between the circumferences of the two steps.
and 40 designate the large'and small steps re
The degree of taper and the percent difference
spectively. As shown in Figure 4, each of the
in circumferences of the steps are so chosen as to
steps 38 and 40 are preferably constructed with
the proper minimum tension in the second
' a slight taper toward the front of the roller and 50 give
pass.
I
the snubber roller 36. is provided with an in
Instead
of
the
single
one-piece
stepped
snubber
clined portion 42 immediately preceding the step
roller as previously described, a snubber roller
38 and an inclined portion 44 immediately pre
h‘aving freely rotatable, independent rollers for
ceding the step 40. The snubber roller 38 is pro
into a collecting shroud 26 from which it is re
vided with a central bore 46 whereby it may be 55 each passage of the yarn thereabout may be used
and is preferred when the yarn denier is large.
freely rotatably mounted on a shaft 48. The rear
Such a roller is shown in Figure 5 and is desig
nated generally by the reference numeral 80.
as shown in Figure 2, within a shroud 52, which
The snubber roller 50 comprises two rollers 82
is adapted to receive any liquid from the snub
ber roller 36 and. conduct it to the conduit 28 60 and 64 which are independently and freely ro
tatable on a stub shaft 58, one end of which is
through a conduit 54. In the form shown in Fig~
?xedly mounted in a shroud 68, the other end
ure 4, the snubber roller 36 is provided with a
being capped by a press-?t washer 10 or other
recess in the front face thereof into which one
suitable device to hold the rollers in place. The
end of the shaft 48 may project and on which
a locking member 66 may -be secured to retain 65 roller 62 is provided with a substantially cylin
?ange 50 of the snubber roller 36 is positioned,
,
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drical body 14 and an inclined ?ange 'l-B atthe
The snubber roller 38 is mounted in front of
rear thereof. The roller 64 is also provided with
the plane drawn perpendicular to the feed wheel
a substantially cylindrical body ‘It and an in
shaft at the tangent point of first contact of the
clined ?ange 80. The rotatable roller 64 is
thread with the feed wheel by a small amount, 70 smaller than the rotatable roller 82 and it is so
and the axis of the snubber guide is horizontally
mounted that the body 74 of the roller 62 over
the roller on the shaft.
rotated out of the vertical plane passing through
the axis of the feed wheel by a small angle of ap
proximately 6° or 8° (see Figure 3). Byv locating
the snubber guide in this manner, the yarn I0
laps and is slightly spaced from the flange 80 of
the roller 64. As- shown in Figure 5, the roller
64 is provided with a boss ill on the rear thereof
which is positioned in a recess 82 in the front
2,410,419
' vyarn on the ?rst roller is treated with a hot
face of the rotatable roller 52. Any liquid on the
aqueous liquid, as described in the previously
small rotatable roller 64 is thrown over the
mentioned copcnding application of Tippetts,
rounded shoulder of the roller 62 and discharged
Swank.
,
therefrom into-a collecting shroud 88,‘ or is con 5' and
Though preference is herein shown for the
veyed to the recess 82 from which it is conducted
use of the apparatus in connection with freshly.
by means of a duct 84 to the collecting shroud
prepared multi?lament yarn produced by the
86 from which it is discharged by means of a
viscose
process, the invention is. not restricted
conduit 88. It will be apparent that any liquid _
, thereto. The snubber roller and the arrange
from the rotatable roller 62 will be discharged
into the collecting shroud’85. '
‘ It is to‘be‘ noted that the two independent
rollers 62 andtli of the snubberroller constitute
steps and that the respectivebodies ‘Hi and 18
10 merit thereof with the feed wheel may be used‘
‘for stretching (by two positively driven feed
wheels) any type of yarn irrespective of its manu
facture or indeed in any operation wherein a
yarn is passed a plurality of times around a
thereof are each constructed withv a'slight taper ,
wheel or roller and there is a great tension dif
toward the front of the roller. The slight taper 15 ferential
between the oncoming yarn and the leav
facilitates the removal of any wraps (which may
form) from the front of the roller and discharge
of the bath backward to the ?ange of the roller. - r
ing yarn.
‘ ,
'
Since it is obvious that many changes and
modi?cations can be made in the above-described
Also, the slight taper permits the yarn to push 20 details without departingv from the nature and
forward out of the thread path any small wrap
spirit of the invention, it is to be understood that
which may form,
_ the invention is not to be limited thereto except
The two-piece snubber roller 62 is mounted in
asset forth in the appended claims.
the same askew position relative to the feed wheel
I claim:
'
.
as was described in connection with the position 25
1. For use in combination with a wheel over
ing of the snubber roller 36 with respectto the
and about which a‘ yarn passes a plurality of
feed wheel. In operation, the thread passing
times, a freely rotatable snubber roller. about
from the feed wheel will contact the rotatable
which the yarn passes between each successive
- roller .52 at the ?ange 76 thereof, from which it
around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
will roll onto the substantially cylindrical portion 30 pass
around said wheel in spaced'relationshi'p to the
' ‘id, whereby twist- will be imparted. In the second
prior pass of the yarn therealoout and having a
passage of the yarn from the feed wheel to the
plurality of steps, the first step which cooperates
snubber roller, the yarn will engage the second
with the yarn having the largest diameter and
rotatableroller 64 on the ?ange 80 and roll there
each succeeding step which cooperates with the
from onto the substantially cylindrical body 18,
respective successive pass 'of the yarn over and
, whereby twist will be imparted‘ thereto. In each
about said wheel being of a diameter less than:
of the successive passages of the yarn from the
respective rotatable roller back to the feed wheel, _
the twist will leave and the yarn will be presented to the feed wheel at a position such‘that the yarn
the preceding step, the succeeding steps being
forwardly of ‘said ?rst step in the direction toward
vthe front of said snubber roller, and means on
will be spaced from the preceding path of travel 40 said roller before each step to ‘impart a twist in
of the yarn therearound.
In the‘ two-piece. snubber roller (ill, the differ
the yarn as it passes from the wheel to said
snubber roller.
2. For use in combination with a wheel over
ences in circumference between the thread path
aboutwhich a yarn passes a plurality of
about the rotatable rollers ‘62 and 66 are immatet-l 45 and
times,
a freely rotatable snubber roller, about
rial since each of these elements is independently
which the yarn passes between each successive
rotated and is driven by the yarn passing there
pass ‘around said wheel, to cause the yarn to
around.
'
" pass‘ around said wheel in spaced relationship to
If more than two passes are desired about the
the prior pass of the yarn thereabout and having
snubber roller, the latterpmay be provided with 50 two steps, the first step which cooperates with
a corresponding number of stepped portions and
?anges,
,
Though the angularity of the ?anged portions
‘ may vary‘ within rather wide limits, satisfactory
results are secured when the ?anges are at angles
.
the yarn being of a diameter greater than the
second step ‘which cooperates with the respective
successive pass of the yarn over and about said
wheel, said second step being forwardly of said
of 40° to 60°, and preferably 50°, to the axis of 55 ?rst step in the direction-toward the front of
said snubber roller, and a flange on said roller
the snubber rollers.
immediately before each step to receive the yarn
‘The snubber rollers herein described‘are con
from said wheel and permit it ‘to roll therefrom
structed of such surface material that any of the
onto ' the respective‘step and impart a twist in
ingredients adhering to the yarn passing there
yarn.
'
around will not deleteriously affect the snubber 60 said
3. For use in, combination with a wheel over
rollers in any manner which might‘ damage the
and about which a yarn passes a plurality of
yarn. A snubber roller provided with a glass sur
face or formed of a phenol formaldehyde or sim
ilar resin has given satisfactory results.
_
times, a freely rotatable one-piece snubber roller, '
about which the yarn passes between each suc
cessive pass around said wheel, to cause the
The one-piece stepped roller can be manufac ‘35 yarn
to pass around said wheel in spaced rela
tured more economically. and in operation can be
tionship
to the prior pass Of'_the yarn thereabout
more easily strung up, than the two-piece snub
‘and having a. plurality of steps. the flrststep
ber roller, In addition. the one-piece snubber
which cooperates with the yarn having the largest
roller can be made heavier and, therefore, is less
70
diameter and each succeeding step which co
subject to breakage and has a longer life than
operates with the respectlve successive pass of
the two-piece roller. For these reasons‘, the one- ‘
'the yarn over and about said wheel being of a I
piece snubber roller is preferred in certain in
diameter less than the precedlngvstep, the suc
si ances when the yarn denier is not too large.
ceeding steps being forwardly of said ?rst step
The snubber rollers herein described are ad
mirably suitable for use in a_ process wherein the 75 in the direction toward the front of said snubber
2,410,419
' 7
roller, and a ?ange on said roller immediately
before each step to receive the yarn from said
wheel and permit it to roll therefrom onto the
respective step and impart a twist in said yarn,
‘ the difference in circumference between the larg
er and smaller steps being not greater than the
yarn is capable of absorbing during contraction
and stretching in its travel respectively to and
' from the smaller step.
4. For use in combination with a wheel over
and about which a yarn passes‘ a plurality of
times, a freely rotatable snubber roller guide,
about which the yarn passes between each suc
cessive pass around said wheel, to cause the yarn
to pass around said wheel in spaced relationship
' to' the prior pass of the yarn thereabout and
comprising a plurality of independently rotat
able rollers mounted on a common shaft, the
>_ roller being mounted askew to said wheel and
having a plurality of steps, the ?rst step which
cooperates with the yarn having the largest di
ameter and each succeeding step which cooper
ates with the respective successive pass of the
yarn over and about said wheel being of a diam
eter less than the preceding step, the succeeding
steps being forwardly of said ?rst step in the
direction toward the front of said snubber roller,
.and a flange on said roller before each step to
receive the yarn from said wheel and permit it
to roll Onto the respective step.
’
8._ In combination, a feed wheel over and about
which a yarn is passed a plurality of times'and
a freely rotatable snubber roller, about which the
yarn passes between each successive pass around
said wheel, to cause the yarnv to pass around said
wheel in spaced relationship to the prior pass
thread-contacting portion of the first roller which’
of the yarn thereabout, said snubber roller being
cooperates with the yarn having the largest di 20 mounted askew to said wheel and having two
ameter and the thread-contacting portion of a
steps, the ?rst step which cooperates with the
each succeeding roller which cooperates with the
yarn being of a diameter greater than the second
respective pass of the yarn over and about said
step which cooperates with the respective suc-_
wheel being of a smaller diameter than the '
cessive pass of the yarn over and about said
~_thread—conta_cting portion of the preceding roller, 25 wheel, said second step being forwardly of said
said succeeding rollers being forwardly of the
first step in the direction toward the front of
said ?rst roller in the direction toward the front
said snubber roller, and a flange on said roller
of said snubber roller, each of said rollers having
before each step to receive the yarn from said
means to impart a twist to the yarn.
‘wheel and permit it to roll onto ‘the respective
5; For use in combination witha wheel over 30 step, the difference in circumference between the
and about which a yarn passes a plurality of
larger and smaller step being not greater than
times, a freely rotatable snubber roller guide,
the yarn is capable of absorbing during contrac
about which the yarn passes between each suc
tion and-stretching in its travel respectively to
cessive pass around said wheel, to cause the yarn
and from the smaller step.
to pass around said wheel in spaced relationship 35 9. In combination, a feed wheel over and about
tothe prior pass of the yarn thereabout and
which a yarn is passed a plurality of times and
comprising two independently rotatable rollers
a freely rotatablesnubber roller, about which
on acommon shaft, each of said rollers having
a thread-contacting portion and a ?ange im
the yarn passes ‘between each successive pass
around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
mediately before said thread-contacting portion 40 around said wheel in spaced relationship to the
to receive the yarn from said wheel and permit
prior pass of the yarn thereabout, said snubber
it to roll onto said thread-contacting portion to
roller being mounted askew to said wheel and
impart a twist therein, the thread-contacting
having a plurality of independently rotatable roll~
portion of the ?rst roller which cooperates with
ers mounted on a common shaft, the thread-conthe yarn being of a larger diameter than the 45 tacting portion of the ?rst roller which cooperates
thread-contacting portion of the second roller,
said‘ second roller being forwardly of the first
roller in the direction toward ‘the front of said
snubber roller guide.
' with the yarn having the largest diameter and
a freely rotatable snubber roller; about which the
‘ rollers being forwardly of the said ?rst roller in
yarn passes between each successive pass around
the direction toward the front of said snubber
roller, each of said rotatable rollers having means
the thread-contacting portion of each succeeding
roller which cooperates with the respective pass
of the yarn over and about said wheel being of
‘ 6. In combination, a feed wheel over and about 50 a smaller diameter than the thread-contacting
which a yarn is passed a plurality of times and
portion of the preceding rollerj said succeeding
said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass around said
wheel in spaced relationship to the prior pass of
to impart a twist in the yarn.
_
-the yarn thereabout, said snubber roller being
mounted askew to said wheel and having a plu
rality of steps, the ?rst step which cooperates
10. In combination, a feed wheel over and
about which a yarn is passed a plurality of times
and a freely rotatable snubber roller, about which
with the yarn having the largest diameter and
the yarn passes between each successive pass
‘each succeeding step which cooperates with the 60 around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
respective successive pass of, the yarn over and ' around said wheel in spaced relationship to the
about said wheel being of a diameter less than
prior, pass of the yarn thereabout, said snubber
the preceding step, the succeeding steps beir'
roller being mounted askew to said wheel and
forwardly of said ?rst step in the direction toward
having a plurality of independently thread-driv
the front of said snubber roller, and means on 65 en rollers mounted on a common shaft, each of
said roller before each step to impart a twist
said independently thread-driven rollers having
in the yarn as it passes from said feed wheel to
a thread-contacting portion and a ?ange im
said snubber roller.
mediately before said thread-contacting portion '
'7. In combination, a feed wheel over and about
to receive the yarn from said wheel and permit
which a yarn is passed a plurality of times and 70 it to roll onto said thread-contacting portion to
a freely rotatable snubber roller, about which
impart a twist therein, the thread-contacting
the yarn passes between each successive pass
portion of the ?rst roller which cooperates with
around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
the yarn having the largest diameter and the
.around 'said wheel in spaced relationship to the
thread-contacting portion of each succeeding
prior pass of the yarn thereabout, said snubber 76 roller which cooperates with the-respective pass
_
2,410,419
of the yarn over and about said wheel being of v
a smaller diameter than the thread-contacting \ I
portion of the preceding roller, said succeeding
rollers being forwardly of the said first roller
in the direction toward the front of said snubber
,
roller.
11. In combination, a feed wheel over and
about which a yarn is passed a plurality of times
and a freely rotatable sn'ubber roller, about which
-10
able roller being forwardly of said ?rst inde
pendently rotatable roller in the direction toward >
the front of said snubber roller.
12. In ‘combination, a feed wheel over and
about which a. yarn is passed a plurality of times
and a freely rotatable snubber roller, about which
the‘ yarn passes between each successive pass
around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
around said wheel in spaced relationship to the
the yarn passes between each successive pass 10 prior pass of the yarn thereabout, said snubber
roller being mounted askew to said wheel and
around said wheel, to cause the yarn to pass
having two independently thread-driven rollers
around said wheel in spaced relationship to the
mounted‘on a common shaft, each of said in
prior pass of the yarn thereabout, said snubber
dependently thread-driven rollers having a ,
roller being mounted askew to said wheel and
having two independently thread-driven rollers 15 thread-contacting portion and a ?ange immedi-'
ately before said thread-contacting portion to
mounted on a common shaft, each of said in
receive the yarn from said wheel and permit it
dependently thread-driven rollers having a.
to rollonto said thread-contacting portion to
thread-contacting portion and a flange immedi
impart a twist therein, the thread-contacting
ately before said thread-contacting portion to
receive the yarn from said wheel and permit it 20 portion of the second independently rotatable
roller being smaller in diameter than the thread
to roll onto said thread-contacting portion to
contacting portion of the ?rst independently
impart a twist therein, the thread-contacting
portion of the second independently rotatable
roller being smaller in diameter than the thread
contacting portion of the ?rst independently ro
tatable roller, said second independently rotat
rotatable roller, and the thread-contacting por- '
tion of the said ?rst roller overlapping and spaced
from the ?ange of the said second roller.
JAMES BELLEZZA‘, Jn.
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