Naw. 5, E946.. H. W. mâis'r ZAAQLMQ REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed April 7, 1943 6 Sheets~Sheet l ä ..à , _ §99.mm. .EW x A F d w / Int/enfer' _7-[60: WÍÍZZZ' Nov. 5, 1946. H. w. KLElsT 2,410,449 REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed April 7, 1945 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Y .NOVE 5, 1946. H, W. KLEIST ` REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed April 7, ’.1945 '%7 Ry.' 5 @ä ä? ~ . . ¿410,449 , ' e sheets-sheet 4 , Nov. 5, 1946. H. w. KLElsT 2,410,449 REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed April 7, 1943 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 [rave-afar' Äfermavz WÍíZezLSÄ @6mm Nov. 5, 1946. H. w. KLElsT v 2,410,449 REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed April 7, 1943 eshee-as-sheet e y .Herman f Patented Nov. 5, 1946 2,410,449 UNITED STATES PATÉNT o FFICE' A 2,410,449 I I ' REFRIGERATOR CAR( l Herman W. Kleist, Chicago, Ill., _ Application April 7, 1943, Serial No.` 482,097 15 claims. (c1.v 654-102) l . This invention relates to refrigerator cars and has for its object to provide a new'and improved device of this description. " I 'The invention has as a further object to pro vide a refrigerator car which will be eilicient in operation, can be operated at a low cost, and which shall have a. comparatively low first cost. The invention has as a further object to pro ' 2 -Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8-8 " of Fig. 6. A Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic view ‘showing the entire system. Like numerals refer to` like parts throughout' the several figures. . For purposes of illustration I have shown in the drawings a, car having an outer surrounding vide a mechanical refrigerated car which is cooled by vacuum plates built into the car, and 10 wall I andan inner surrounding wall 2, these walls being separated by spaces filled with heat which are supplied by means of a refrigerating insulating material 3. The ñoor of the car is apparatus on the car operated by a suitable mo preferably provided with a series of separated tor or enginer or by connection with the car ac members 4, ywhich are-separated by spaces 5, tion. The mechanical refrigerator cars hereto 'these spaces connecting with a longitudinal pas yfore used have not been commercially successful sageway 6, which extends along under the mem because of the excessive weight, ñrst high cost bers 4 and which connects with a passageway 'l of the equipment, and the high cost and un which passes up along one end of the car-and reliability of the operation of the- refrigerating through which air passes tothe cooling device. This cooling device is enclosed in an enclosing taken up by such apparatus. 20 device which is provided with inclined upper The present invention has for itsA >object to ' vand lower v walls 8 and 9, and which connects with provide an efficient mechanical refrigerator car the vertical passageway 1. . Mounted within this which will‘be free from these objections. enclosing device are a series of cooling elements 'I'he invention has as a further object to pro vide a mechanical refrigerator car cooled by 25 which are preferably plates, each made upl of two sheets II and l2 of heat conducting material vacuum plates with an air .moving device which with a space between them in which the refrig draws the air through a space betweenthe plates erant material is located so as to cool the plates. and directs> it along the upper part of the ear These plates have smooth exterior surfaces. kI so that it will be diffused throughout the car. This air, after passing through the car, passes 30 prefer to use vacuum plates each with ya pipe I3 coiled' back and forth in the space between back again through the vacuum plates so as to the sheets, shown in detail in Figs. 6, '7 and 8. be again cooled. p » ' ' These sheets are ~ connected together with a The invention has as a further object to pro hermetically sealed connection so as to be air vide a refrigerator car provided with vacuum tight. Each sheet II is vprovided with a bent plates with an air moving device for movingthe - i over edge I4 air cooled by these plates so as to distribute it 'which has a sealed connection to throughout the car, with a refrigerant liquefying the sheet I2, and each sheet I2 has a projecting part I5l which projects outwardly from the bent g apparatus for supplying the lrefrigerant to the portion i4’ at least at two opposite ‘extremities plates consisting of a compressor, condenser and apparatus, and also the great amounimof space f receiver. The refrigerant passes to a multi expansion valve and through this Valve to theV various plates and then' back to the compressor. The invention has further- objects which are more particularly pointed out in the accompany ing description. ' - Fig. 1 is a sectional view taken on line I--I of Fig'. 2, showing one form of invention. ' Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken on _ . Fig. 3 is a sectionalv view through‘the heat exchanger located in the circuit. . Fig. 4 is a' sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 5. Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5_5 of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the stag gered line 6_6 of Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 'l--'l`A of Fig. 6. e ' although it may project outwardly all the way around the sheet. The bent-over edge III- may be hermeticallyv fastened to the sheet I2 in any desired manner, as by welding I6. Means are provided for withdrawingv air from vthe interior of the plates I0. One arrangement for this 45. purpose is shown in Fig. 8 wherein there is a _ Referring now to the drawings: line 2_2 of Fig. l. 40 plug I1 which projects through an opening in the bent-over portion I4 and which is provided with an opening extending all the way through, the opening being arranged‘in two sections, -a sec .50. tion I8 of comparatively small diameter and a section'l9 of larger diameter. 'I'here is a valve - 20 in the'section I 9. An air withdrawing device «is attached to the portion of the plug projecting from the plate and the desired amount of air 5 is withdrawn. During this process the valve 20 l' moves away from itsseat 2 I. When the with drawal‘of air ceases this valve lis moved onto its seat by the pressure of exterior air. A clos ing member 22 isthen inserted into the plug and may be sealed by welding. or soldering or in any'Qther desired manner. The plates may 2,410,449 s 3 preferably contain a suitable eu'tectic 23 so as to make them hold-over plates. This eutectic does not completely lill the plates as a space is left from which air is withdrawn and whích'permits the eutectic to expand when frozen. The with drawing of air from the space between the sheets of the plates causes the outside atmosphere to tightly press the sheets against the pipe I3 so as to secure a tight heat exchange contact be- ’ tween the- sheets II and I2 and the pipe I3. When the hold-over plate is used this eutectic is frozen and acts as a cooling agent for a con 4 exchanger is connected by a pipe 43 with a strainer 44. The strainer is connected by a pipe 45 with an expansion valve 46. A series of pipes 41 connect the expansion valve with the several plates I0, and by thismeans a more uniform temperature is secured in all of the plates. The refrigerant then passes through the coils- in these plates and passes out of the plates through the connections 48 to the common pipe or header 49. This header is connected by a pipe 50 .with the heat exchanger 42 (see Fig. 3). A pipe 5I leads from the heat exchanger back to the compressor. Connected with the pipe 5I is a tee 52 in which is located _a bulb 53. This bulb controls, that siderable time after the refrigerant material has ceased toñow through the pipe I3. The plates is, opens and closes, the expansion valve by the I0 may_be supported and» arranged inthe en 15 usual means consisting of the pipe 54. When closing device at the end of the car in any suit the refrigerant returning from the plates I0 rises able manner. These platesfmay be arranged in above a certain temperature, this bulb causes the a horizontal or vertical position and may be expansion valve to open and admit the refrig parallel to the roof of the car or inclined with ¿ erant to the coils in the plates I0, and «when 20 the temperature of this refrigerant falls below a relation thereto. - In Figs. 2, 4 and 5 I have shown one particular certain predetermined temperature, the bulb way of arranging and supporting these plates I3. In this construction the plates are shown with their fiat faces extending in a generally horizontal direction, the plates,` however, being 25 inclined with their edges nearest the end of the car lower than their edges farthest from the end of the car. There are a series of supporting causes the expansion valve to close and shut off the refrigerant from the coils in the plates l0. It will thus be seen that the temperature in the car is automatically controlled. ’ As before stated, the cooled air is preferably thrown up against the ceiling and is then de flected and distributed throughout the car. The members 24 which are provided with a series of air-moving devices may be arranged at different notchesA 25. The projecting edges I5 of the 30 angles so as to cause _the cooled air to strike the plates fit into these notches, as clearly shown ceiling of the car at different points therealong in Fig. '1. vFastening devices 26 pass through and be deflected to secure a more uniform cool the supporting devices 24 and bind them together ing throughout the car. This cooled air, after so as to hold the plates rigidly in position. K These _ absorbing heat from the articles to be cooled in fastening devices may be of any suitable form, 35 the car, passes through the spaces 5 between the and as herein shown consist of rods threaded at separated members 4 of the floor and into the their ends with nuts 21 on the threaded ends passageway 6 and the suction of the air-moving which are tightened up to bind the plates in posi devices- moves this air up through the passage way 1 and again into contact with the plates Il! tion. The supporting devices are fastened to the 40 where it is cooled and sent back into the car. One form of heat exchanger is shown in Fig. 3 fastening members 28 by means of the threaded wherein there is a casing 42 which has end pieces rods 2B and nuts 21. The fastening members 23at one end of the set of plates are fastened 5B and 51. The refrigerant passing through pipe in position by the bolts 29 and the nuts 30. Fas .4I passes througha coil 58 in the heat exchanger tening members 23 at the opposite end are se 45 and thence to the strainer. The refrigerant re cured by bolts 60 to the angle supports 6I con turning from the header 49 passes into the casing nected with the ceiling 62 of the car. Associated 55 >on the exterior of the coil 58,*and in contact with the plates I0 are one or more air-moving therewith, so that there is a transfer of heat devices 3I. These air-moving devices are placed between the refrigerant in the coil and the re in front of the plates, and instead of forcing the 50 frigerant on the exterior of the coil. air between the plates, they draw the air through The motor, compressor and condenser may be such plates. These air-moving vdevices are. actu located in any desired point. I prefer, however, ated by the motors 32, suitably mounted in posi to have them located in a casing 59 connected to tion upon the supports 33 and 34, which are at the exterior of thebottom of the car. tached to the frame 35. There is preferably a The frame 35 upon which the motor 32 and screen 36 in front of the air-moving devices 3l, lthe fan 3| are mounted is preferably hinged as through which the _air ispassed. The air is shown in Fig. 4, so that it can be moved to ex cooled by being drawn in between these several pose the motor and fan for inspection and repair. plates and in contact therewith, and is then Íf desired, the pin of the hinge may be removed forced outwardly and into contact with lthe ceil 80 so that the entire member 35, together with the ing of the car, and thus is distributed throughout motor and the fan, may be removed-to the shop the car. The fact that the plates l0 are inclined, for repair or‘replaced by a new one. ` as shown in Fig. 4, assists greatly in having this The use and »operation or my invention are as the ceiling Y air move upwardly into contact with follows. When the parts are assembled and it is of the car. Some suitable means is provided desired to cool the interior of the car, the motor for supplying the plates I0 with a suitable re is set-in operation and the refrigerant is forced frigerant and passing it through the coils I3. by the compressor 31 through the condenser 39, As herein shown, there is a refrigerating appara receiver 40, pipe 4I and through the coil 58 in the tus on the car, provided with the compressor 31, heat exchanger 42 to the strainer 44, and thence with some suitable motor for operating it, such 70 into the expansion valve 46. The refrigerant then as the motor 33, which maybe a Diesel engine. passes through the several pipes 41 from the ex Compressor 31 is connected with the condenser pension valve to the coils in the different plates 39 and the receiver 40. _ 3 . » ' I0, wherein it cools the air in contact with the A connection 4I leads from the receiver 40 to plates. The refrigerant then passes out of the 7 a heat exchanger 42 (see Fig. 9). This ,heat 2,410,449 6 pipe 48 into the header 49, and thence by pipe 50 up of two separate sheets with a space between through the casing of the heat exchanger 42 in kcontact with the coil therein, and thence by pipe 5| bacli to the compressor. This causes the plates I0 to be cooled and the air-moving devices 3| ac tuated by the motors 32 draw the air through the spaces between the plates Ill. This air is cooled by the plates and the cooled air is then directed into the interior of the car. them into which the cooling material is received, arranged in said enclosing device onev above the other, and separated'by air spaces, supporting members with which said plates are connected, fastening members to ~ which said supporting members are connected, an air-moving device in front of said .plates which draws cooled air This cooled air is distributed throughout the interior of the car 10 through the spaces between them and discharges such air into the bodyv of the car, and- a passage and absorbs heat from the material therein which way leading from said enclosing device to a posi is to be cooled, and then passes through >the tion near the bottom of the car and communi spaces 5 between the members 4 of the floor and cating with vthe space inside of the car near the is drawn up through the passageway 1 by the bottom thereof. . air-moving devices and brought into contact with 15 the plates I0 and again sent out into the interior of the car. ’ 4. A refrigerator car comprising a car body having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one end of the car and having an‘air discharge outlet I have shown one means of controlling the tem in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the perature in the car by means of the bulb 53 and center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made the expansion valve 4B. When a Diesel engine, for example, is used, the temperature may be con 20 up of two separate sheets with a space between them into which the cooling material is received, trolled by starting and stopping the Diesel engine automatically responsive Lto the temperature in arranged in said enclosing device one above the other, and separated by air spaces, one of said the interior of the car. Any of the Diesel engine sheets of each plate having `projecting edges automatic control means produced by any of the Diesel engine companies may be used for this 25 which project beyond the other- sheet, supporting members at two opposite edges of said plates pro purpose. With such a controlling device the tem vided with notches into »which‘said projecting perature controlled element is placed at a suitable edges are received and fastening devices for hold position, and when the temperature in the car ing the supporting members in place so as to hold falls below a predetermined point the engine is automatically shut olf, and when the temperature 30 said plates in their operative positions. 5. A refrigerator car comprising a car body in the car rises above a predetermined point, the engine is automatically started. It is, of course, ~ evident that' an electric motor or any other form of motor may be used. The particular type or having a ceiling, an renclosing device near one end of the car and having an air-discharge outlet in> proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the form of motor may be changed or altered to suit . 35 center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made up of two separate sheets with a space between the conditions presented. I claim: y them into which the cooling material`is received, , arranged in said enclosing device one above the other, and separated by air spaces, one of said 1. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body having a ceiling, a plurality of vacuum plates ar ranged in the interior of the car near the ceil ing and separated one from another by spacers, said vacuum plates being arranged one above theV other, and being inclined with the ends nearest the center of the car in higher horizontal planes than their other ends, means for supplying a re 40 sheets of each plate having projecting edges which project beyond the other sheet, supporting members into which said projecting edges are received and fastening devices for holding the supporting members in place so as to hold said plates in their operative positions, a plurality of air-moving devices in front of the edges 0fl said frigerant to said vacuum plates, an air-moving device in front of saidvacuum plates which draws the cooled air through the spaces between the draw air from between the plates, which has been associated with said vacuum plates, means for supplying a refrigerant to said expansion valve, them into which the cooling material is received, arranged in said enclosing device one above the uum -plates moving the cooled air through the provided with notches into which said projecting plates nearest to the interior of the car which cooled by the plates, through the spaces lbetween inclined plates and directs such cooled air to 50 the plates. wards the ceiling of the car where it is deflected 6. A refrigerator car comprising a car body and distributed throughout the car to cool the -having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one material in the car. end of the car and having an air discharge outlet 2. A refrigerator car comprising a car body 4in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the having a ceiling, a plurality of vacuum` plates ar 55 center o_f the car, a, plurality of plates, each made ranged in the interior of the car near the ceil up of two separate sheets with a space between ing and separated by spacers, an expansion valve other, and separated by air spaces, one of said a series of connections from said expansion valve 60 sheets of each plate having projecting edges to said vacuum plates, one for each plate, an air which project beyond the other sheet, supporting moving device at one end of said plurality of vac members at two Opposite edges of said plates spaces between the vacuum plate for discharge edges are received and fastening devices for hold into the interior of the car, a return pipe lead 65 ing the supporting members in place so as to hold ing from said vacuum plates to the refrigerant said plates in their operative positions, a passage source, a controlling bulb in said return pipe con way leading from said enclosing device to a posi nected with »said expansion valve for closing the tion near the ‘bottom of the car and communi expansion valve when the temperature reaches a cating with the space inside of the car near the predetermined low point. ' bottom thereof, a plurality of air-moving devices 3. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body in front of the edges of said plates nearest to the » having a ceiling; an enclosing devicev near one interior of the car which draw air from between end of the car and having an air discharge outlet the plates, which has been cooledby the plates, in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the center of the car, a plurality of plates, each madev 75 through the spaces between the plates. 7. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body 2,410,449 havingV a“ ceiling, an enclosing device near one end of the car and having an air discharge outlet ranged in a group in the interior of the car and spaced apart to define relatively restricted inter mediate spaces, means for supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, and air moving means ’center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made adapted'to move relatively warm air from'the in Ul up of two separate sheets `with a space between terior of the car to the spaces between the vacuum them into which the cooling material is received, plates and to move the cooled air from the spaces arranged in said enclosing device one above the between said vacuum plates back into the in other, and separated by‘air‘spaces, one` of said terior of the car, and a housing surrounding said .sheets of each` plate' having projecting `edges group of plates, and having an air inlet at one which project beyond the other sheet,'supporting. end and an air outlet at the other end. members at two ‘opposite - edgesl of said plates 12. A refrigerator car, comprising a car body provided with notches into which said projecting having a ceiling, walls and floor, and a cooling edges are received andfastening devices for hold unit having an air discharge outlet adjacent said ing the supporting members in place soas to hold in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the said plates in their'operative positions, a passage way leading from said enclosing device to a posi >tion vnear the bottom of the car` and communi eating with the space vinside of the car near the ceiling, including a plurality of generally plane faced vacuum plates arranged in a group in the interior of the car and spaced apart to define relatively restricted intermediate spaces, means for supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, p ^ bottom thereof, a plurality of >air-moving devices infront of the edges of said> plates nearest to the 20 and air moving means adapted to move air from a lower level'within the car body to the spaces interior of the car which draw air from between the plates which has been cooled by the plates, p between said vacuum plates and adapted to move the cooled-air from these‘ spaces between said through the spaces between the plates, said plates vacuum plates to an vupper portion of the car being inclined so that the edgesthereof nearest .the air-,movingdevices are higher than the oppo 25 body. ' > ' ` 13. A refrigerator car, comprising a car body, site edges,‘so that the air moved'between the plates by the air-moving devices will be directed having a ceiling, side and end walls and floor, against the ceiling of the car and deflected there and a cooling means therefor, including an air ~ directing housing located adjacent the junction from so as to be distributed throughout the car. 8. A refrigerator carcomprising a car body 30 of an end wall and the ceiling, duct means ex tending from a lower part of the car to said air having a’ceiling, an enclosing device -near one directing housing, a plurality'of generally smooth end of the car and havingv an air discharge yout faced vacuum plates arranged in parallel in said let in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward housing and spacedßapart to define relatively re the center of the car, >a plurality of plates, each made up of two separate sheets with a space be 35 stricted intermediate spaces, means for supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, and airI mov tween them into which> the cooling materialfis ing means adapted to move air upwardly‘through received, arranged in said enclosing device one said duct means and outwardly through the `above the other, and separatedby air spaces, a spaces between said vacuum plates and into the ` Asource of refrigerant supply, a connection there , ' `from to said plates, a v‘return connection from 40 interior of the car. , 14. A refrigerator car comprising a car_ body vthe plates back toì'the refrigerant supply, a heat having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one end Vexchanger through which both of said connec tions lead. ‘of the car and inproximity tothe ceiling, open » at the end nearest the center of the car, a plu 9. A refrigerator> car, comprising a car body having a ceiling and walls', and a cooling unit 45 rality of plates, each made up of two separate outwardly smooth sheets with a space between having an> air discharge outlet adjacent said ceil them into which cooling material is received, ar ing including aplurality of generally plane faced ranged in said enclosing device one above the vacuum plates arranged in a group in the space other and separated by relatively restricted air for the lading and spaced apart to denne rela tively restricted intermediate spaces, means for 50 spaces, a source of refrigerant supply, a connec tion therefrom to said plates, a return connection supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, from the plates back to the refrigerant supply, and air moving means adapted toA move relatively and means for moving air through the spaces warm air from the interior of the car to the between said plates'and outwardly into the car. spaces betweenV the vacuum plates and to move the cooled air from the spaces between said 55 15. In combination, in a lcooling unit for re frigerator cars, an air directing housing having vacuum plates back into the interior of the car. an inlet at one end and an outlet at the-other, 10. A refrigerator car, comprisinga car body an air inlet duct associated with the inlet end having a ceiling and walls, and a cooling unit of the housing, said duct itself having an inlet in vhaving an air discharge outlet adjacent said ceil ing including a plurality of generally plane faced 60 communication with the interior of the car, a pluralityol' vacuum plates in said'housing, each vacuum plates arranged ina group in the space of said plates having a smooth plane unrestricted for the lading and; spaced apart to define rela `i’ace at Aeach side thereof, said plates being ar tively-restricted intermediate spaces, means for rangedfin parallel planes, and adjacent each. supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, and air moving means adapted to move relatively 65 other, with their ends generally aligned, and be ing separated by relatively restricted air spaces, warm airv from the ’interior of the car to the spaces a source of refrigerant supply, a connection there 'between the vacuum plates and to move the cooled air from the spaces between said vacuum plates back into‘theinterior of the car, the op from to said plates, a return connection from the plates back to the refrigerant supply, and means parallel, and freefrom'projections, ing, through the spaces between said plates and outwardly into the car through thev outlet end posed faces of adjacent plates being Vgenerally 70 for moving air throughl said duct, into said hous ' -11.»_A refrigerator car, comprising a car body having aceiling and walls, anda'cooling unit mounted adjacent said ceiling,y including a plu rality of generally plane faced vacuum plates ar of 75 said'housing. ' v ' _ k ' ' HERMAN W. KLEIST.