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Nom?a 1946.
H. J. DEN. Mc-coLLuM ‘
2,410,548
HEATING APPARATUS
Filed July 6, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Index/Ear’
#f?elI/j/C @Zlaem
Nov. 5, 194%;
H_ J_ 55 N, MCCQLLUM
2,410,548
HEATING APPARATUS
Filed July 6, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 5, 1946.
H. J,,DE N. MccoLLuM
2,410,548
HEATING APPARATUS
Filged July 5, 1942
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‘v invention relates generally to liestirig~ sip»
psrstus, sud. more particulerly to improvements
in hesters of the internal combustion type for
use in heating aircraft, buses, trucks, and the
like.
I In some instances, the pipe it may lead to the
- cabin‘ of an airplane which is to he superchsrged,
Q 'inywhich event the blower 85 may be the cabin '
taupercliusrser.v The exhaust gases from the heater
' are conducted from the casing is through a con
It‘ is an object. oi’ my invention to provide an
improved form of heater for securing emcient
combustion of a.
use of liquid fuel curl air,
and securing emcieut trensier oi best to the sir
to he hesteal.
(luit is, which leads to a vent opening ii in the
external well cf'the airplane cabin or wing, pref;
ersloly st e. point at which a, partial Vacuum is
present when the aircraft is in ?ight.
ill
-
A further object of my invention is to prcvicle
an improved form of heating epp'crstus which
is compact, is of simple construction, curl may
be economically manufactured.
‘ Other objects will appear from the following
The blower 531i mew be driven by as suitable
motor es, which may else he used to drive the
centrifugal blower
or separate striving motors
msy he ueecl. ‘in some lustslletlocs, the blower
as euel pump 3% may he drives from the engine of
description, reference being heel to the ecccm»
the sir-craft, end in other lustslletiohs, the com
bustilcle mixture msy he drawn i‘rcm the engine
pausing drawings, in which:
supercherser, to avoid the necessity of peovlriing
,
his. 1 ice diesrex‘umstic view illustrating the
heating eppez'stus installed upon sin eirpleiie;
the carburetor
‘still blower Elli. ll’rirler other
conditions, it single blower mey he used to supply
Fig. 2 is s4 central verticsl sectional View so sir under pressure to the carburetor es well
for forcing the sir to be heated through the heat
through c portion of the hcster;
v.
Fig. 3 is e hcrizoutsl sectional View tehen on
the line él-—~ll of Fig. 2;
Fig.
on the
,
is e, fragmentary sections! view taken
51-41 of Fig. 2; '
‘
5 is s central vertical sectional view oi‘ e
modi?es". term. of the heater; and,
.
his. 6 .isc licriscntel sectional View tslseii on
the line 63%»6 cf Fig. c.
‘
he lhustrcted in Fig. l, the heating epceectus
is shcwu instslled upon an aircraft.
The heel;
exchanger end combustion chamber ere euclcsetl
in e. casing till, the combustible mlzmure heme
supplies‘; to the combustion chember from s. csrm
exchcneer.
.
As best shcsm i'u
2, the casing 526 is formed
‘in two halves {it}, ill. which ere preferably of
irlehticzsl slices curl have their externsl ?anges
ill} secured tcecther by hclts Ell. Within the ces
ihe'??ll is lee-steel. sccmhueticn chamber and heat
exchanger ease-cuticle comprising e combustion
chamber
icrmirig e combustion chem
lier
The wells cf the chamber @5 are pro
viclecl with cuiiesheeecl liners
curl
prel
ershly mettle of rei‘sectcry ceramic material, the
upper liner
having peri’oreticsie
formed in
the crliuclrlcel well thereof.
buretcr
the jet of which is'ccmiecteti tc ‘s
float bowl tenls 213, the pressure in'which is mainteineci shove stmcspheric by the vclccity oi’ the
The lutluctieh tube
eiztemls intc c suitable
opening ice-meal in the hcttcrh of the casting
.ericl through
liner
heirs; clumped is. pcsi
air entering an ori?ce 2c‘ in 9, tube 253. This orifice
than by sleeve nut
The end of the induc
is so lccsted that the pressure within the fleet
tiers tu'ce
within the ccmhosticsi chamber lies
howl chamber 26 is meiuteiiiec suilicieritly We“ (ill its licre enlarged to receive as cuspwshsperl mix=
to assure ?ow oi‘ the liquid fuel from thc‘iioct
ture spresclcr
the wells oi‘ the curl of this tube
howl chamber 2% to the csrliuretcr 22 through c.
being pierced
fcrei ports
for the discharge
tube 8%? and to cause the "fuel tc he etcmisccl cs
of ccmbustihle mixture from the induction. tube
it is clischsrged from the ori?ce 8i loceteu st
‘32 into the cembusticn chamber. These ports ‘(is
I the upper eml of the pipe 3h
the thrcst is ere preferably shspeel to secure generally ten
oi‘ the Venturi=shupecl passe-sewer through the
semi-lei discharge of the mixture into the combus=
carburetor. Fuel is supplied to the host howl
ticzci chemise? so that the mixture will flow
tank 243 through c conduit 33 from shy suitable
through this chamber in turbulent generally
source. The fuel is preferably sesoline, but may
be shy other suitable hydrccsshou fuel.
Flew through the carburetor Ell is induced by .
is positive displacement pump or “slower ill, the
helical
,
Rleirlly seclli‘ed to the end of the induction tulle
as by welding. is s rclgiiiter @143, which is more
fully disclosed in my cmsemiliig/ application Serial
No. éililllill, ?led September 8, llllil.
and the outlet of- which is connected to'sri elbow
An ignites plug till is threaded into the com.
shspezl inéuction tube 53% The air in be hectecl 55 hustion chamber casting 52
extends partially
is forced through the heater cesing it by a
into stable opening“ formed in the liner es,
centrifugal blower St, the outlet conduit it of
this plus inclurlihs' c resistance wire isniter it,
which is connected to the casing l?. The casing
one eml of which is cohnectecl to the plus and.
25 is connected by a, suitable pipe 38 with the
theéi other end suitably insulated from the plus
space to which the heeteu air is to be supplied. so cu m: the e, wire “it to one teinel of e. __
inlet of which is connected to the carburetor ‘£2 -
2,410,548
'
source of energizing current, the other terminal
of the source'being grounded to the combustion
chamber casting 52.
4
rapidly transferred from the ?ns 80 to the air to‘
_ rbe heated.
.
_
The heater assembly may be economically
manufactured since most of the parts thereof
-
Rigidly secured to the combustion chamber
may be inexpensive castings or stampings which
casting 52 is a heat exchanger assembly compris
are easily assembled.
ing a pair of generally circular plates ‘I2 and ‘I4,
which are suitably rabbeted at their opposed
In the modi?cation of the invention shown in‘
Figs. 5 and 6, the casing 20 is of generally the
peripheral edges to receive a closure ring 10.
same conformation as that shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
The plates ‘I2_and ‘I4 are suitably secured to the
ring ‘I6 as by screws ‘I5. Spaced radially inward 10 and the parts are adapted to be used in conjunc
from the ring‘Ili is a, perforated ring ‘I8, which
tion with any suitable fuel and air supply means,
such as shown in Fig. 1. In the construction of
?ts in‘ suitable circular channels or grooves
vformed in the opposed surfaces of the plates ‘l2
Figs. 5 and 6, the combustion chamber liner 90
may be made of one piece open at its top. The
and ‘I4. The space v‘between the liner 58 and the
perforated ring ‘I8 is preferably filled‘ with a 15 heat exchanger includes a pair of castings 92, 94,
‘crushed refractory ceramic material 11.
each of which has internal ribs 90 and external
ribs 98 formed integrally therewith. The castings
The plates 72 and ‘I4 are preferably castings 7
having radial ?ns 80 formed integrally therewith
and which project outwardly so as to have their
are secured together by suitable bolts 99 and are
conformed along their peripheries to provide one
edges closely adjacent the casing halves“ and 20 wall, of, a passageway I00 of generally semi
41. It will be noted that the exhaust conduit 40
circular cross-section. ‘A circular perforated
is secured in the ring ‘I6 and extends through the
band I02, which is suitably secured in position
casing 20. The annular space ‘I9 between the ' by clamping the castings 92 and 94 together,
rings ‘I0 and ‘I8 constitutes a passageway for the
forms the otherwall of the passageway I00.
?ow of gases of combustion to the exhaust pipe 40. 25
Within the chamber formed by the ring I02
In operation, the fuel mixture supplied by the
is a vibration-damping structure comprising a
carburetor 22 is forced under pressure by the
pair of similar metal stampings I04, I05, which
blower 34 into the combustion chamber SI
are secured together by having their inner and .~
through the induction tube 32, where,‘ at the
outer ?anges welded together, these stampings
starting of operation of the heater, it is ignited 30. thus forming an annular space, which is sub
by the igniter 68. It will be noted that the ports
stantially ?lled with a suitable sound- and vibra
92 are located just above the bottom of. the liner
tion-damping ?lling I08. This filler may consist
56, so that during starting, any unvaporized fuel
of a metallic wool; such as stainless'steel wool,
will tend to collect around the ports 62, where
or other suitable similar material, such as glass
the incoming mixture of fuel and air will tend as wool. The stampings I04, I05, are perforated to
to pick up droplets of fuel and thus enrich the
provide a large number of small ports providing
incoming mixture to make it more easily ignite.
restricted communication between the metallic
ble. After the mixture in the combustion cham
wool ?lled space and the spaces between the
ber has been ignited, the igniter is deenergized
?ns 96.
by suitable well known thermostatic control 40
As previously described, the heater is rendered
operative by causing the ?ow of combustible mix
means, and thereafter, the heater will operate
continuously without further attention.
ture to the combustion chamber and igniting the
'mixture in this chamber by, electrically energiz
While operating, the reigniter 64 becomes
heated to a temperature su?lciently high to re
ing the igniter 68. The ignited mixture flows
ignite the fuel mixture should the ?ame become 7 from the combustion chamber through ports 9|
accidentally extinguished.
The gases of com
formed in the ceramic liner 90 and from thence
between the radial fins 96 and through the ports
in the band I02 to the annular passageway I00.
bustion ?ow outwardly through the perforations
59 in the inverted cup-shaped liner 58, pass _
through the crushed ceramic ?ller ‘I1, and thence I The air is exhausted from the passageway I00
through the ports in the-ring ‘I8 and passageway 50 through a suitably connected exhaust pipe 40,
which projects through and may be welded to
‘I9 to the exhaust pipe 40.
_
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The space within the ring ‘I8, which is ?lled . the casting 94.
By virtue of the fact that the heat exchanger
‘with the ceramic material ‘I'I, acts as a muiiler to
is made of simple perforatedstampings and .a
retard-the generation of oscilations and noise.
This ceramic material becomes incandescent dur 55 pair of- castings which include both internal and
external ?ns, the parts may be easily and quickly
ing normal operation and serves as an emcient
assembled and the cost of manufacture thus
means to radiate heat to the plates ‘I2 and ‘I4
reduced to a very moderate value.
and to distribute the heat to the ?owing gases,
The heater is very compact and by virtue of its
, insuring combustion of any fuel which is not
completely consumed in the combustion chamber. 60 shape may be utilized e?iciently in aircraft where
space and weight limitations are frequently con
The heat from plates ‘I2 and ‘I6 is rapidly ‘con
trolling.
,
ducted to the ?ns 80 and thence transferred to
While I have shown and described particular
the air to be heated which is forced to ?ow past
' embodiments of my invention, it will be apparent
the ?ns by the blower 35. The heat exchanger,
formed mainly by the plates ‘I2 and ‘I4 and the ?ns 65 to those‘ skilled in the art, that numerous modi
?cations and variations may be made ‘therein
80, constitutes a very emcient means for trans
ferring the heat from the gases of combustion
to the air. The ?ow of the products of combus-v
tion of the heat exchanger is suiliciently slow
that su?icient time is'available for the transfer 70
to the plates ‘I2, ‘ll, of the main portion of heat
content of the gases of combustion. The ?ow
of air- past the ?ns 80 is relatively rapid, espe
cially at the‘ inlet portion of the casing 20 as well
without departing from the underlying principles
of the invention. I therefore desire, by the ‘fol
lowing claims, to include within the scope of
my invention all such modi?cations and vari
ations by which substantially the results thereof
' may be‘ obtained by the use of the same or sub
stantially the same means.
as at the outlet portion thereof, so that the heat is 75
'I claim:
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_ -
1. A heater of the internal combustion type
armors -
6
57
comprising, a central combustion chamber form-. ’
ing means, a heat‘exchanger of generally flat
disc-like shape surrounding said combustion
chamber, said heat exchanger having a pair of
disc-like plates with external and internal sen»
erally radial ?ns formed integrally therewith,‘
means for securing said plates together, and
means held between the internal ?ns of said
comprising two platesv extending outwardly in
vertically spaced relation to each other, the wall
of the combustion chamber having a series of
openings therethrough leading into said second
chamber for the escape of the‘combustion gases,
acoustic vibration. damping means loosely ?lling
the greater portion of said second chamber, and
means in heat exchange relationship with said
plates to form acoustic vibration damping means; .
second chamber for leading air to be heated out
form acoustic vibration damping means, and
prising two plates extending outwardly in verti-.
wardly and upwardly and then inwardly along
2. A heater of the internal combustion type
the walls of said second chamber.
1
comprising, a central combustion chamber form
'7. A heater of the internal combustion t
ing means, a heat exchanger of generally ?at
comprising in combination, means providing a
disc-like shape surrounding ‘said combustion
combustion chamber, means for supplying a corn
chamber, said heat exchanger having a pair of
disc-like plates with external and internal gener l6 bustible mixture of fuel and air to said chamber,
ally radial flns formed integrally therewith, ' means for igniting the mixture in said chamber,‘
means forming a second chamber about the up
means for’ securing said plates together, means
per portion of said combustion chamber and com
held between the internal fins of said plates to
means for circulating air to ‘be heated past said 20 cally spaced relation to each other, the wall of
the combustion chamber having a series of open~
external fins.
3. A heater of the internal combustion type ‘ ings therethrough leading into said second cham
ber for the escape of the combustion gases, a per
comprising, a central combustion chamber form
forated wall section in the form of a ring. divid
ing means, a heat exchanger of generally ?at
ing on’ the inner portion of said second chamber
disc-like shape surrounding said combustion
from the outer portion ‘thereof, acoustic vibration
chamber, said heat exchanger having a pair of
damping means loosely ?lling the inner portion.
disc-like plates with external and internal gen
of said second chamber-,an exhaust duct opening
erally radial fins formed integrally therewith,
from the outerportion of said second chamber,
‘means for securing said plates together, means
held between the internal ?ns of said plates to 30 and means comprising a heat exchanger for lead
ing air to be heated outwardly and upwardly and
form an acoustic vibration damping means, said
damping means comprising a pair ‘of perforated
then inwardly along the yvalls of said second
annular members forming a space between them
and a filler oil acoustic damping material within
chamben.
said space.
_
ii. In a heating apparatus, the combination of
means forming a combustion chamber, means
for supplying a‘ combustible mixture of a liquid
loci and air to said combustion chamber, said
means having ports opening into said combus
tion chamber near the bottom thereof, a heat
exchanger of generally flat shape secured to said
combustion chamber and surrounding a portion.
'
8. A heater of the internal combustion type
comprising in combination means providing a
combustion chamber, means for supplying a com;
bustible mixture oi‘ fuel and air to said chamber,
means for igniting the mixture in said chamber,
means forming a second chamber about the up
‘ per portion oi’ said combustion chamber and com
prising two plates extending outwardly in verti
cally spaced relation to each other, the wall of
the combustion chamber having a series of open-r
of the latter, said heat exchanger comprising a
ings therethrough leading into said second sham.
fins and having a peripheral exhaust passageway,
combustion chamber for the escape of the comm
bustion gases from the combustion chamber,
acoustic vibration damping means loosely ?lling
the greater portion of said second chamber, an
exhaust duct communicating with said second
'chamber', and means in heat exchange relation
ship with said second chamber and comprising
radially positioned fins for leading air to be heat
ed outwardly and upwardly and then inwardly
along the walls of said second chamber.
9. A heater of theinternal combustion type
pair of plates secured together, having external , her and constituting the only outlet from the
and a ?ller in at least a part of the space between
said plates formed of a heat retaining material
in a sufficiently ?nely divided state to act as an
acoustic damping means to inhibit oscillatory7
combustion.
.
5. pin a heater having means forming a gener
ally vertical combustion chamber having an inlet
opening in the bottom thereof, an annular hori»
rental heat exchanger surrounding the upper
portion of the combustion chamber and having a
compartment communicating therewith, an
comprising in combination means providing a
combustion chamber, means for supplying a com
bustible mixture of fuel and air-to said chamber,»
portion of the space within said compartment,
means to supply a combustible mixture of fuel 60 means for igniting the mixture in said chamber,
means forming a second chamber about the up
and air to said inlet opening, means to convey
per portion of said combustion chamber and com
the products of combustion from said compart
prisingtwo plates extending outwardly in verti- _.
ment. a casing spaced from and surrounding said
cally spaced relation to each other, the wall of
heat exchanger, said casing having opposed axial
the combustion chamber having a series of open
inlet and outlet openings, and means causing
acoustic damping means occupying a substantial
flow of air to be heated into said casing through
said inlet around said heat exchanger and from
ings therethrough leading into said second cham
said outlet.
6. A heater of the internal ,combustion type
tic vibration damping means ?lling a portion of
comprising in combination means providing a w
combustion chamber, means for supplying a com“ .
her for the escape of the combustion gases, acous
said second chamber. and means in heat ex- '
change relationship with said second chamber for ,
leading air to be heated outwardly and upwardly
bustible mixture of fuel and air to said ‘chamber,
' and then inwardly along the walls of said second
means for igniting the mixture in said chamber,
means forming a second chamber about the up
per portion of said combustion chamber ‘and
. chamber.
HENRY J. DE N. MCCQILUM;
y
7
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,410,548.
‘
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.November 5, 1946.
. HENRY J. DE N. McCOLLUM, DECEASED
It is hereby certi?ed that the above numbered patent was erroneously issued to
“Thelma McOollum, Executrix of said Henry J. De N. McCollum, deceased” whereas
said patent should have been issued to‘ “Stewart-Warner Corporation, of Chicago,
Illinois, a corporatzon of Virginia, as assignee of‘ the entire interest therein, as shown
by the record of assignments in this Oi?ce; and that the said Letters ‘Patent should be
read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in
the Patent O?ice.
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Signed and sealed this28th day of January, A. D. 1947.
[am]
LESLIE
FRAZER.
First Assistant Gomnnisdoner of Patents.
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