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Nov. 5, 1945.;
J. B. BROCKHURST
' 2,410,565
' ENGINE
Filed Jan. 26, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
‘2,410,565
Enema
Jes B. Brockhurst, Red, 3 i 1.‘,
Application January 26, 1943, Serial No. 473,605
8 Claims. (Ci. 60-11)
This invention relates to internal combustion
piston and the inner surface of the cylinder ex
engines and my improvement is directed partlcu-. _
tending from the piston chamber to the cylinder
chamber.
Other features and advantages of my invention
larly to the provision of means whereby the piston
power stroke, besides communicating an impulse
axally to the crank-shaft through expansion of
the compressed gaseous charge, at the same time
also communicates further power impulse to the
crank-shaft by turbine-like means that rotates
the piston during its axial stroke, and gear means
intermediate the piston and crank-shaft.
The power of an internal combustion engine
may be increased in the above indicated manner
in relation- to the cylinder displacement, fuel con
sumption, unit of weight and front area of the
engine, in an engine of given size and weight.
Accordingly, the piston may be divided into
two superimposed halves, the top half being
\ adapted to rotate upon its vertical axis and drive
_
will hereinafter appear.
_
r
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a front sectional view of a cylinder
with its piston and master connecting rod as part 7
of a nine cylinder, air cooled engine.
Fig. 2 is a side sectional view of the same.
10
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 1A is a front sectional view of a liquid
cooled cylinder including a modi?ed form of
piston capable of both rotary and axial movement,
15 the piston in this view being at the end of its ex
pansion stroke.
'
Fig. 2A is a side sectional view of the cylinder
of Fig. 1A, with the piston at the end of its com
pression stroke.
a connecting-rod geared to the crank-pin, where
Fig. 3A is a section on the line 3A—3A of Fig.
by power is delivered to the crank-pin through a 20
gear or perpetual lever having full leverage value
2A, and
‘
,
Fig. 4A is a detail side view showing one half
throughout the entire 180° of the power stroke
of the ?xed sleeve that ensheathes the connect
to turn the simple lever of the crank-throw and
ing-rod.
compound the leverage for turning the crank
shaft, and a bottom half of the piston adapted 25 In Figures 1 to 3 let i indicate a cylinder form
ing part of a nine-cylinder air-cooled engine, only
toreceive the top end of a tubular connecting
parts 'of certain remaining cylinders being illus
rod adapted for driving the crank-shaft through
trated in Fig. 1. The piston for said cylinder
a simple lever of the crank-throw in the usual‘
manner and for housing the inner rotating con
is shown to be in two parts, whereof the lower
30 part is indicated by the numeral 2 and its upper
The top end of the tubular connecting-rod is
part by the numeral 8, said upper part carrying
necting-rod.
'
-
U-shaped to provide oppositely disposed wrist
pin arms adapted for pivotal engagement with
the bottom half of the piston and for the further
accommodation of a universal joint carried by
the rotating inner connecting-rod to provide con
centric pivotal movement with respect \to the top
‘ piston rings 3a.
‘
The lower piston part 2 is adapted to be recip
rocated in the cylinder in the usual manner, and
is provided with bearings t in which wrist-pin
arms 6 are able to rock, said arms being carried
by a U-shaped portion 6 from which a tubular
‘
connecting-rod 1 extends, said rod being enlarged
The cylindrical face of the top \half of‘ the
at its lower portion 8 for a purpose to be described
piston is ?uted tangentially around the entire 40 hereinafter and at said lower portion forming a
bearing for the crank-pin 9.
circumference to provide vanes at the said face
The terms upper and lower piston parts are
and the ?utings extend obliquely downward from
the top edge to substantially midway of the upper
used here only to conveniently describe these
piston part to an annular opening communicat
elements as they appear in the drawings of the
ing with an interior chamber adapted in cubic 45 fully illustrated cylinder forming part of the com
plete engine.
,
'
area to accommodate the entire volume of engine
charge when such charge is compressed within
The upper piston part 3, which is separate
the said chamber. When the piston is placed in ' from the lower part 2, as at x and is adapted to
position in the cylinder the said ?utings provide
rotate, is hollow to provide a chamber i0 and is
passageways between the outer surface of the 50 divided by an annular gap or slot ii, the divi-_
end of the said two connecting rods.
, 2,410,665
sional units being connected as by a screw stud ' _
ii that is threaded into centrally disposed con
centric webs I: in the respective units'the con
nection being integrated by means of welding ma
terial ll placed on top of stud l2 within the upper 5
web II to weld said stud and webs together.
.
Stud I! at its lower end is secured to a yoke it
that forms part of a universal joint, with which
is engaged thehpper end of a connecting-rod Is
that is housed within the tubular connecting
rod 1.
.
Connecting-rod I3 is provided at its lower end
with a‘ bevel gear I‘! that meshes with a bevel
gear II on a shaft I 9 which carries at one end
a pinion 20 that meshes with a gear 2| carried
by the crank-pin 9. The gears ii and is are
housed within the hollow portion 8 of tubular
connectingsrod 7.
.
chamber 29 from the skirt as, which latter carries
the piston rings 85. The upper piston portion
is reinforced by a central web 85 that extends
between and connects head 30 and base 32.
Chamber”, becomes ?lled with air during the '
piston compression stroke through ?utes 38 in
the piston periphery, as in the structure of Figs. '
_- 1' and 2, which air becomes compressed during
the piston compression stroke, and an ori?ce 31
10 in the'cylinder wall, in alignment with a circum
ferential slot 38 in the piston wall at the point
of maximum compression, permits the injection
of liquid fuel for ignition and expansion of the
charge.
-
The resulting forces of expansion combine to
rotate the piston and drive it axially.
'
A fundamental diiference between this form
of my invention and that shown in Figs. 1 to 3 .
Obviously rotation of upper piston portion 3
is that here the piston is in a single piece and it
will be communicated, through connecting-rod 20 has a single connecting-rod 39 that extends be
ll, bevel gears I‘! and I8, pinion 20 and gear 2|
tween a universal joint 40 carried by base 32 and
to the crank-shaft 22 through crank-pint.
,
a bevel gear 4|, which latter is in mesh with a
bevel gear d2 that is formed on the crank-pin
d3, by which means both the rotating and the
mospheric air into the cylinder chamber Illa, 25 reciprocating movements of the piston are com
compressingsaid charge into chamber id, in
municated to the crank-shaft.
Jecting fuel into the charge as through-an ori?ce
A sleeve \$41, that is made in two parts, en
23 in the cylinder wall when aligned with, slot
sheathes connecting-rod 39, said two parts being
ii at the point of maximum compression, and
united as by bolts d5, the cupfshaped upper part
then by impingement oi the expanded charge 80 d6 of said sleeve containing stepped bearing ma
upon angular vanes or ?utes 24 formed in the terial d‘! for co-operation with the correspond
outer peripheral wall of the upper divisional unit
ingly stepped formation of said connecting-rod
01’ piston part 3,. It was of course through these
at its upper portion. The connecting-rod, at its
?utes 24 that atmospheric air had entered cham
lower end is provided with a two-part, connected
ber w vduring the compression stroke after pass 35 shell 48 that revolubly embraces the crank-pin,
ing through the single valve 25 in its valve-open '
said sleeve serving as a guide for the connecting
position (see Fig. 2), into the cylinder during ‘
the down or suction stroke of the piston.
While I have herein described and illustrated
The air is so greatly compressed into the piston
my invention of combined rotating and recipro
“chamber by the piston moving upwardly in the 40 cating piston in its application to an internal
cylinder that it reaches a temperature of 1000°
combustion engine, it may obviously be equally
F. Just before the piston reachesgupper dead
well employed in the operationv of a steam
centre fuel oil is sprayed into the piston cham
en'gine.
.
ber i0 and spontaneously ignited. Power of this
Variations within the spirit and scope of my
Power to rotate the upper piston part 3 is pro
vided by means for introducing a charge of at
rod.
.
7
explosion is passed to the crank-shaft in the. - invention are equally comprehended by the fore
following three ways, substantially simultane
ously:
\
going disclosure.
°
I claim:
1. In an engine, a cylinder, a piston having an
I from the piston chamber into the cylinder im
internal chamber of ?xed cubical capacity and
pinging upon the. oblique vanes. of the piston to 50 a crank shaft, means for the introduction of a
rotate the same upon its vertical axis.
power medium into said internal chamber, means
2. Through the reactive force exerted down
whereby expansive power introduced within said
ward at the periphery of the piston by it's recoil '
chamber operates directly to both project and
in starting the expanded charge moving through
rotate said piston, and respective means for si
the ?utes upward at high velocity to rotate the
multaneously applying both the projecting and
piston upon its vertical axis.
rotating piston movements to the rotation of the
~ 3. Through a charge of high compression in
crank shaft.
the cylinder projecting the piston outwardly in
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
the usual well-known manner of a simple recipro
der,
a piston having an internal chamber of ?xed
cating engine.
' 7
60 cubical capacity and a crank shaft, separate
As more heat units of a given displacement
‘1. Through a charge of high velocity escaping
means for'the introduction of power media into
said internal chamber, means whereby expansive
gine of the present type than in a simple engine,
power generated within said chamber operates
the products of combustion are necessarily cooler
directly to both project and rotate said piston,
and less expansive when exhausted into the at 65 and respective means for simultaneously apply
mosphere and therefore an engine of the former
- ing both the projecting and rotating piston move
type is much quieter than an engine of the latter
ments to the rotation of the crank shaft.
, .
type, which is desirable .in war time aviation.
3.
In
an
internal
combustion
engine;
a
cylinder,
Now referring to the form of my invention il
and exhaust means for said cylinder. a pis
lustrated in Figures 1A to 4A the cylinder 26 is 70 inlet
ton and a crank shaft, said piston provided with
shown as jacketed at 21 and provided with the
an interior chamber, and angular ?utes, forming
single valve 28. The piston in this form is in
vanes
which provide intermediate passageways
one piece, having an upper portion that com
around the piston, said passageways connecting
prises a chamber 29, bounded by the piston head
the cylinder space above the piston with said his
' 1|, wall 3| and base“, said base separating 76
are converted into mechanical energy in an en-_
ton chamber and serving to admit air into said
2,410,505
,
chamber during the compression stroke, means
.
the cylinder wall before the end of the compres
sion stroke and helical vanes on the upper part
of saidpiston providing intermediate passage?
ways connecting the cylinder space above the pis
ton with. said piston chamber, whereby combus
for injecting fuel into said chamber whereby .
_ combustion and expansion of the products of
combustion, acting on the vanes, serve to rotate
said‘ piston, a connecting rod and gear means
between the piston and crank shaft co-acting with
tion and expansion of the resulting products of '
the piston in its reciprocating and rotating move
combustion. acting on the vanes, serve to rotate
ments to rotate the crank shaft.
said piston, a connecting rod and gear means
4. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
between the piston and crank shaft coacting with
inlet and exhaust means for said cylinder, a pis 10 the piston in its reciprocating and rotating move
ton and a crank shaft, said piston provided with
ments to rotate the crank shaft.
an interior chamber, and angular ?utes, forming
7._ In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
inlet and‘ exhaust meansfor said cylinder, a crank
vanes which provide intermediate passageways,
around the piston, said passageways connecting
shaft, a piston provided with an interior cham- '
the cylinder space above the piston with said pis 15 ber, and means for admitting fuel and air into
. ton chamber and serving to admit air into said
said interior chamber during the compression
chamber during the compression stroke, means for
stroke including means for-injecting fuel through
injecting fuel into said chamber whereby com
the cylinder wall before the end of the compres
bustion and. expansion of the products of com;
sion stroke and helical vanes on the upper part
bustion, acting on the vanes, serve to rotatesaid 20 of said‘ piston providing intermediate. passage
‘piston, a connecting rod, a crank pin, and gear
means respectively‘ on said connecting rodv and
ways connecting the cylinder space‘above the pis
tan with said piston chamber, whereby combus
crank pin whereby the combined rotative and
axial movements of said piston are communicated
’ to said crank shaft.
'
5; In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
inlet and exhaust means for said cylinder, a pis
tion and expansion of the resulting ‘products of
combustion, acting on the vanes,- serve to rotate ’ v'
25
said piston, a connecting rod and gear means be
tween the piston and crank shaft coacting with
the piston in its reciprocating and rotating move
ton, a crank shaft, a crank pin therefor, said pis» 3 'ments to rotate the crank shaft, and a guide
ton provided with an interior chamber, and an-»
sleeve embracing said connecting rod, said sleeve
gular ?utes, forming vanes which provide inter 80 having a shell that revolubly embraces said crank
m?diate' passageways around said piston, said
pin.
passageways connecting the cylinder space above
I the piston with said piston chamber and serving
-
8. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
an air inlet and exhaust gas means for said cylin-l
der, a crank shaft, a piston provided with an in
.terior chamber, means for forming a hydrocar
l to admit air into said chamber during the com
pression stroke, means for injecting fuelinto said
‘ chamber whereby combustion and expansion of
bon charge in said ‘chamber during the compres
the products of combustion, acting on the vanes,
sion stroke including helical vanes providing in
serve to rotate saidpiston, a connecting rod and
gear means between the piston and crank shaft
termediate passageways connecting the cylinder
space above the piston with the piston chamber,
co-acting with the piston in its reciprocating'and 40 whereby combustion and expansion of the prod
rotating movements to rotate the crank shaft, ucts of combustion during the working stroke,
and a guide sleeve embracing said connecting _ acting on the vanes, serve to rotate said piston,
rod, said sleeve having a shell that revolubly em
and means actuated by the piston in its recip
braces said crank pin.
I
rocating and rotating movements to rotate the
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
inlet and exhaust means for said cylinder, a crank
shaft, a piston provided with an interior chain-e
her, and means for admitting fuel and air into
said interior chamber during the compression
stroke including means foriniecting fuelthrough
45
crank shaft including a connecting rod and gear
means between the piston and’ the crank shaft
acting together on the crank shaft to rotate the
same.
.
JARES B.'BROC
“

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