Nov. 5, 1946. F. A. WATSON ‘ ,410,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23, 1943 7l Sheets-Sheet 1 I | _T Iwan/¿0T WMA/Awww. NGV- 5» 1946- F. A. WATSON 2,4%,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 5, 1946. F. A. wA'rsoN 2,4l0,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23, 1945 QW '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Nov. 5,1946. F. A. wATsoN 2,410,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 I l _Merval-07" @an/f A- Wan/:S 0 I@ . ¿y / %„ y /?af’ _ NQ“ 5» i946. È ma. F. A. WATSON AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 25, 1943 '7 Sheets-Shea?. 5 l | l l I l I F. A. WATSON ' ,N557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 Nw., 5, EM., F. A. WATSON 2,4È0,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Filed Aug. 23. 1945 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 M u; Elan” A. www@ Patented Nov. 5, 1946 2,410,557 _ UNITED4 STATES ~ PATENT OFFICE 2,410,557 AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE Frank A. Watson, Chicago, Ill. y Application August 23, 1943, Serial No. 499,725 (cl. iso-_24) 9 Claims. 2. This invention relates generally to automotive _ » sembled for coacting and concurrent operation vehicles and in particular to a vehicle of heavy on the actuation of a common fluid pressure unit. duty type such as a truck or bus, in which a front A feature of this invention is found in the drive axle is provided with dual wheel assemblies pivotally movable to conform to the contour of the road surface over which the vehicle is operat provision of aJ dual wheel front axle drive as- ' sembly in which the vehicle engine is supported at one end directly on the front axle and rotat ably supported at its opposite end on the vehicle Dual wheel assemblies now commonly used are frame to provide for its movement with the front generally applied to the non-steering wheels of axle. a vehicle and supported for rotation together. It 10 Yet another feature of this invention is found is common practice to have dual wheel assemblies in the provision of a dual wheel front drive as on a rear axle but in these assemblies the dual sembly in which the dual wheels are supported wheels are usually supported on a common hub together for pivotal movement in both horizontal unit and incapable of relative rotation to com and vertical planes and connected with a drive - pensate for different sized tires being used on the 15 shaft by means including a diiîerential mech dual wheels, or for one of the tires travelling a anism to provide for their relative rotation. . greater distance than the other tire when the A still further feature of this invention is found vehicle is maneuvered out of a straight line path. in the provision of a dual front wheel drive as With the wheels thus assembled their rotation sembly in which the wheels are supported on a together is accomplished Vby the slipping of one 20 spindle pivotally movablev in one -direction about wheel relative to the road surface. This slipping a'vertical axis means and in a direction normal is objectionable due to the fact that tire wear is to such one direction about a horizontal axis accelerated by the slipping action. means, with the two axis means being located ing. ‘ By vi ue of the wheels being rotatable as a -substantially intermediate the dual wheels. unit it s apparent that these wheel assemblies 25 Driven connection of the wheels with a drive are incapable of being used for steering purposes. shaft is accomplished by means including a dif As a result trucks and buses now in use have dual ferential mechanism carried on the spindle. wheel assemblies only on the rear axle and single Further objects, features and advantages of this ' wheels on the front axler regardless of the fact invention will become apparent from the fol 30 that the load may be equally distributed on both lowing description when taken in connection with axles. The tires on the single steering wheels, the accompanying drawings in which; therefore, are continuously subjected to an over load, or at least are always maintained near the Fig. 1 is a sectional plan view of the improved vehicle of this invention with parts broken away to more clearly show the construction and rela maximum limit of their safe carrying capacity. It is an object of this invention, therefore, to 62 gl‘ tive assembly of a dual front wheel drive assembly provide an improved automotive vehicle of heavy therewith; duty type. Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 2-2 in Fig. 1 showing the dual front wheel drive assembly of this invention; ` out so that the vehicle load is equally distributed 40 Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line over all of the wheel tires. 3_3 in Fig. 2; A further object of this invention is to provide Fig. 4 is a view partly in section as seen along 'A further object of this invention is to provide a vehicle having dual wheel assemblies through a dual'wheel assembly for a front axle in which the line 4--4 in Fig. 2; the wheels are pivotally movable together for Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-5 steering purposes and supported for relative ro ' in Fig. 1 with parts broken away to more clearly tational movement. show the assembly relation of the dual front wheel Another object of this invention is to provide assembly with the front axle and the support of va dual front wheel drive assembly in which the the vehicle engine on the front axle; dual wheels are pivotally movable together in a Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the „front wheel vertical plane to accommodatey themselves to 50 assembly as seen along the line 6_6 in Fig. 4 and unevena‘oad surfaces. ` showing the wheels in a turning position; A still further object of this invention is to Fig. '7 is a. perspective view of a part of the front provide a brake system for a dual wheel assembly wheel drive assembly; and ` having relatively rotatable wheels, in which brake portions on each wheel are constructed and as 55 ' Fig. 8 is an exploded perspective view of the members, the dual front wheel drive assembly y q ' autres? 4 .m bliesr Since thefront wheel assemblies are simi which provide for the pivotal movement of the wheels in vertical and horizontal planes. Referring to the drawings the improved auto lar in construction only one of them will be re ferred to in the following detailed description. A front wheel assembly includes the steering head 32, previously explained, and a steering ` motive vehicle of this invention is shown in Figs. 1. 2 and 5 as including a ‘substantially rectangu lar horizontal frame or chassis l5 which extends ' -completely about the .drive and control mecha. frame or yoke member 46 (Figs. 2, 3 and 8) . The yoke member 46 is integrally formed with a ver tically extending portion 41 of a ysubstantially ring shape having a-top boss portion 48 and a ably reinforced by transverseand longitudinal 10 U-shaped bottom- 49, and a horizontally pro jected quadrant 5| with a steering knuckle 52. frame members, only two longitudinal members I6 being illustrated in Fig. 1 ’for the purpose of - The boss portion 48 and U-shaped bottom 49 l nisms of the vehicle to function as a protective ' ~ bumper for these parts. The chassis I5 is suit clarity. s ‘ have coaxially aligned Lbores 53, with the verti cal 'height of the steering frame being such that The vehicle engine l1 is supported pn cross >bars I8 c’arried on a sub-frame I9 which is se 15 it slidably rits between the jaws 34 of the steer ing head 32. When the steering frame is in posi cured at its rear end byl a bracket 2l to an axle tion within the jaws 434 a bore 53 in the steering ` housing 22 of a usual construction. The front frame is adjacent a corresponding jaw 34 in the end of the sub-frame is rotatably mounted on steering head with’all of the bores 35 and 53 be the chassis i5 by a ball and socket connection ing in coaxial alignment. This relative position including a ball 23 on the sub-frame and a cor of the steering head 32 and the steering frame responding socket 24 carried on a bracket 28 se 46 is maintained by .the insertion of a king pin cured to the chassis l5. This ball and socket 54 in each pair of corresponding bores 35 and connection serves the dual purpose of taking the 53, a bushing or bearing 56 being located in a engine driving torque and of supporting the front end of the engine I1 while permitting free move 25 bore 35 to rotatably support a king pin 54. The king pins 54 are secured for pivotal move ment with the steering frame 46 by an associated tapered pin 55 extended through aligned open ings formed in a ¿king pin and in the steering and clutch 21a together with the transmission 28 are mounted on the sub-frame I9 in driven 30 frame 46 through the wall of each bore 53. It is seen, therefore, that on manipulation of the association with the engine i1 in a usual man steering knuckle 52 the steering frame 46 is piv ner, a clutch pedal being indicated at 30. _The otally moved about the king pins 54 in a hori drive shaft 29 from the transmission 28 is aligned zontal plane. Actuation of the steering knuckle with and connected with the front axle drive 52 is accomplished by its connection in a ball shaft 3| to provide for the direct transmission and socket joint 51 (Figs. 1 and 2) with a steer of power to the drive shaft 3i without the usual ing rod 56 suitably connected with a steering propeller shaft and universal joints. ’ As illustrated in Fig. 1 the vehicle includes wheel 59 for the vehicle. As best shown in Figs. 3 and 8 the steering front dual wheel drive assemblies and dual rear ` wheel assemblies 45 associated with a rear axle 40 frame 46 at the ring portion 41 is provided with a pair of ears 6| oppositely extended inthe same 50. ~ axial direction and in a horizontal plane. An Each front dual wheel drive assembly includes ear 6| is constructed for reception between the a steering head 32 of the so-called Elliott type legs of a corresponding U-'shaped lug 62 oppo (Figs. l, 2 and 8) which comprises‘a tubular body sitely arranged on a gear case 63 integrally member 33 positioned about and‘secured to the axle housing 22, and oppositely arranged goose formed with a spindle 64 for dual wheels 66 and 61. The legs of each lug 62 have aligned holes necks having horizontal portions or jaws 34 ex therethrough for receiving a pivot pin or stub tended outwardly in an axial direction from the shaft 66 which is also extended through a hole tubular body member 33. As` clearly appears in Fig. 2 the jaws 34 are vertically spaced from in a corresponding ear 6| on the steering frame 46. The extreme end of each ear 6| is extended each-other with each jaw having a vertical bore through an opening provided in the connecting 35 which are in relative coaxial alignment. 'I'he portion 69 between the legs of a lug 62. upper jaw 34 of each steering head 32 is formed with a supporting arm 36 projected inwardly Each pivot pin 68 is maintained in position over the tubular body portion 33. A leaf spring . within a corresponding ear 6| 'and lug 62 by ya. 31 is connected at each end with an arm 36 by setscrew 1| threaded in a lug 62 for frictional en gagement with a pin 68. It is thus seen that a spring shackle 38. l the combination gear case and spindle 63--64 The upper part of the spring 31 is received is supported at the pivot pins 66 for pivotal move in a channel member 39 (Fig. 5) and is retained in the channel member by a supporting plate 60 ment with the steering frame 46 in a horizontal plane, and for pivotal movement about the pins 4| and U-shaped clamping bolts 42. A second 68 in a vertical plane independently of the steer channel member 43 is secured in a superposed ment of the axle housing 22 to accommodate it self to road surface irregularities as will be later explained. A clutch operating mechanism 21 position on the `menrber.19 by vangle members ing frame 46. ' 'I‘his double pivotal movement of the combina tion gear case and spindle 63-64 is clearly ap a semi-circular frame member 44 composed of a parent from a consideration of Fig. 8. As-previ ` heavy plate metal and extended transversely of ously explained the steering head 32 is iixed on the chassis l5. The end peripheral portions of the front axle housing 22 with the horizontal jaws the semi-circular frame member 44 are secured 34 in a vertically spaced relation. On insertion `. to corresponding semi-circular portions of the chassis l5 as is clearly illustrated in Figs. 1 and 70 of the steering frame 46 between the jaws 34 the upper boss portion 48 and lower portion 49 5. The frame or plate member 44 thus serves of the steering frame are adjacent to a corre the dou-ble function of supporting the forward spending jaw 34. On extension of the pins 54 end of the chassis l5 on the front axle housing within the aligned openings 35 and 53 in these 22 and of forming a housing or guardfor the adjacent corresponding parts, the steering frame axle housing and the front dual Wheel, @55619 40. Carried on the top channel member 43 is 2,410,657 ’ 5 is rotatably supported on the steering head 32 for pivotal movement in a horizontal plane about the vertically extended pins 64. With the steer ing head 32 and steering frame 46 assembled in this manner the gear case-62 of the combination gear case and spindle 63-64 is pivotally con nected with the steering frame by the coacting engagement of a corresponding ear 6| and lug 62 and the insertion of a pin 66 therethrough. 6 . Also rotatable on the reduced section 93 of the sleeve 64, and." at the end o! the sleeve in an axially spaced relation with the gear ring 62. is >a gear ring 66. The gear ring 66 is assembled on the sleeve 64 >at the outer or free end of the spindle 64 and is held against axial movement on the sleeve in'one direction by‘a locking nut and washer assembly 99. Axial movement of the gear 96 in an opposite direction is prevented by a cir By virtue of the ,pin 66 heilig extended in a hori 10 cumferential shoulder portion |0| -formed _on the zontal plane the combination gear case 63' and reduced section 93 of the sleeve 64 .between the spindle 64 is pivotally movable in a horizontal gear 66 and the gear62. On the shoulder'section ` plane with the steering frame-46 relative to the |0| are mounted differential gears |02 rotatably steering head 32, but movable in a vertical plane independently of the steering frame 46 and re 15 supported on screws |03 radially extended from the sleeve 64 and secured thereto by an associ gardless of the pivotal position of the steering ated nut |04. 'I'he gears|02 coact with the frame 46 relative to the steering head 32. In ring gears 92 and 96 in the conventional differen other words, this relative assembly and construc tial gearing manner. tion of the steering head 32, steering'frame 46 'I'he hub |06 for the outer wheel 66 is rotat and combination gear case and spindle member 20 ably supported on the hub 9| for the inner wheel 66-64 provides for a concurrent pivotal move 61 and extends over the gears |02 to completely ment of the combination member in both vertical enclose these gears within the wheel assembly and and horizontal planes. between the gears 92 and 96. The hub | 06 is se- ' As shown in Fig. 8 the ring portion 41 of the cured to the gear 96 by screws |01 so as to be steering frame 46 is formed at one side with a rotatable therewith. A spring cover |05 is re ` pair of vertically spaced lugs 12 extended in a ceived within the blank side of the gear 98 to direction oppositely from one of the lugs 6|. The cover the outer end of the wheel spindle 66 and lugs 12 are formed with aligned openings 13 for the associated assembled pa‘rts. 'I'hus consider receiving a pin 14 by which a drag link 15 is ing the sleeve 64|4 as a driven unit the relativie `povotally connected at one end with the steering assembly of the gears 92, 96 and |02 provides a frame 46. The opposite end of the drag link 15 30 differential mechanism between the wheels 66 is connected with like lugs 12 formed on a steer and 61 which is carried on the spindle 66 and ing frame for the opposite dual wheel assembly completely enclosed within the dual wheel as corresponding to the wheels 66 and 61. The steer sembly. ing frame 46 for this opposite dual wheel assem 35 The gear mechanism for driving the gear ring bly is constructed in all respects thesame as the 86 on the sleeve 64 from the drive shaft 3| will steering frame 46 except for the elimination of now be described. The gear case 63 adjacent its the quadrant `5| and steering knuckle 52 for upper end, as viewed in Figs. 2 and 8, is provided reasons which are believed to be obvious. an inverted cup-shaped projection |06 for Secured by screws 16 to the back or right side 40 with receiving a bearing |09. oppositely arranged ver of the gear case 63, as viewed in Fig. 2, is a com tically downwardly from the cup-shaped projec bination gear case cover and brake backing plate tion |06 is an opening ||| for a bearing || 2, the 11. The plate 11 has an offset portion 16 at its opening ||| being formed in a. horizontally and inner periphery to_ accommodate a grease retainer downwardly extended cap ||3 integral with the ring 19 and an offset portion 6| at its outer gear case 63. The cap |I3 is open at the back periphery to receive brake rings 62 and 63 which side of the gear case 63 and constitutes a part will be later described. The retainer ring 19 is of the housing for a. gear ||4 mounted on a ver. mounted about a stepped hub or sleeve unit 64 tical` shaft ||6 and in meshing engagement with rotatably supported on the spindle 64 by roller .bearings 66 and 61. Integrally formed with the 50 the sleeve gear 66. The shaft ||6 is of a stepped construction and rotatable in the bearings |09 sleeve unit, 64 and at the extreme left end there and ||2, bearings ||1 and ||6 oppositely posi ' of as viewed in Fig. 2, is a gear ring 66 which is located between the back of the gear case 63 and . tioned in a gear case insert H9, and a bearing |2| adjacent the lower end of the shaft ||6, as viewed in Fig. 2,.carried in a cover plate |22 for in an axial position on the spindle 64 by a hex agonal nut 85 threaded on the end- of the spindle 55 the bottom of the cap | I3. The lower bearing |2| is held in vertical coaxial alignment with the re and locked in a usual manner by a coacting maining supporting bearings »for the shaft || 6 AWasher 69. by a ñtted positioning of the cover plate |22 A stepped 'hub' 9| for the inner wheel 61 is within the cap and against the backing plate 11, rotatably supported over an enlarged section of and the securing of the plate |22 to the cap byÍ the sleeve unit 64, with the hub 9| terminating 60 screws |23. Thus as shown in Fig. 2 the gears at one end in an _integrally formed gear ring 66 and ||4 are completely enclosed between the 92 rotatableabout a reduced section 93 ofthe back of the gear case 63, the cover plate |22 and sleeve 64. 'I‘he gear 92 is held in position axially the backing plate 11. of the sleeve by the coacting engagement of mat ’I'he gear case insert ||9 (Figs. 2, 3 and 7) ing sleeve and hub portions which form a shoul 65 is of a substantially cylindrical shape having a der 60 at the junction of the enlarged part of closed rounded end and an oppositeopen end the sleeve with its reduced section 93. 'I'he oppo the backing plate 11. The sleeve is maintained |20, with the opposite sides of the insert in which site end of the hub 9| is offset, for mating en v'the bearings ||1 and ||8 are located being of a . gagement with the offset 18 in the backing' plate 11. Integral with the hub at such opposite end 70 flat form to provide for the assembly of these bearings in frictional engagement with the corre is a wheel plate 94 for the wheel 61 having an sponding-bearings |06 and ||| in the gear case axially extending annular flange 96 atits‘outer 63. Mounted on the vertical shaft ||6 and with periphery constructed for connection with the in the gear case insert ||9 is a gear |26 fric wheel rim by bolts 61. 75 tionally engageable with the bearing ||8 and in 2,410,557 The central position of the pivot pins 54 and V9|! meshing engagement with- a gear |29 mounted relative assembly and construction of the ear lugs between‘fthe dual wheels effectively balances the pivotingïtorque or the wheels and further divides and balances the shocks resulting when the wheels meet with any road obstruction. This effective 62 of the gear case and the gear case insert ||9 is such that when the gear case 63 is pivotally connected at the pins 68 with the steering frame ther by this construction I am able to obtain 45° on a stub shait |3| which is extended from the axle housing 2-2 and into the gear case insert ||9 at its open end |20 (Figs. 2 and 3). The ly reduces shimmy in the wheels which is one of the major faults of dual »steering -wheels. Fur pivoting angles as compared with 37° angularity 49,-the shaft H8 is in verticalcoaxial alignment with the pivot pins 54 connecting the steering 10 in conventional axles. The pivoting action of my duahsteering wheels, which are also drivers, elim frame with the steering head 32. mates the nre drag of nxed wheeis which is The drive shaft gear |29 (Fig. 3) is-mounted on a stub shaft |3| journaled on a roller bearing A |32 carried in a cover plate |33 for the open end |20 of the insert ||9, the cover |33 being secured kn‘own to reduce the life one-half in mountainous , roads having almost continuous twists and turns. From a consideration of Figs. 2 and 3 it is seen that the pivot pins 88 are centrally located be to the insert by screws |34. Adjustment of the - bearing |32 relative to the gear |29 is accom plished by the insertion of shims |36 between the cover |33 and the insert end |20. Connection of the drive shaft 3| with the stub 20 shaft |3| is made through a universal joint |38 having one hub |33 splined with the stub shaft, with the relative axial positions oi the stub shaft |3| and hub |39 being maintained by a tapered pin |4| extended therethrough. The opposite hub 25 |42 of the universal joint is in splined engage ment with the drive shaft 3| vbut axially slidable relative to the shaft 3|. A plate member |43 is secured over the outer or free end of the axle housing 22 and is provided with a vertically ex 30 tended opening |44. The hub |39 of the uni versal joint |38 is in bearing engagement with the vertical sides of the opening |44, as shown` tween the wheel tires so that the load on the ve hicle is equally supported on the tires. ' Since lthe wheels 86 and 6l are free to pivot on the pivot pins E8 to automatically conform to changing road surfaces, as shown for a crowned road in Fig. 5, an even support of the Vehicle load on the wheel tires is maintained at all times of vehicle travel. This pivotal action of the wheels also provides for a reduction in the im pact on a. tire resulting from the striking of a road object since the tire is able to ride over the object without having to lift the companion tire an equal height out of contact with the road. The brake system for the -whee1s'66 and 91 includes the brake rings 82 and 83, previously/ mentioned, which are located in the outer pe ripheral offset 8| of the backing plate 11 (Fig. 2). The ring 82 is integrally formed with a plu in Fig. 3, but is free to oscillate in a vertical di rection between the ends of the opening |44 as 35 rality of angularly spaced studs or extensions |49 projected axially from one side of the ring into shown in Fig. 2. The gear |29 is thus pivotally corresponding openings formed in the radially movable in a vertical plane with the gear case extended part of the offset 8|. Secured to the 63 and gear case insert H9, while the stub shaft opposite side of the brake ring 82 is an annular |3| is maintained in axial alignment with the drive shaft 3 i . In the operation of the dual front wheel drive assembly oscillation or turning movement of the steering frame 46 in a horizontal plane by opera tion of the vehicle steering wheel 59 moves the combination gear case and spindle member 63--64 and all of the mechanism attached thereto as a unit. During such oscillation or turning move ment the gear |28 rolls relative to the gear |290. and the gear ||4 relative to the gear 88, by virtue 40 brake shoe |5|. The extensions |49 are slidably supported for axial movement in the offset 8|. A disc-like piston |52 is carried at the free or outer end of each extension |49 for cooperative associationwith a corresponding pressure cyl . inder |53 concentrically arranged relative to an extension I 49-and secured at its lower end to the outside of the offset 8|, the extension |49 acting as a piston rod for the piston |52. The top of the cylinder is closed by a cover plate |54, with a of the shaft IIE being in coaxial alignment with 50 space in each cylinder and piston assembly formed between the piston |52 and a, correspond the pivot pins 54. . ing cylinder cover |54 being interconnected by Further the different relative distances trav pipe lines |56 connected to a main line |51, which elled by the wheels 66 and 61 during a, turning in turn is connected with a master fluid cylinder movement is accomplished without any scufllng or dragging of the wheel tires because of the dii 65 (not shown) of a fluid braking system which in cludes the brake pedal |58 shown in Fig. 1. . ferential gears 92, .98 and |02. This same dii On operation of the brake pedal |58 the iiuid ferential action takes place when the wheels 86 and I6l are travelling over road surfaces of dif ferent elevation such as the usual crowned road pressure in the lines |56 and |51 and in the cyl- inders |53 is increased by the action of the mas illustrated in Fig. 5. The differential mechanism 60 ter cylinder, in a manner well known in the art, to in turn move the pistons |52 and brake ring while permitting either of the wheels to overrun 82 in an axial direction toward the right, as the other also provides for the application of viewed in Fig. 2, for a purpose which will appear an equal driving force to each wheel. later. This movement of the pistons |52 and The assembly of the steering head 32 within the inner wheel 81 with the jaws 34 extended sub 65 brake ring 82 takes place against the action of a spring |60 arranged in compression between stantially to the outer wheel 69 places the pivot each piston |52 and the bottom of an associated pins 54 in a vertical plane adjacent the vertical cylinder |53. plane of the pivot pins 68 which are located cen The brake ring` 93, which is assembled within trally between the wheels 58 and 61. This ar rangement of the pivot pins 54 and 68, together 70 the offset 8| with the brake ring 82, has a flat side adjacent the brake band |5| of the brake with a relatively wide vertical spacing of the jaws ring 82. The opposite side of the brake ring 83 34, eliminates the bending moment on the drive is integrally formed with a plurality of angularly shaft 3|, stub shaft |3| and spindle 54, and fur spaced lugs |59 which are slidably movable in an . ther reduces the frictional pressure at the pivot 75 axial direction through corresponding openings pins 54. 9 andas? l0 . in the flange or wheel plate 64 of the inner whee1 both wheels are released together by the concur rent reductionaofjthe pressure in the cylinders 61. From a consideration of Fig. 2 it is seen that the brake rings 82 and 63, with the brake band |53 and the\action of the springs |60 and |64. As a result, during a complete brake action the full braking toràue is always divided between the |5| therebetween are completely enclosed by the ' offset 8| and cooperating portions of the ywheel plate 94 and its axial annular flange 96, the wheel wheels 66 and 61. ‘ plate 94 being in back to back slidable engage ~ From a consideration of the above description ment with the backing plate 11. The brake ring it is seen that the invention provides an automo 83 is connected at the lugs |69 to a brake ring tive vehicle of heavy duty type, in which the load |62 by screws |63, the brake ring | 62 being ad 10 is capable of being\equally distributed over all jacent the side of the whee1 plate 94 opposite of the vehicle tires by the provision of an im from the wheel plate side which is adjacent to proved front dual wheel assembly. Although the the brake ring 83. The lugs |59 are of a.> length relative to the width of the whee1 plate 94 such that the brake rings 83 and |62 are axially w .Y w-heels in this assembly are relatively rotatable movable to stop positions againsta. correspond-_ completely enclosed within the wheel assembly ing side of the whee1 plate 94. Normally the brake ring |62 is releasably held in a stop position and the brake ring 62 out of a stop postion with the wheel plate 94 by a plu 20 rality of hat springs |64 each of which has one end biasing the brake ring |62 toward the whee1 plate 94 and an opposite end secured to the Wheel plate |94 `by a cap screw |66. The brake rings ¿their positive braking is accomplished by indi vidual `brakes relatively assembled so as to be and concurrently'operated from a common mas ter cylinder. The differential mechanism pro viding for a relative rotation between the front dual wheels is also enclosed within the wheel as sembly and supported entirely on the wheel spin die, to provide in all a compact wheel assembly adapted to be positioned within the same space available for dual wheel assemblies now used 83 and |62 are rotatable with the wheel plate 94 25 commercially. , and in turn with the inner whee1 61. The wheel driving mechanism is completely »A brake shoe ring |61 is secured by screws |66 free of the pins 54 and 66 so that any wear on to the wheel plate> |69 of the outer whee1 66, these pins in no way changes the relationship of which wheel plate is integral with the outer wheel the related parts of the driving mechanism. hub |66. The whee1 plate |69 at its outer pe 30. Conversely the pins 54 and 68 are not affected riphery has-an axially extended annular ilange in any manner by wear or adjustments to the |10 positioned about the brake ring |62 and driving mechanism. The driving mechanism and brake shoe |61, the flange terminating, adjacent brake system are completely enclosed within the the inner whee1-plate 94 so that the brake ring confines of the wheels 66 and 61 so as to be pro |62 and brake shoe |61 are completely enclosed 35 tected against possible injury by striking ob between the inner wheel plate 94 and the outer structions, loading docks and the like. Also the wheel plate |69, with the brake shoe |61 rotatable wide spacing or vertical distance between the with the wheel plate |69. Radially extended pivot pins 54, together with the location of the from the iiange |10 is an annular ilange |1| t'o pivot pins 68, intermediate the wheels 66 and which the rim of the outer whee1 66 is connected 40 61 permits the wheels to absorb heavy shocks by bolts |12. without displacement or injury to these pins and In a normal released position of the above de the parts which they connect. scribed brake rings 82, 83 and |62 and the brake Although the invention has been described shoes |5| and |61, the _brake shoe |5| is releas with respectA to a preferred embodiment thereof ably held out of a frictionally engaging posi it is to be -understood that it is not to be so lim tion with the brake ring 83 by the springs |66 in ited since modifications and changes can be the pressure cylinders |53, while the brake ring made therein which are Within the full intended | 62 is releasably held out of a frictional engag scope of this invention as defined by the append? ing position with the brake shoe |61 by the ed claims. springs |64. On operation of the master cylin 50 derby the brake pedal |58 to supply ñuid under 1. A'dual front wheel drive assembly includ pressure to the cylinders |53 the brake shoe |5| ing an axle housing, a drive shaft, a yoke mem engages and moves the brake ring |62 against ber, a spindle for rotatably supporting dual the brake shoe |61. Both the brake ring 83 and wheels.- pivotall means -for supporting said yoke brake shoe |5| are in frictional engagement, 55 member on said axle housing for pivotal move prior to the engagement of the brake ring |62 ment in a horizontal plane, means for support and brake shoe |61, but this initial engagement ing said spindle on said yoke member for piv is very slight and without any apparent braking otal movement in a vertical plane, and means effect on the inner wheel 61. After the brake ring |62 and brake shoe |61 are frictionally engaged both wheels 66 and 61 are concurrently braked, operatively connecting said wheels with said drive shaft. J ' 2. A dual front wheel drive assembly includ the inner wheel 61 by the frictional engagement ing an axle housing, a drive shaft, a yoke mem of the rotating ring 83 with the stationary brake ber, a spindle for rotatably supporting dual shoe | 5| and the outer wheel by the frictional wheels, pivotal means for supporting said yoke engagement of the brake ring |62 with the brake 65 member on said axle housing for pivotal move shoe |61. , ment in a horizontal plane, second pivotal means Because of the connection of the pressure cyl supporting said spindle on said yoke member for ìnders |53 with a common master cylinder a sub pivotal movement in a vertical plane, with said stantially equal pressure is applied over al1 parts second pivotal means being in the plane of said of the brake ring 82 and in turn over the brake 70 spindle and located substantially intermediate shoe |61. Separate frictional braking is thus ef said dual wheels, and means operatively con fectively applied to each of the wheels 66 and 61 necting said wheels in a driven relation with said over relatively large braking surfaces, with the drive shaft. braking action being substantially simultaneous. 3. A dual front wheel drive assembly including On release of the brake pedal |56 the brakes on 75~ an axle portion, a drive shaft, a frame member. - 2,410,557 f» .11 means pivotally supporting said frame membe on said axle fo'r movement about a vertical axis, a spindle for rotatably supporting dual wheels, means pivotally supporting said spindle on said frame member for pivotal movement about a horizontal axis, and means operatively connect 12 pivotal means for pivotal movement in a horii zontal plane, a spindle having a dual 'wheel car' rying portion and a supporting portion, means pivotally connecting said supporting portion with said yoke for pivotal movement of said spindle in a vertical plane, a driven shaft rotatably ing said drive shaft with said dual Wheels in cluding a differential mechanism carried on said mounted on said spindle supporting portion in vertical alignment' with said pivotal means, a spindle. gear on said driven shaft, a gear on said drive . ‘ . 4‘. A dual front wheel drive assembly includ 10 shaft in meshing engagement with said driven shaft gear, and means operatively connecting the ing an axle housing,4 a drive shaft, a yoke mem dual wheels with said driven shaft gear. ' ber, pivotal means for supporting said yoke mem 8. A dual front wheel drive assembly including ber on said axle housing for pivotal movement in a horizontal plane, a spindle for rotatably sup porting dual wheels, a second pivotal means for supporting said spindle on said yoke member for pivotal movement in a vertical plane, `with said ' first pivotal means being located substantially intermediate saiddual wheels, and means con an axle housing, a drive shaft, a yoke member pivotally supported from said axle housing for movement about a vertical axis, a spindle having a supporting portion for dual wheels and a por tion rotatably supported on said yoke member to provide fora pivotal movement of the spindle necting said drive shaft with said dual wheels 20 about a horizontal axis, means operatively con necting said dual wheels with said drive shaft including a differential mechanism carried on including -a differential mechanism having a ‘ l drivensleeve member `rotatably carried on said 5. A dual front wheel drive assembly including spindle wheel supporting portion, a plurality of an axle housing, a drive shaft, a yoke member, -a spindle for rotatably supporting dual wheels, 25 rotatable gears angularly spaced about said sleeve member, a hub for one of said dual wheels hav supporting means including pivotal means for ing a gear portion rotatable on said sleeve mem supporting said yoke member on said axle hous ber, and a hub for the other of ,said dual wheels ing for pivotal movement in a horizontal plane. having a gear portion rotatable on said sleeve second pivotal means supporting said spindle on said yoke member for pivotal movement in a 30 member, with said plurality of rotatable gears being located between said two gear portions and vertical plane, with said two pivotal means being in meshing engagement therewith. located substantially between said dual wheels, 9. A dual front wheel drive assembly including and means operatively connecting said dual an axle housing, a drive shaft, a yoke member, wheels with said drive shaft including a dineren pivotal means supporting said yoke member from tial mechanism carried on said` spindle. said axle housing for pivotal movement in a horl 6. A dual front wheel drive assembly including zontal plane, a spindle for rotatably supporting an axle housing, a driving shaft, a frame mem dual wheels having a gear housing at one'end ber, means supporting said frame member on said said spindle. thereof, a second pivotal means pivotally con axle housing for pivotal movement'about a ver tical axis, a spindlefor dual wheels, means sup 40 necting said housing with said yoke member to provide for pivotal movement of said spindle in porting said spindle on said frame member for a vertical plane, a drive shaft in said housing in pivotal movement about a horizontal axis, and a co-axial alignment with said first pivotal means, gear unit pivotally movable with said spindle in gear means mounted on said shaft, a sleeve cluding a drivenshaft having the axis thereof member rotatably supported on said spindle hav in alignment with said vertical axis, means con ing a gear portion thereon, with said drive shaft. necting said driven shaft with said drive shaft. and gear portion being operatively connectedand a differential mechanism operatively con with said gear means, and means connecting said necting said gear unit with said wheels. f» '1. A dual front wheel drive assembly including an axle housing, a supporting member on said axle housing having a pair of vertically spaced portions, pivotal means in each of said vertically spaced portions, a yoke supported on said two ' 'dual wheels for driving by said sleeve member including a differential mechanism carried on said spindle. FRANK A. WATSON.