close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
2,410,602
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT oFPlcE
_
2,410,602
JOURNALING MECHANISM
Arthur P. Davis, New York, N, Y., assignor to
-Arma'Corporatiorn Brooklyn, N. Y., a corpora- -
tion of New York
Y
Application August 31, 1944, SerialfNo. 552,126
(Cl. 308-183)
13 Claims.
1
2
This invention relates to journaling mecha
nisms, and has particular reference to mechanism
for materially reducing the frictional drag of
friction-reducing bearings used> on precision in
strumentsand machinery, although the invention
of it friction is reduced to the absolute minimum,
and in many cases Wholly eliminated for all prac
tical purposes.
For a more complete understanding of the in
vention, reference may be had to the accompany-y
ing drawing, in which:
Figure 1 illustrates one form of the invention,
is not limited to that use.
Ordinary rolling bearings, particularly ball
as adapted to journals of a gyroscope suspension,
bearingsas is well known, mayhave a coefficient
of friction-as low as about .00 l, even when heavily
loaded, and selected ball bearings have even less
friction, but nevertheless the residual friction re
maining is sufficient to preclude the absolute pre
cision that is required for certain instruments.
by Way of example of its use; ,
Fig; 2 is an 'enlarged axial section of afmodi
ñcation in which the several rows of bearing
balls are axially arranged as compared to the ar
rangement of Fig. 1, in which the bearing balls
Ultra precision instruments employing gyroscopes
as a datum point are an example.
.
In accordance with the invention, a journaling
mechanism, particularly adapted for rolling bear
ings, is provided, which counteracts the-frictional
15
are all located in a plane normal to the axis; and
Fig. 3 is an enlarged axial section through a
modification of the arrangement of Fig. .12.
Referring >to Fig.. 1 of the drawing, numeral I0
designates a gyroscope or other sensitive instru
ment mounted in the usual Cardan suspension,
drag in the journals, and in that' way materially
reduces and in many cases wholly eliminates the 20 modified, however, by the novel journaling mech
anism of this invention. Thus, the gyroscope I0
errors which result from journal friction and
is supported in the journaling mechanisms II of
which friction, in the case of a gyroscope, causes
this invention in gimbal ring I2, which in turn is
erroneous lprecession thereof.
mounted by similar journaling mechanism I3 on
Theinvention -consists in the inclusion in the
journal between two series of rolling bearings, 25 the standards Il and I5 secured to an unstable
platform IIS, such as a ship, airplane, or the like.
such as ball-bearings of a ring which is so «ar
Considering the gyroscope I0. as illustrative of
ranged as to be pendulous and hence to respond
one application of the invention, it is Well under
to gravitational forces While »at the same time
stood that it is essential .that the gyroscope be
being free to rotate in the journal independently
of the relative movement between the journaled 30 free from friction, since it causes unwanted pre
cession introducing errors. By materially reduc
parts, When ¿roller or needle bearings are em
ing or eliminating journal friction, the present
ployed, the pendulous ring is similarly mounted.
invention provides the desired accuracy,
Consequently, in a journal equipped with the
The journaling mechanisms II and I3 cachin
mechanism of this invention, relative rotation
between the parts of the bearing, as during an ' cludes more than one series of rolling members,
such as the two circular series of bearing balls
oscillation of a shaft within its journal, the un
I'l and I8, as shown in Fig, l. The outer series
avoidable frictional drag causes the pendulous
I1 cooperates with the outer race I9 mounted on
ring to be displaced in one direction, but it is im
standard I4, and the inner series I8 cooperates
mediately restored by gravity. However, its free
domof movement results in overswing of the pen 40 with the inner race 20 mounted on the pivot I2'
of the gimbal ring I2. The journal between the
dulo'us ring so that it oscillates and introduces a
pivot I0' of the g'yroscope I0 and gimbal ring I2
freeing vibration to the balls, thusfmaterlally re
similarly includes the outer and inner series of
ducing the frictional drag inthe journal.
bearing balls I1 and I8, respectivelyAIt will be seen that the present invention-pro
vides a very simple, inexpensive and compact but 45 Interposed between the outer series of vballs I1
and inner series of balls I8 is` a special race 2|
effective »means for overcoming the last modicum
which is shaped in the form of a ring, as shown,
of -frictio'n in -so-called frictionless journals.
but is provided with an offset weight or enlarge
When used on a gyroscope, the invention pre
ment22 rendering the ring 2I pendulous, since
cludes p'recessio'n about the journals of its sus
pension which results in an angular displacement 50 the eccentric center of gravity of the weight or
enlargement 22 renders the ring 2I responsive to
of the gyro which is more or less than the actual
gravitational forces in the manner of a pendulum,
tilt. In'other organizations involving oscillating
In view of the relative freedom of the ring'2l by
bearings for various purposes, the simple jour
reasonof'the comparatively frictionless character
naling mechanism of this inventionfñnds ap
plication 'with >excellent results, »since Lby means 65 of‘thefball series I 1 andíl’ß in which itis, in'effec‘t,
3
2,410,602
suspended, the pendulous ring 2| tends to seek
and maintain a position such that the weight or
enlargement 22 thereof lies at the lowermost
4
scribed. The double row of balls |8’ is used to
prevent cooking, although in other installations a
single row will be sufficient. The arrangement of
Fig. 2 has the advantage that no special provision
point, as shown in Fig. 1.
In operation of the journaling mechanism of
for its use is required, other than the addition
Fig. 1, and still assuming for purposes of illustra
of pendulous member 2|', 22’.
tion, that it is used in the journals of a gyroscope
Instead of mounting the pendulous ring 2|’
IU, and further assuming that the gyroscope is
externally of the aligned shaft, as in Fig. 2, the
mounted on shipboard, tilting movement of the
parts may be reversed as in Fig. 3. The aligned
platform I6 results in relative movement between l0 shafts I2” and 23" are recessed or in tubular
it and the gyroscope IIJ. As seen on shipboard,
form and the pendulous member 2 I ” in the form
the gyroscope I0 remains level, but if any re
of a rod is supported in one or more rows of ball
straint is placed thereon, as by friction in the
bearings Il” and I8” interposed between corre
Journals, it tends to precess in response to this
sponding races I9" and 20” on the outer surface
restraint and an error in indication results. Ex 15 of the rod 2|” at each end and the inner surfaces
cept for the presence of the invention, a tilt about
of the corresponding tubular shafts 23” and I2”.
axis I3, I3 would cause a frictional drag about
The eccentric weight 22" depends from rod 2|'l
this axis, resulting in rotation of the gyroscope
between the spaced ends of the tubular shafts | 2"
I0 about bearings I I.
and 23” and two rows of balls I8” may be used
The journaling mechanism of the present in 20 to prevent cooking of shaft I2".
vention precludes this error by virtually eliminat
While certain preferred embodiments of the in
ing the frictional drag in the journals. As the
vention have been illustrated and described here
gyroscope l0 tilts about axis I3, I3, in the as
in, it is to be understood that the invention is
sumed case, the inevitable small friction between
not limited thereby but is susceptible of changes
the balls Il and race I9 causes a small drag on 25 in form and detail within the scope of the ap
the ring 2|, thus carrying the latter with the
standard I4, assuming the gyroscope IIl to re
main stationary.
This rotary deflection of member 2|, however,
pended claims.
I claim:4
1. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising a
is very small, because as soon as it occurs, grav 30 ring interposed between said parts, and means
ity, acting on the weight or enlargement 22, tends
rendering said ring pendulous, whereby the rela
to pull it back to vertical position, but as in the
case of a free pendulum, the weight or enlarge
ment 22 overswings, due to its momentum, and is
carried up on the opposite side of the vertical. 35
Consequently, the pendulous members 2 I, 22 acts
tive movement between said parts imparts a lim
ited pendulous oscillation to said ring to thereby
reduce the friction incident to said relative rota
tion of said parts.
2. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
as a true pendulum and oscillates at its natural
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising
period. By reason of the sensitive bearings em
anti-friction means interposed between said
ployed, the mean range of motion of the pendu
parts, a ring interposed between said parts and
lous ring 2| is substantially equal to the range of 40 rotatably engaging said means, and means ren
motion of one of the relatively rotating parts be
dering said ring pendulous, whereby the relative
tween which the bearing is positioned.
movement between said parts imparts a limited
Accordingly, during the entire time that the
platform I6 is moving angularly in any manner,
the pendulous members 2|, 22 in both journals
Il and I3 oscillate slightly and rapidly about the
vertical. The pendulous members 2|, 22 thus
pendulous oscillation to said ring to thereby re
duce the friction incident to said relative rotation
of said parts.
3. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising a
partly follow the race 20 in an oscillatory man
rolling bearing engaging each of said parts, a ring
ner, which results in freeing the gyroscope from
engaging both of said bearings, and means ren
any appreciable restraint, as will be readily un 50 dering said ring pendulous, whereby the relative
derstood.
l
movement between said parts imparts a pendu
The journal arrangement of Fig. 1 is adaptable
lous oscillation to said ring limited to the range of
where the radius of the bearing may be made
such movement to thereby reduce the friction in
sufficiently large to accommodate the pendulous
member 2|, but in other cases the double row of
balls may be used distributed along the axis in
stead of radially, as in Fig. 2. This arrangement
comprises an inward extension 23 on the stand
ard I4’ coincident with the axis of the gimbal
ring I 2'. The extension 23 carries the race I9',
on which rolls the ball series I'I’, whereas the
ball series I8’ rolls on the shaft extension of the
gimbal ring I2’. The pendulous ring 2|’ having
cident to said relative rotation of said parts.
4. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising a
series of rolling bearings engaging each of said
parts, a ring engaging both of said bearing series.
and means rendering said ring pendulous, where
by the relative movement between said parts im
parts a pendulous oscillation to said ring limited
to the range of such movement to thereby reduce
the friction incident to said relative rotation of
the integral enlargement or weight 22’ encircles
said parts.
both sets of balls I1’ and I8’ in the manner 65
5. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
shown, and forms the dual function of connect
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising a
ing the two coincident shafts of gimbal ring I2’
series of ball bearings engaging each of said parts,
and standard I4' and serving as a bearing.
a ring engaging both of said bearing series, and
During relative movement between gimbal ring
means rendering said ring pendulous, whereby
I2’ and standard I4', as during a tilt of the deck, 70 the relative movement between said parts imparts
the frictional drag between the balls and their
a pendulous oscillation to said ring limited to
races causes members 2|', 22’ to be displaced
the range of such movement to thereby‘reduce
from the vertical, to be at once restored by gravity
the friction incident to said relative rotation of
`with resulting pendulous oscillations thereof, thus
said parts.
virtually eliminating friction in the manner de 75
6. A self-contained
journaling mechanism for 1
4:2,410,602
5
6
ring spanning both shafts and engaging the cor
responding rolling bearings and having an eccen
anti-friction bearing means interposed between
tric center of gravity rendering said ring pendu
said parts, a ring interposed between said parts
lous, whereby the relative rotation between said
and rotatably engaging said bearing means, and
means rendering said ring pendulous, whereby 5 shafts is transmitted through said bearings to
said ring to impart thereto a pendulous oscilla
the relative movement between said parts im
tion reducing the friction incident to said relative
parts a pendulous oscillation to said ring limited
rotation.
to the range of such movement to thereby reduce
11. A self -contained journaling mechanism for
the friction incident to said relative rotation of
10 connecting aligned relatively rotating first mem
said parts.
Y
bers, comprising a second member spanning the
'7. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
ends of said iirst members, said first and second
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising a
members being telescoped, rolling bearings inter
circular series of rolling bearings engaging each
posed between said first and second members,
part, and a ring interposed between and engaging
each circular bearing series and concentric there 15 and an eccentric weight on said second member
rendering the same pendulous, whereby the rela
with and having an eccentric center of gravity
tive rotation between said first members is trans
rendering said ring pendulous, whereby the rela
mitted through said bearings to said second mem
tive movement between said parts is transmitted
bers to impart thereto a pendulous oscillation
through said bearings to said ring to impart
thereto a limited pendulous oscillation reducing 20 reducing the friction incident to said relative
rotation.
the friction incident to said relative rotation of
12. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
said parts.
connecting aligned relatively rotating ñrst mem
8. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
bers, comprising a second member spanning the
connecting relative rotating concentric parts,
comprising two circular series of ball bearings 25 ends of said first members, said first and second
members being telescoped, at least one circular
interposed between said parts and lying in the
series of ball bearings interposed between said
same plane, and a ring interposed between said
first and second members, and an eccentric
series and concentric therewith and having an
weight on said second member rendering the same
eccentric center of gravity rendering said ring
pendulous, whereby the relative movement be 30 pendulous, whereby the relative rotation between
said iirst members is transmitted through said
tween said parts is transmitted through said balls
bearings to said second member to impart thereto
to said ring to impart thereto a limited pendulous
a pendulous oscillation reducing the friction inci
oscillation reducing friction incident to said rela
dent to said relative rotation.
tive rotation of said parts.
13. A self -contained journaling mechanism for
9. A self-contained journaling mechanism for~ 35
relatively rotating concentric parts, comprising
a shaft in a journal, comprising a series of rolling
bearings encircling said shaft, a second circular
series of rollingbearings engaging said journal
and lying in the plane of said first series and
spaced radially therefrom and concentric there
with, and a ring interposed in the annular space
between said series of bearings and engaging the
same and having an eccentric center of gravity
connecting two axially-aligned relatively rotating
first members, comprising a second member co
axial with said first members and forming an
annulus with each of said first members, rolling
40 bearings interposed in the annulus between said
second member and each of said first members
for connecting said second member with each of
said first members, and a weight on said second
member arranged eccentrically of the axis thereof
rendering said ring pendulous, whereby the rela
tive rotation between said shaft and its journal 45 for rendering said second member pendulous,
whereby relative rotation between said ñrst mem
is transmitted through said bearings to said ring
bers is transmitted through said bearings to said
to impart thereto a limited pendulous oscillation
second member to impart thereto a pendulous
reducing friction incident to said relative rotation.
oscillation reducing the friction incident to said
10. A self-contained journaling mechanism for
~
connecting relatively rotating aligned shafts, 50 relative rotation.
ARTHUR P. DAVIS.
comprising at least one circular series of rolling
bearings encircling each shaft, and a tubular
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
525 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа