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Nov. 5, 19.46.
'
5; D. BRANNER
1
LANDING GEAR FOR AIRCRAFT
_
Filed July 19, 1944
E
5
_
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2,410,625
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
_
INVENTOR.
65R NHRD '.Q.' 51M’ NNER
BY
A TTORNEY
Nov. 5, 1946.
B, D, BRANNER"
2,410,625
LANDING GEAR FOR AIRCRAFT
Filed July 19 ,> 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
14
v
mmvrozg.
BER/V550 D. BRENNER
BY
v
A TTORNEY
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
‘UNITED STATES PATENT. orrics
2,410,625
LANDING GEAR roe AIRCRAFT
Bernard D. Branner, Waterford, Conn.
Application July 19, 1944, Serial N0.v.545,654
3 Claims.
(Cl. 244—103)
2
1
Each wheel is provided with a plurality of vanes
The invention relates to landing gear for air
craft and more particularly to retractable landing
gear for aircraft of the heavier-than-air type,
commonly referred to as aeroplanes.
The object of the invention is to provide a novel
landing gear whereby the initial landing shock
on the entire landing gear is automatically less
ened in an e?icient and simple manner.
or cups ill located at spaced intervals circum
ferentially of the rim [3 as illustrated in Fig. 1,
and projecting outwardly therefrom so as to ex
tend beyond the wheel as shown in Fig. 2.
The vanes or cups ill may be cast or otherwise
produced as independent elements and then con
veniently fixed in place upon a supporting ring
it which in turn may be suitably secured in place
The invention contemplates further the provi
sion of a novel landing gear whereby the impact 10
upon the rim 13.
friction factor developed by the initial contact
In another form, the vanes or cups it and the
supporting ring 55 may be cast or otherwise pro
duced as integral parts of each other to consti
tute a one-piece unit. This procedure eliminates
of the landing wheels with the ground surface
is automatically reduced to a harmless minimum.
A further object of the invention is the provi
sion of a novel landing gear designed and con
15
~
the necessity for the tapping which is required
when the vanes M are produced as independent
structed to conserve the rubber of the tire and
elements, and also reduces machining of the parts
to add materially to the life thereof.
to a minimum. The aforesaid one-piece unit
Other objects will appear from the description
furthermore is’ of maximum lightness in weight
hereinafter and the features of novelty will be
20 and may be produced in a minimum of time.
pointed out in the claims.
In still another form, the rim 13, the vanes or
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate
cups Eli and the supporting ring it may all be
a1 example of the invention without de?ning its
cast together or otherwise produced as integral
limits,
parts of a one-piece wheel unit. This procedure
Fig. l is diagrammatic elevation of an aero
25 results in still further reducing the weight of the
plane embodying the novel landing gear;
unit and eliminating entirely the need for any
Fig. 2 is a side view of one of the landing wheels
tapping thereof.
of said landing gear including the novel features;
In any case, regardless of the process followed
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of said wheel on the
in producing the vanes Id or the units. including
line
of Fig. 2; p
Fig.
is a diagrammatic View illustrating by 30 the'same, said vanes or cups iii are shaped and
dimensioned to develop very little air resistance
means of directive arrows the dimensional planes
throughout one portion of their rotatlve path,
utilized in the members included in the novel
and to serve as scoops for producing resistance
landing gear;
to the air throughout the remaining portion of
Fig. 5 is a diagranmatlc front view of one of
35 said rotative path, when the novel landing gear
said members;
is down preparatory to a landing of the aerop‘ane.
Fig. 6 is a side view showing the contour shape
In Fig. 4., the dimensional planes utilized in an
of a single member, and
individual vane or cup M are indicated by direc
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a
single member as it appears on a landing wheel.
The running gear as such may be of any con
tive arrows.
ventional type and may be embodied in the aero
plane in any well-known way with customary
associated operating means for retracting and
lowering the running gear in accordance with
each vane or cup It presents an approximately
tapering appearance with a relatively wide base a.
conventional practice.
‘
When viewed from straight-ahead, as in Fig. 5,
and an undulating outer edge by extending up
wardly and inwardly and terminating in a curved
45 relatively narrow upper end 0 all as indicated in
In any event, as shown in the drawings, the
landing gear includes the landing wheels ll! ro
tatably mounted on the frame H and provided
with rubber or equivalent tires i2 preferably of
Fig. 5.
Each vane or cup M is curved in the general
designed to receive and retain the tire !2, suitable
provision being made for removing the tire I2
diate point, in the form of a scoop with an up
turned outer section Ili—a when viewed as illus
direction of the circumference of the wheel as
shown in Fig. 6, the forward or lower end section
50 being transversely curved throughout that por
the pneumatic type.
tion extending from the base a to an interme
Each wheel ill includes the customary rim l3
at will for purposes of replacement or for any
other reason.
trated in Fig. 6. This scoop tapers inwardly to
55 ward the top (Fig. 5) and the outside ?ange or -
2,410,625
3
4
wall correspondingly diminishes, until at a point
0 about midway between the lower and upper
act as air brakes by increasing the drag on the
plane.
ends of the vane said outside ?ange or wall com
pletely merges or melts into the ilush curvature
thereof. From the point 0 to the upper end 0 the
vane I4 is flush transversely and has curvature
only in one dimension. The scoop form of the
The novel landing gear is designed with special
regard to the heavy planes of today and to those
of the future. As the size, weight and carrying
capacity of aeroplanes is everincreasing in the
aircraft industry and in the present planes, a de
vane 14 is illustrated in perspective in Fig. '7
vice such as the one illustrated and described
which shows also the curvature of the outside
herein, will become a veritable necessity to avoid
walls and its streamline merging or melting into 10 undue bulkiness in the landing gears and at the
the trailing part of the particular vane.
same time to enable the landing gears to absorb
In practice, as the aeroplane approaches a
the tremendous impact shocks that they will be
landing, the landing gear is lowered in the cus
called upon to withstand.
tomary manner at the conventional time, by the
In conjunction with the instant novel device a
pilot, to adjust the landing wheels H1 to’ their low 15 small, controllable speed governor may be at
ered, landing position. In this position, as the
tached, one to each individual wheel, with the
speed for rotational motion of the Wheels while
aeroplane continues to advance, the pressure of
in the air pre-set. Such speed governor would
the Wind developed in the landing of the plane,
prevent the wheels from attaining too much
on the vane or cups l4 located below the horizon
tal diameter of each wheel [0, will cause the lat 20 momentum to cause “forward-lash,friction” re
sulting from the push which in such case would
ter to rotate in the direction of the arrows in
develop with the initial contact of the landing
wheels with the landing surface.
Although the present invention has been de
the same and immediately traverse the same in
the direction of the continued forward landing 25 scribed in conjunction with a preferred embodi
ment it is to be understood that modi?cations
movement of the plane until it is ?nally brought
and variations may be resorted to without de
to rest. The initial engagement of the wheels
parting from the spirit and scope of the inven
IS with the landing surface is accordingly a tan
tion as those skilled in the art will readily un
gential moving contact instead of’ a scraping,
Fig. 2'. The wheels m, therefore, rotatively en
gage the landing ?eld, as the aeroplane reaches
30 derstand. Such variations and modi?cations are
sliding engagement as in the case when the land
ing' wheels are stationary as the aforesaid in
itial engagement takes place.
considered to be within the purview and scope
of the claims.
I claim:
1. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including
7
As a result the novel landing gear serves to
conserve rubber and adds greatly to the life of
the tires [2 by reducing to a minimum, the in 85 landing wheels, that improvement which com
prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly
itial contact friction which tends to burn off the
from said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer
rubber of said tires very quickly. At the same
entially thereof, each vane being curved in the
. time by thus reducing the impact friction set up
direction of its length and tapering longitudinally
by said initial contact of the wheels H) with the
landing surface, the initial landing shock on 40 inwardly toward the associated wheel and having
its forward end portion provided with an up
the entire landing gear is materially reduced over
turned outer edge section to constitute a scoop
that which is developed in the conventional type
whereby said wheels are rotated on their axes by
of landing ‘gear in which the landing wheels are
wind pressure developed in the landing of the
rotatively at rest when the initial landing con
45 plane to cause said wheels to rotatively engage
tact takes place.
.
the landing surface as said aeroplane reaches
As the aeroplane comes in for a landing with
the same.
the landing gear in its lowered position, the ro
2. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including
tation of the landing wheels is affected automat
landing wheels, that improvement which com
ically'by the wind pressure developed in the land
prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly
ing of the plane. This wind pressure acts in one
from said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer
direction to rotate the landing wheels in such a
entially thereof, each vane being curved in the
way that the initial contact of said wheels with
direction of its length and having its forward end
the landing surface will be a rotative engagement
portion shaped like a scoop with an upturned
whereby the landing wheels are immediately
caused to traverse said landing surface in the di 55 outer section gradually merging into the vane
at an intermediate point whereby said wheels are
rection of landing of the particular plane in ques
rotated on their axes by wind pressure developed
tion. All of the vanes or cups are so designed
in the landing of the plane to cause said wheels
that those vanes or cups located above the hori
to rotatively engage the landing surface as said
zontal diameters of the wheels develop a stream
V
line effect and accordingly exert very little re 60 aeroplane reaches the same. ,
3. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including
sistance ‘in opposition to the rotation of said
landing wheels, that improvement which com
wheels, while all the vanes or cups below said
prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly
horizontal diameter act as scoops to produce re- _
from
said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer
sistance to the‘ wind pressure and to thereby 65
entially thereof, each vane being curved in the
transmit rotary motion to the landing wheels.
direction of its length and tapering longitudinally
inwardly toward the associated Wheel and having
its forward end portion shaped like a scoop with
an upturned outer section gradually merging into
The device is extremely simple in construction
and principle ofoperation and, relies entirely for
power to rotatively operate the landing wheels,
upon’the resistance of the air, caused by the for
the vane at an intermediate point whereby said
wheels are rotated on their axes by wind pressure
ward movement of the plane in its landing op
eration. . The rotation of the landing wheels may
bestopped at any desired point or time by‘apply
ing the customary wheel brakes. In the landing
of the plane, the aforesaid vanes or cups will also
developed in the landing of the plane to cause
said wheels to rotatively engage the landing sur
-
face as said aeroplane reaches the same.
_ V
BERNARD D. BRANNER.
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