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NOV. 5, ‘1946..
A, p_ MCHOLS, JR
2,41Q675
DEHYDRATOR
Filed Feb. 22, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet l
N .
way/7L PMMo/gdn I
“Q
BY
A. P. NICHOLS, JR
'
2,410,675
DEHYDRA‘TOR
Filed Fe_b. 22, ‘1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
, 42
-
INVEN TOR.
,
I
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.14 TTOIF/VE-K
' Nov.‘5, 1946.
A. P. NICHOLS, JR
DEHYDRATOR
Filed Feb. 22, 1945
2,410,675‘
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
I
Arm/Wm
'
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
UNITED STATES
2,410,675
DEHYDRATOR
Adelhert P. Nichols, lira, Johnson County, Kans.
Application February 22, 1945, Serial No. 57 9,260
15 Claims.
(Cl. 263-22_)
2
This invention relates to dehydrators and par
ticularly mechanical structure for removing the
moisture from materials such as plants in the na
ture of grasses, alfalfa, and other crops.
The primary aim of this invention is to provide
a dehydrator of a portable character, having as
a part of its assembly, means for motivating a
housing or jacket within which is provided a
dehydrating chamber; means for supplying fuel
Still further objects will appear during the
course of the following speci?cation, referring to
the accompanying drawings, wherein:
l. is a side elevational View of a dehydrator
made in accordance with the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on line
II-II of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an elevational view of one end of the
dehydrator.
to the burners of the dehydrator; means for di 10
4 is a fragmentary longitudinal central
recting air under pressure into an inner drum
sectional view through the upper portion of the
forming a part of the structure; and apparatus
for motivating the material being treated, longi
tudinally of the dehydrating chamber and for
urging the material upwardly toward specially
dehydrator, illustrating the relation between the
inner drum and outer jacket, which form the
dehydrating chamber.
Fig. 5 is a vertical cross sectional View through
disposed openings where the products of com
the dehydrator assembly, taken on line V-—V of
bustion and hot air from the heating chamber of
Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows,
the dehydrator are directed in counter?ow
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view through
against the said material.
a length of the jacket of a dehydrator made in
A further aim of this invention is the provision
of a dehydrator having the general characteris 20 accordance With a modi?ed form of the inven
tion; and
tics as above set forth, but having therein unique
Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view taken on line
and novel means for handling the material being
VII—-VII of Fig. 6.
treated, to the end that it will not become burned,
subjected to temperatures of objectionable in 25 The form of dehydrator selected for illustration
and shown in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive, comprises a
tensity, and will pass through the dehydrator with
stationary drum l0 having an annular wall and
exceptional speed'whereby production at rela
end walls formed or lined with refractory mate
tively low cost is permitted.
rials and mounted upon suitable frame-work I2.
More speci?cally, the instant invention has for
other aims the provision of a dehydrator having 30 Drum iii has a pair of burners id operably
joined to a source of fuel through the medium of
an internal drum forming a ?re box and a cir
a pipe it. In the instance illustrated, pipe It
cumscribing jacket between which and the said
extends to a drum l3 wherein is stored such fuel
drum, a dehydrating chamber is formed. The
as is now well-known in the trade. A valve 2%
chamber has therein a number of units or an
both manually and automatically operable, con
element for motivating the material being
trols the ?ow of fuel through pipe it to burners
treated, longitudinally through the dehydrating
i it and these burners are supplied with electrodes
chamber and for urging the material upwardly
2?. joined to a source of electrical energy, not
along the sides of the dehydrating chamber to
here shown, through conductors 24. These elec
ward a number of specially arranged and posi
trodes 22 are mounted directly in front of each
of ‘the two burners it, as illustrated in Fig. 5, and
a. “spark gap” is thereby presented to insure that
tioned openings formed through the inner drum
and angled to direct jets of air and products of
combustion into the dehydrating chamber in a
direction counter to that through which the ma
the combustible mixture passing through burners
it will not accidentally ?ll drum ill and cause
damage due to explosion. A constant arc is main
tained across the gaps between electrodes 2.52, as
a precautionary measure,
terial is upwardly urged,
* Other objects and aims of the instant inven
tion are to provide a dehydrator with openings of
the aforementioned type that are spaced apart
It is necessary to maintain a pressure within
distances which progressively increase as the out
drum I0 and to that end, a blower or fan til is
let port of the dehydrating chamber is ap
proached, and which are progressively greater 50 mounted upon frame l2 and connected to drum
It by at least two pipes 32 that extend substan
distances above the bottom of the dehydrating
chamber as said outlet port is approached—~all to
have
tially the
apertures
full length
36 therein
of drumand
iii. asThese
blower
pipes
3:0 is
the end that the material is treated with fewer
jetsof hot air as the moisture content thereof
‘ diminishes.
55
operated by engine 33, air under pressure will be
introduced into drum it).
A bail‘le plate ill is mounted below pipes
to
2,410,675
3
protect the same against destructive action of
4
ucts of combustion to pass outwardly into the de
hydrating
the material
chamber
being treated
lll- through
progresses
openings
toward
28. the
the ?ame or ?re which is created in drum If)
by burners Hi.
outlet port 66, it loses its moisture and therefore,
Connection to blower ill! from engine 38 may be
a smaller amount of heat is desired and impinge
through any suitable medium and it will be un 11 ment of hot air upon material in the dehydrating
derstood that power from engine 38 is readily
chamber must be diminished as it moves toward
transmitted to blOWer so by way of shaft 42,
the outlet port 86. Accordingly, it has been found
sprocket 44, chain 46 and sprocket 58 mounted
directly upon shaft 56 forming a part of the con
ventional blower 30. Shaft 42 is connected to
engine
through the medium of conventional
V-belt and sheave wheel assemblies, broadly des
ignated by the numeral 52. A speed reducer 55
is also driven by engine 38 and the \"-belt and
pulley wheel train 56 and 58, has a clutch to there
in to selectively applir power to jacket 62.
The jacket 62 has an intake port 542 and an
outlet port 66 at its ends as well as an exhaust
stack 53, which is at the same end thereof as
outlet port 65. The header plate ill at one end
of jacket 62 has the intake port therethr-ough,
which port is in communication with a hopper
‘highly desirable and efficient to arrange openings
28 substantially as illustrated in Fig. ll.
These
openings communicate with the chambers formed
between the several convolutions of strip 88, and
since the strip is spiral and does form a number
of substantially transverse partitions within
chamber 14, the material between these separate
convolutions of strip 88 may be classi?ed into
that having greater or lesser amounts of moisture
content. Agitation of the material is created
by the jets of air as it enters the spaces between
the convolutions of strip 88. Obviously, when the
material first enters dehydratingr chamber '56, it
has a higher moisture content and as the outlet
regard to drum l6 and into the space between
drum Ill and jacket 82 that is designated by the
numeral ‘Hi and which constitutes the dehydrat
port '55 is approached, the moisture content will
diminish. The number of openings 28, therefore.
along the group thereof is greater near the intake
port 65 and the distance between the openings
23 is progressively increased as the outlet port
ing chamber.
t‘s-is approached.
‘52, disposed to feed the material tangentially with
A feeder or agitator it is in the throat of hopper
'42 to insure an even flow of the comminuted crop
or material into dehydrating chamber ‘M. This
feeder or agitator ‘iii may be actuated in any suit
able manner by appropriate connections to a
source of power, not here shown.
Header plate 18 is a stationary element, caps
the end of jacket 52, and has the outlet port 66
and the stack 88 disposed thereat.
Jacket 82 is cylindrical, mounted upon frame
i2 by rollers 83 and annular, circumscribing
tracks 82 respectively, and is rotated about its
axis by pinion 3-"; and the annular rack or cir
cumscribing chain 85. As will be observed from
Fig. 1, power from engine 38 is imparted to 84
and 86 to the end that jacket 6-2 may be rotated
in the direction indicated by the arrow in Fig. 5.
In the preferred form of the invention, the
structure in the dehydrating chamber for moving
the material being treated, longitudinally toward
the outlet port 5% from intake port 64, comprises
a continuous, spiral strip 88 dividing the dehy
drating chamber ‘ill into a number of intercon
nested compartments substantially isolated from
These openings 28 are outwardly and down
wardly inclined, as illustrated in Fig. 5, and are
so arranged as to direct jets of hot air and prod
ucts of combustion into the sub-divided dehy
drating chamber iii toward the material being
treated, or in a direction opposite to that through
which it is being urged by the rotation of jacket
62. In other Words, as the material adheres to
the inner surface of jacket 62 and “crawls” up
wardly toward the top of the chamber, it is met
by downwardly directed jets of hot air and forced
back to the bottom of the jacket 82 where strip
88 will move it longitudinally and closer to the
outlet port 86. The drier material will remain
near the bottom of chamber 14 as it approaches
the port 65 and to avoid burning the material,
‘openings ‘23 must be spaced progressively closer to
the top of drum 10, as the outlet end of the dehy
drating chamber 14 is approached. Afewer num
ber of openings 28 will accomplish the same pur
pose of forcing the material back to the bottom
of chamber 14 as the moisture content thereof
is diminished.
When the material is ?rst dropped into dehy
drating chamber ‘M through hopper l2 and intake
each other so far as the grouping of openings 23
is concerned. Such group and disposition of
port 66, a relatively great amount of moisture is
openings ‘3.3 as attain the effective aims of the 55 usually therein. Accordingly, it is desirable to
invention, will be hereinafter set down.
initially subject the newly introduced material
Drum if! is somewhat shorter than the length
to a number of hot air blasts to quickly dissipate
of jacket 62 and a series of lifter blades 9&3 within
surface moisture on leafy crops, for example.
jacket 62, elevate the material being handled to
This surface moisture may be quickly removed
a point where it slides along these blades 93 and
by the employment of a number of openings 28
through the outlet port 66 into a chute 92. To
arranged as shown in Fig. 5. These openings 28
the end that “packing” of the material will not
are in spaced apart groups below the intake port
occur on the top of drum i9, jacket 62 is mounted
and directs hot air against the material as it en
slightly eccentric to drum is for the purpose of
ters the dehydrating chamber and before it is
providing a space to permit unrestricted passage
lifted by the moving jacket 82. In fact, as the
of high temperature, moist air and such products
material enters the left side of the annular de
of combustion as are generated in chamber '14.
hydrating chamber (Fig. 5) the lefthand ‘group
This space is between the edge of the spiral strip
of openings 28 will force the material down to
88 and the outer annular surface of drum is and
Ward the bottom of chamber ‘M where another
must always be provided for the positive evacua
group of openings 28 will direct jets of hot air
tion of the machine before the aforesaid products
thereagainst. Thereafter, as the rotating jacket
of combustion cool to the dew point. Strip 8% is
52 tends to lift the moist crop or material up
assembled by Welding to the inner face of
wardly, the righthand series or group of openings
jacket 62.
28 will send jets of air thereagainst. By this
After the flame is created within drum E0, the 5 time, the material is dry enough to be forced
air pressure therein will cause hot air and prod
2,410,675
back and kept from riding to the top of drum Hi.
If, however, the materials do so ride to the top
of the dehydrator chamber ‘M, they will migrate
.~ 1. In a dehydrator of the character described,
a stationary drum provided with outwardly di
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for direct
ing air‘ under pressure into the drum; a rotatable
by gravity back to the bottom and into the com
partments between the convolutions of strip 88,
where they will again be joined by the mass of
material and motivated both longitudinally and,
jacket circumscribing the drum and providing
a dehydrating chamber between the drum and
upwardly as the treatment continues.
the jacket into which are directed the said open
Only a-radiating heat from drum ill will act
upon the dehydrated material as it is moved be— 10 ings; and means for rotating the drum in a di»
rection to move the material being treated to
yond the end of the series of openings 28.
ward the openings whereby the air passing from
The temperature within dehydrating chamber
the drum through said openings is directed
14 is the factor controlling the flow of fuel to
against the material.
_
burners 22. The dehydrated material will be
2.
In
a
dehydrator
of
the
character
described,
moved by strip 88 into the end zone of jacket 82 15
a stationary drum provided with outwardly di
and there be lifted by blades 90 to a point where
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
the substance will flow through outlet port and
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for direct
chute 66 and 92 respectively. The temperature
ing air under pressure into the drum; a rotatable
of the dehydrating compartment M at a point
just beyond the end of drum i0 and between the ~ jacket circumscribing the drum and providing a
dehydrating chamber between the drum and the
end of drum I 6 and outlet port 55, should be
jacket
into which are directed the said openings;
the controlling factor, and therefore, a thermo
and means for rotating the drum in a direction
couple ~94 is disposed at said point. This ther
to move the material being treated upwardly to
mo~couple 94 is mounted upon the shaft 26 which
ward
the openings whereby to establish counter
supports drum l6, and suitable conductors 96 ex- ?ow between the air passing from the drum
tend therefrom to the automatic control 98 at
through the said openings and the material in
vave 20. This automatic control which regulates
the dehydrating'chamber.
. the amount of fuel passing through pipe i6, is
3.
In
a
dehydrator
of
the
character
described,
obtainable in its entirety upon the open market,
a stationary drum provided with outwardly di
and while it forms no part of the invention here
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
in described, it does contribute to the ef?cient
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for direct
operation of the equipment.
ing air under pressure into the drum; a rotat
Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate a modi?ed form of the
means for motivating the material being treated
longitudinally through dehydrating chamber ‘M.
35
able jacket circumscribing the drum and provid
ing a dehydrating chamber between the drum and
the jacket into which are directed the said open
In lieu of the spirally arranged strip 88, as above
ings; and means for rotating the drum in a direc
described and illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, a series
tion to move the material being treated toward
of inclined, overlapped plates I053 may be welded
the openings whereby the air passing from the
or otherwise secured to the inner surface of jack
et 62 for the purpose of moving the material. 40 drum through said openings is directed against
the material, said openings being arranged in a
These plates lift and slide the material being de
path
extending substantially longitudinally of‘the
hydrated from the intake port 61! toward the out
drum, the distance between said openings being
let port 66 and their function is analogous to
progressively greater as the outlet end of the de
strip 88. Other means for moving the material
hydrating
chamber is approached.
through dehydrator chamber 14 may be em
4i.
In
a
dehydrator
of the character described,
ployed if desired, so long as the function of open
stationary drum provided with outwardly di
ings 28 is not impaired nor precluded.
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
The speed of movement through the dehydrat
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for direct
ing chamber varies with different crops and with
ing air under pressure into the drum; a rotatable
the amount of heat applied thereto. It is desir
jacket circumscribing the drum and providing a
able to maintain a temperature range at ther
dehydrating chamber between the drum and the
mo-couple 94 at from 375° to 400° F., and when
jacket into which are directed the said openings;
openings 28 have a diameter of one in., from
means for rotating the drum; and members in
two to six openings 28 are used in the ?rst 10
the
dehydrating chamber for directing the ma
in. of dehydrating chamber ‘M. From that point
terial therein longitudinally therealong, said.v
on, the number of openings and the height above
the bottom of dehydrating chamber 14, may vary
members being formed to divide the dehydrating
to suit conditions. The size and position of the
openings is not critical. The manner in which
munication therewith.
chamber into a series of transverse compartments
each having a plurality of said openings in com
the openings 28 progressively decrease in number 60
5. In a dehydrator of the character described,
a stationary drum provided with outwardly di
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
hydrating chamber 74 is increased, is important
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for direct
however, and constitutes the outstanding ele
ing
air under pressure into the drum; a rotatable
ment in the entire dehydrating assembly that per 65
jacket circumscribing the drum and providing a
mits a great throughput of material without
dehydrating chamber between the drum and the
burning.
jacket into which are directed the said openings;
Obviously, dehydrators having physical char
means for rotating the drum; and members in
acteristics different from those illustrated and
the dehydrating chamber for directing the mate
described might be made without departing from
rial therein longitudinally therealong, said mem
the spirit of the invention or scope of the ap
as the outlet end is approached, and the manner
in which their distance above the bottom of de
pended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
'ters Patent is:
bers being formed to divide the dehydrating
chamber into a series of transverse compart
ments each ‘having a plurality of said openings
in communication therewith, said openings for
75 the successive compartments being progressively
2,410,675
7
as the outlet port is approached whereby less hot
air is introduced to the material being treated as
ber is approached.
'
it progresses through the dehydrating chamber.
6. In a dehydrator of the character described,
10. In a dehydrator of the character described,
a stationary drum provided with outwardlydi
a stationary drum provided with outwardly direc
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
ted openings in the wall thereof; means for
creating a ?re in the drum; apparatus for di
creating a ?re in the drum; perforated pipes ex
recting air under pressure into the‘ drum; a rotat
tending intothe drum to direct air under pres
able jacket circumscribing the drum and provid
sure into the drum; apparatus for feeding such
ing a dehydrating chamber between the drum and
air into the pipes; a rotatable jacket having an
10
the jacket into which are directed the said open
intake and an outlet port therein and providing
ings; means for rotating the drum; and members
a dehydrating chamber between the drum and
in the dehydrating chamber for directing the ma
the jacket into which are directed the said open
terial therein longitudinally therealong, said
ings; means for rotating the drum; and a spirally
members being formed to divide the dehydrating
arranged, internal rib on the inner face of the
chamber into a series of transverse compartments
jacket for dividing the chamber into a number
each having a plurality of said openings in com
of compartments and for moving the material
munication therewith, said openings for the suc
being treated from the intake toward the outlet
cessive compartments being progressively fewer
port, said openings being arranged in a path
in number and disposed progressively higher from
extending upwardly from a point adjacent to
the bottom of the compartment as the outlet end ~ the intake port to a point near the outlet port
of the chamber is approached.
of the jacket, said openings being spaced pro
'7. In a dehydrator of the character described,
gressively farther apart as the outlet port is
a- stationary drum provided with outwardly di
approached whereby less hot air is introduced
rected openings in the wall thereof; means for
to the material being treated as it progresses
25
creating a ?re in the drum; perforated pipes ex
through the dehydrating chamber, said openings
tending into the drum to direct air under pres
being directed downwardly toward the bottom
sure into the drum; apparatus for feeding such
of the dehydrating chamber to establish counter
air into the pipes; a rotatable jacket having an
?ow between the material being treated and the
intake and an outlet port therein and providing
air passing from within the drum to the de
a dehydrating chamber between the drum and the 30 hydrating chamber.
jacket into which are directed the said openings;
ll. In a dehydrator of the character described,
means for rotating the drum; and a spirally ar
a stationary drum provided with openings in
ranged, internal rib on the inner face of the
the side Wall thereof; means‘ for creating a ?re
jacket for dividing the chamber into a number of
in the drum; apparatus for directing air under
35
compartments and for moving the material being
pressure into the drum to be heated and forced
treated from the intake toward the outlet port.
out through the openings; a jacket, having an
8. In a dehydrator of the character described,
intake port at one end and an outlet port at the
a stationary drum provided with outwardly direct
other end thereof, circumscribing the drum in
ed openings in the wall thereof; means for
spaced relation thereto to form a dehydrating
creating a ?re in the drum; perforated pipes ex 40 chamber between the drum and the jacket; and
tending into the drum to direct air under pressure
structure in the dehydrating chamber for mov
fewer in number as the outlet end of the cham
into the drum; apparatus for feeding such air
ing the material longitudinally along the de
into the pipes; a rotatable jacket having an in
hydrating chamber toward the outlet port thereof
take and an outlet port therein and providing a
and‘ upwardly from the lowermost portion of the
“A
Gil
dehydrating chamber between the drum and the
said chamber, said openings being arranged to
jacket into which are directed the said openings;
direct jets of hot air against the material to limit
means for rotating the drum; and a spirally
its upward movement.
arranged, internal rib on the inner face of the
12. In a dehydrator of the character described, '
jacket for dividing the chamber into a number
a stationary drum provided with openings in the
50
of compartments and for moving the material
side wall thereof; means for creating a fire in the
being treated from the intake toward the outlet
drum; apparatus for directing air under pressure
port, said openings being arranged in a path
into the drum to be heated and forced out through
extending upwardly from a point adjacent to
the openings; a jacket, having an intake port at
the intake port to a point near the outlet port
one
end and an outlet port at the other end
55
of the jacket.
thereof, circumscribing the drum in spaced rela
9. In a dehydrator of the character described,
tion thereto to form a dehydrating chamber be
a stationary drum provided with outwardly direc
tween the drum and the jacket; and structure
ted openings in the wall thereof; means for
in the dehydrating chamber for moving the mate
creating a fire in the drum; perforated pipes
rial longitudinally along the dehydrating cham
60
extending into the drum to direct air under
ber toward the outlet port thereof and upwardly
pressure into the drum; apparatus for feeding
from the lowermost portion of the said chamber,
such air into the pipes; a rotatable jacket having
said openings being arranged to direct jets of
an intake and an outlet port therein and provid
hot air against the material to limit its upward
ing a dehydrating chamber between the drum
movement, said openings being progressively
65
and the jacket into which are directed the said
higher as the outlet port is approached.
openings; means for rotating the drum;
13. In a dehydrator of the character described,
and a spirally arranged, internal rib on
a stationary drum provided with openings in the
the inner face of the jacket for dividing
side wall thereof; means for creating a fire in the
the chamber into a number of compart
drum; apparatus for directing air under pressure
70
ments and for moving the material being treated
into the drum to be heated and forced out through
from the intake toward the outlet port, said open
the openings; a jacket, having an intake port at
ings being arranged in a path extending up—
one end and an outlet port at the other end
wardly from a point adjacent to the intake port
thereof, circumscribing the drum in spaced rela
to a point near the outlet port of the jacket, said
75 tion thereto to form a dehydrating chamber be
openings being spaced progressively farther apart
2,410,675
tween the drum and the jacket; and structure in
the dehydrating chamber for moving the mate
rial longitudinally along the dehydrating chamber
toward the outlet port thereof and upwardly from
the lowermost portion of the said chamber, said
openings being arranged to direct jets of hot air
against the material to limit its upward move
ment, said openings being progressively higher
as the outlet port is approached, said openings
being spaced progressively farther apart as the
outlet port is approached.
14. In a dehydrator of the character described,
a stationary drum provided with openings in the
side wall thereof; means for creating a ?re in the
drum; apparatus for directing air under pressure
into the drum to be heated and forced out through
the openings; a jacket, having an intake port at
one end and an outlet port at the other end
thereof, circumscribing the drum in spaced rela
10
ment, certain of said openings ‘being arranged in
spaced apart groups near the intake port and
disposed to direct hot air against the material as
it enters the dehydrating chamber and before
it is elevated by the said structure for moving
the material.
15. In a dehydrator of the character described,
a stationary drum provided with outwardly direc
ted openings in the wall thereof; means for
creating a ?re in the drum; perforated pipes ex
tending into the drum to direct air under pres
sure into the drum; apparatus for feeding such
air into the pipes; a rotatable jacket having an
intake and an outlet port therein and providing
a dehydrating chamber between the drum and
the jacket into which are directed the said open
. ings; means for rotating the drum; and a spirally
arranged, internal rib on the inner face of the
jacket for dividing the chamber into a number of
tion thereto to form a dehydrating chamber be
tween the drum and the jacket; and structure 20 compartments and for moving the material being
in the dehydrating chamber for moving the mate
rial longitudinally along the dehydrating chamber
treated from the intake toward the outlet port,
said openings being in communication with the
said compartments and arranged in progressively
toward the outlet port thereof and upwardly from
decreasing numbers as the outlet port is ap
the lowermost portion of the said chamber, said
openings being arranged to direct jets of hot 25 proached to provide a progressively reduced tem
perature in the successive compartments.
air against the material to limit its upward move
ADELBERT P. NICHOLS, JR.
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