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Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed March l0, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Hg. 4.
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Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed March 10, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig. 6.
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Pfg. 8.
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Frank MCIaT‘k,
His Aitorney.
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
mnocamran on. comosmoN
‘ hun: M. clark. Pittsfield, Mas... mmm a»
General Electric Company,` a corporation of
New York
Application March 10, 1945, Serial No. 582,174
8 Claims. (Cl. 252-64)
The present application is a continuation-in
part of my application Serial No. 511,571, iiled No
vember 24, 1943, which in turn is a continuation
in-part oi' prior application Serial No. 436.930,
filed March 31, 1942.
The present invention comprises compositions
suitable for use in the insulating and dielectric
opal wax-treated capacitor has fallen to 2.5 micro
Such a large change in capacity may
have serious results in an electrical system con
taining the variable capacitor.
This reduction in capacity of an opal wax
treated capacitor is due to the reduction in di
electric constant at about 65° C. as shown by
ilelds. Such compositions include as essential in
graph 8 oi' Fig. 2. A sulfone, on the other hand.
gradients aromatic sulfone and hydrogenated
as shown by the graph 9, is characterized by a
vegetable oil.
10 rise of dielectric constant from 25° C. to 100° C.
In the accompanying drawings Fig. l is a per
The association of aromatic sulfone with hydro
spective view of a wound-type capacitor shown
genated vegetable wax, even in small amounts,
partly unrolled; Fig. 2 comprises graphs showing
has an unexpectedly large effect in reducing the
dielectric characteristics over a range of tempera
fall of capacity which characterizes a hydrogen
tures respectively of dixenyl sulfone and hy
ated oil without entailing a corresponding increase
drogenated castor oil; Fig. 3 comprises graphs
in power factor.
showing the dielectric constant at a given tem
Depending on the effect to be produced, com
perature of compositions comprising various mix
positions embodying my invention vary in sulfone
tures of these compounds; Fig. 4 comprises graphs
showing relative capacity values over a range oi 20 content over a wide range, as will be evident.
The novel features of my invention will be
temperatures of capacitors respectively of com
out with greater particularity in the ap
positions containing diphenyl sulfone; Fig. 5 com
prises graphs similarly showing comparative ca
pacity values for compositions containing dixenyl
1 pended claims.
Capacitors embodying my invention may con
sist, as shown in Fig. l, oi.' armatures composed of
strips of metal foil I0, Ii which are separated by
sets of paper spacers l2, I3. The armatures are
shown as being separated by two ‘sheets of paper
as representative of any desired plurality of
sheets. Terminal strips Il, l5 as usual vmake elec
sulfone; Figs. 6 and 'I are graphs respectively
showing the per cent change in capacity over a
range of temperatures of capacitors containing
diiîerent amounts of two chosen sulfones; and in
Fig. 8 are shown graphs of the ñow points of a
range of sulfone compositions.
trical contact to the armatures I0, il. Although
Compositions containing ingredients chosen
marked beneilcial effects are obtained when the
from these two classes possess, as will be shown,
amount of sulfone present is as low as one per
advantageous properties not possessed by either
cent, the proportion of aromatic sulfone in my
new dielectric composition may be much greater.
ingredient. Aromatic sulfones when used unas
sociated with other materials as dielectric ma
Capacitors impregnated with compositions con
taining by weight 75 per cent of sulfone and 25
terials in capacitors are characterized by high
energy loss which under some conditions leads to
per cent of hydrogenated oil have a higher ca
pacity than can be obtained with either class of
overheating with resultant short life.
Capacitors containing hydrogenated castor oil
(commercially known as opal wax) are charac
terized by high capacitance but they possess the
impregnants used individually.
As shown by graph l1 of Fig. 3, the presence
of even small amounts of a sulfone approximat
disadvantageous feature of being subject to a re
ing one per cent greatly increases the dielectric
duction of about 40 per cent capacity if their tem
constant of hydrogenated castor oil at elevated
perature rises above about 65° C. In many in
stances capacitors are required to operate under 45 temperatures. In contrast the increase in the
amount of sulfone present leads to decreased di
ambient temperatures of about 90 to 100° C., and
electric constant at room temperature (25° CJ.
even higher temperatures.
This is shown by graph I8 of this ilgure. Graph
Comparative ilgures will make this advantage
I1, showing the dielectric constants at 100° C. ot
more readily appreciated. At 25° C. a capacity
of given size and construction when impregnated 50 different compositions of opal wax and dixenyl
sulfone, shows that the dielectric constant at
with mineral oil has a capacity of 2.5 micro
100° C. is maximum when the compositions con
farads. A similar capacitor impregnated with
tain about 25 to 60 per cent of this sulfone.
opal wax has a capacity of 3.75 microfarads. At The iiow point of compositions of opal wax and
100“ C. the oil-treated capacitor has substantially
a sulfone rises with increase of sulfone content:
unchanged capacity whereas the capacity of the 65 over
the entire range oi sulfone additions.
changes as the temperature oi the capacitor rises
Graph 20 of'Fig. 8 is illustrative of the rise- of
i’rom »25 to 100° C.
flow point in compositions of opal wax and di
As shown in Fig. 6 by the curve 32 composi
phenyl sulfone as the content of sulfone in
tions containing about 11 percent otdiphenyl
creases. Graph 2| is illustrative of the rise of
i‘low point of compositions of opal wax and Ui sulfone, the balance being opal wax, have about
the same capacity at 100° C. as at 25° C. Lower
dixenyl sulfone as the content of sulfone in
sulfone contents result in lowered capacity as
the temperature rises from 25 to 100° C. Greater
creases. Up to about 25 per cent of sulfone con
tent, the rise of ñow point is most marked.
sulfone content results in a rise of capacity.
Although in the examples heretofore discussed
If it is desired that capacitors containing such
improved dielectric compositions should operate
with variations in capacity not to exceed about
10 per cent in the range of 25 to 100° C., then
the content oi sulfone in the composition ordi
narily should be chosen from a relatively narrow
range which varies for different sulfones. In the
case of compositions containing dixenyl sulfone
I have particularly referred to diphenyl sulione,
and dixenyl sulfone, I wish it to be understood
an amount as low as about one per cent results in
Dielectric Dielectric Melting
constant constant
that other sulfones, the dielectric constant oi
which increases with rise of temperature, may be
used for the purposes of my invention.
substantial constancy oi capacity when the tem
perature varies from 25 to 100° C. In composi
at 25° C. at 100° C. degrcesC.
tions containing diphenyl sulfone, approximately 20
Dixenyl sulione ................. _.
l1 per cent should be present in order to obtain
Diphenyl sulione ........ -_
5. l
substantial constancy of capacity.
In Fig. 4. graph 23 shows the capacity relation
to temperature o! capacitor units containing paper
Phenyl xenyl sulione .... ._
2. 8
Dimethyl diphenyl sulione
3. 5
05- 70
Dinaphthyl sulfone ......... _-
2. 9
11. 0
2. 3
10. l
30- 35
7. 0
3. 8
14. 0
25- Il)
Phenyl naphthyl sulione. _ _--
Dichlor phenyl tolyl sulione..
impregnated with opal wax. It is evident that the , 25 Monoch or phenyl tolyl su1icne.....
capacity falls rapidly as the temperature rises
from about 65 to 100° C. As shown by the graph
Il, a composition containing by weight about
'l5 parts of opal wax and 25 parts of diphenyl
sulfone is characterized by a rise o! capacity over
the same range ot temperatures. Capacitors im
pregnated with compositions of about 85 parts
of opal wax and 15 parts of this snlfone are
characterized by little change of capacity with
I have also referred particularly to hydro
genated castor oil as an example of a suitable
hydrogenated oil. I wish it to be understood that
other hydrogenated vegetable oils may be simi
larly used, as for example hydrogenated cotton
' seed oil and hydrogenated linseed oil.
My invention is not restricted to compositions
consisting solely oi hydrogenated vegetable oil
riss o! temperature in this range, as shown by the 35 and an aromatic sulione.
Additional ingredients may be present as ex
graph 2l. Some increase o! capacity occurs as
emplified by the addition oi' chlorinated diphenyl
the temperature rises to about 60° C. from room
and betachlor anthraquinone as components.
temperature. The capacity falls. slightly as the
For example, capacitor impregnants containing
temperature rises to 100° C. At this temperature
it is very little higher than at 25° C. For some 40 the following range o! ingredients by weight are
characterized by a substantially stable capacity
capacitor applications it is desirable to have a
minimum change of capacity with temperature
Fig. 5 shows similar relations for compositions
over a wide range ot temperatures:
Per cent
Hydrogenated castor oil ________ __ 92
to 96
Pentachlor diphenyl ___________ _.. 6
to 1.99
Dinaphtlnfl sullone ____________ -_ 1.94to 1.99
Betachlor anthraquinone _______ __
.06 to
o! opal wax and dixenyl sulfone. For compara
tive purposes, graph 25 illustrates the capacity
temperature relation of opal wax. At 25° C. the
capacity ot-a given capacitor is about 3.75 units.
A capacitor dielectric composition consisting
At 65° C. the capacity begins to fall rapidly with
rise oi' temperature. At 100° C. the capacity has 50 by weight of 92 per cent hydrogenated castor oil.
6 per cent pentachlor diphenyl, 1.94 per cent o!
fallen to about 2.5 units. The addition o! even
sulione and .06 per cent of betachlor
one percent by weight o! dixenyl sulione pro
anthraquinone when employed as an impreg
duces a marked effect. As shown by graph 21 ot
nant for capacitors containing three sheets of
Fig. 5, at 100° C. the capacity is about 3.5 units
.0004 kraft paper is characterized by substan
which is very close to the initial capacity. 'I'he
tially constant capacity ot an ambient tempera
addition of 2 per cent of this sulione has a more
ture range o! 25 to 125° C.
marked eiiect as shown by graph I0. Composi
Substantially constant capacity over the same
tions comprising by weight 95 parts of opal wax
range characterizes similar capaci
and 5 parts of dixenyl sulfone are characterized.
as shown by the graph 29, by a gradual increase 50 tors impregnated with a composition consisting
by weight of 86 per cent of hydrogenated castor
in capacity as the temperature rises from 25 to
oil, 10.5 per cent of pentachlor diphenyl, 3.5 per
100° C. Graph III shows temperature-capacity
cent dimethyl diphenyl sulfone and .1 per cent of
characteristics for opal wax compositions con
betachlor anthraquinone.
taining 20 per cent o! this sulfone.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Graph Il oi' Fig. 'l indicates changes in capacity
Letters Patent oi! the United States is:
values as the temperature rises from 25 to 100° C.
1. A composition o1 matter comprising by
for a range of compositions comprising opal wax
weight about 1 to 60 parts of aromatic sulione
and dixenyl sulfone. Opal wax impregnants con
and about 99 to 40 parts of hydrogenated castor
taining about one per cent o! dixenyl sulione
result in the capacitor having substantially the 70 oil. '
same capacity at 100° C. as at 25° C. For lesser
amounts of sulfone the 100° C. capacity is lower
than the 25° C. capacity. Larger contents than
one per cent o! this sulione in the impregnant of
a capacitor result in progressively greater capacity 75
2. A composition of matter consisting of by
weight about 1 to 60 per cent of dixenyl suli'onc
and about 99 to 40 per cent of hydrogenatcd
castor oil.
3. A dielectric material suitable for use in
electric capacitors consisting of by weight about
2 per cent oi' dixenyl sulfone and about 98 per
cent oi' hydrogenated castor oil.
4. A dielectric range of compositions which are
suitable i'or the impregnation oi' capacitors in
which the armatures are separated by paper
spacers, said compositions consisting of about 25
to 60 per cent of dixenyl sulfone and about 75 to
weight about 85 to 99 parts of hydrogenated
castor oil, about 1 to 15 Darts of aromatic sul
fone, and about 2 to 10 parts of chlorinated
7. A dielectric composition which is suitable
for use in electric capacitors consisting by weight
of about 1 to 15 per cent of aromatic sulfone and
about 99 to 85 per cent of hydrogenated castor
40 per cent of hydrogenatcd castor oil.
5. A range of dielectric compositions consist
8. A dielectric composition consisting mainly
ing of about 99 to 85 per cent oi hydrogenated
of hydrogenated castor oil and containing ap
vegetable oil and about 1 to 15 per cent of aro
proximately 6 per cent of pentachlor diphenyl
matic sulfone.
and aDDIOximately 2 per cent of aromatic sulfone.
6. A dielectric composition comprising by
Patent No. 2,410,715.
Certificate of Correction
November 5, 1946.
It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column l, line 48, for the word
“advantage” read disadvantage; column 5, line 4, claim 4, for “dielectric range of”
read range of dielectric; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with thesecorrections
therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent
Signed and sealed this 15th day of April, A. D. 1947.
First Am’atant Oonmùsîcner of Patents.
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