Nav. 5, 1921-6. O_ FUSCALDQ 2,41%,728 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Jan, 30, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 \ v - 6977:4100 a . , A. m “ '1 1 Fuse/4100 Nov. 5, - 1946‘, I r 2,410,728 o. FUSCALDQ INTERNAL ‘COMBUSTION ENGINE ' Filed Jan. 30, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 \A. kz,1i|! # /V > \.m|.h 1i.“, MA/ /,. . /1|- / __ .M . 1 .1 . ,fuiIlvkn?r w, HR n .1%.a . m. “H My» Hum .7\ I _ ?u r. A1.I- .“ M“. \_ H. f u HI #w _ I|i . l/w /.4 I. 3mm 0mm mmzdq. Fatented' Nov. 5, 1946 _ 2,410,728 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Ottavio Fuscaldo, Milan, Italy; vested in the Alien Property Custodian Application'lanuary 30, 1941, Serial No. 376,679 r In Italy February 28, 1940 . 4 Claims. (Cl. 123-119) .. l a , by the supercharger, with which the chamber is . The present invention relates to ‘internal com connected by means of a small air pipe 5|. Thus the supercharged pressure determines thev cham ber pressure and causes response of the bellows, bustion engines, and consists of a device for at. taining the object of proportioning automatically the fuel-air mixture under all practical condi tions of operation of internal combustion engines of the known kind ?tted with electromagnetically .which may actuate directly the air valve 40,.but is shown as acting through a hydraulic servo controlled injection means; an instance being motor 52, the known character of which needs no disclosed in copending application No. 315,734 disclosure. ?led January 26, 1940, issued February 9, 1943, 10 as Patent No. 2,310,773. For securing said object and other objects and, advantages, the invention consists of the im ' ' ' The bellows $9 is not ?xed, but is movable lon- , gitudinally in the chamber 50, for adjustment purposes and cooperative control of the airvalve all. It is held retracted rightward by spring 53 , against the inner end of bearing guide 5% in which slides the stem 55 of the, bellows. The given as an example and embodiment, but in 15 position of the stem 55 is set so that when the hand lever St has completely opened the main tended in no way to restrict the novel principles throttle 3t, and the telescoping link 36-37 be‘ or range of the invention. gins to shorten, due to the stop (it, a contact In the drawings: screw 56 carried by the hand lever 38 vcontacts Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically the proportion-. 20 and moves the bellows stem 55, compressing ing device. . ‘ spring 53 and opening the auxiliary throttle to Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a four cylinder in- ’ further, thus allowing a certain partial super ternal combustion engine to which the device is charging of air, for instance at the take-oil‘. The electric current distributor It is shown Inthe drawings the supercharger 30 draws in with circuits for the various injectors I of the air from supply conduit 3| and delivers it through engine, e. g. four; and may be energized by a conduit 33 feeding air by manifold A to the battery i5 when the switch it "is closed. The various cylinders of the engine M, which may be distributor M is of the type with variable dura such as used for propelling aircraft. tion of contact and injection, and the variation is In the suction conduit 3| is a. main throttle or provement disclosedby the following speci?ca tion, with reference to the attached drawings, applied. ‘ _ ‘ air valve 34 controlling the air admissiomwhich 30 preferably controlled by a centrifugal regulator or governor l'l through lever 'l9‘and link l8. throttle, by means of its lever arm 35' and the’ yieldable link or rod 36—3‘| is hand-controllable Details of a suitable distributor are disclosed in said copending application, which also discloses by throttle lever 38 fulcrumed at 39. . ‘ an appropriate electromagnetic'ally controlled ,In the same conduit 3| there is provided a second or auxiliary throttle M for additionally 35 injector. restricting the air feed when ?ying below a cer The centrifugal regulator H, or other speed‘ tain' altitude, above which the'full air feed and responsive device, whether mechanical, hydraulic ‘power of the engine is desirable. The throttle or air-driven, cooperates in making it possible to to is controlled through its lever arm BI and the keep within convenient limits the fuel injection rod or link (32 actuated by a control device t3, pressure in relation to the changes in the speed of the engine, namely making it unnecessary to later described._ The actuating rod 36-37 for the main throttle increase the pressure too much at highspeeds. is yieldable in length, being adapted to be short; This result‘follows by reason of the regulator ened by compression of its spring 44, when the controlling the distributor to adjust the angular ' contact ?nger £115 on rod end 36 meets an adjust 45 duration of each injection, which is one of the able stop 46, set to correspond to full-open posi factors, determining the desirable fuel pressure. tion of throttle 36. But the rod can not lengthen Thus if in any particular case it should be desired more than is allowed by the end 41 of the barrel to keep the fuel pressure constant, it will be su?i portion Q8 of the rod end 31 which encloses the cient to keep constant (in respect to time and by spring at. \ 50 means of said regulator), and at all speeds, the The control means 43 is of any known pres time duration of the injection (by maintaining sure-responsive type being shown with mano the angular duration proportional to speed) ; this metric or vacuum bellows ‘l9 enclosed in an because of the direct ratio existing between the air-tight chamber 50, wherein operates the pre engine speed and the fuel volume, fed by the . vailing absolute air feeding pressure as produced 55 pump per unit of time. 2,410,728 3 The fuel supply system comprises a volumetric There has thus been described an'automatic governing means for internal combustion engines pump 5 which draws the fuel from tank 'I by embodying the principles and attaining the means of pipe 8 and feeds it under pressure through pipe 9 to the fuel manifold F whence stated objects of the invention. Since various it is supplied to the injectors I in the Ul matters of operation, arrangement, construction intake pipes ‘M of the engine M; sometimes with and design may be varied in practice it is not bypass operable between injections. intended to limit the invention thereto except so _ An automatic correcting means is disclosed to far as stated in the appended claims. maintain the proper fuel-air ratio. in relation to the air feed pressure, operating independently 10' What is claimed is: ' 1. In an internal combustion engine having a It comprises, as disclosed, a vacuum bellows supercharger with an air inlet duct supplying the '_ supercharger, the combination of a main throttle 60, enclosed in a chamber 5! wherein, by means in said air duct; an auxiliary throttle in said air -of air pipe 62, 62' connecting it with the delivery conduit 33 of the supercharger (or with the air intake conduit, when the engine has no super charger) so that there always prevails inlchamber 6| the absolute air feed pressure. The bellows duct; 9. stop limiting the opening movement of the of the characteristics and speed of the fuel pump. main throttle; a manual lever with a yielding connection with the main throttle for opening the main throttle to the limit of its stop; a pres sure-responsive capsule with an air~pipe connec 60 by its variation in length, acts as follows. On tion with the supercharger to operate said cap expanding, the bellows shifts downwardly the 20 sule by variation of supercha'rge air pressure; tapering part 63 of a piston or plunger 64 con connections from the capsule to the auxiliary stituting a fuel bypass valve. The bypass route throttle to move the auxiliary throttle toward is from fuel pressure pipe 9 through bypass open position with decrease of supercharge air passage 13, 15, 65 to the fuel supply pipe 8. The valve 63, 64 is between pipes ‘I5 and 65, and with lower air pressure more fuel is bypassed, reducing the injection pressure and volume. Another or auxiliary system or correcting means comprises a bellows 68 within a chamber 69, with a valve or piston 10 on its stem, and a conical end ‘ll. This device is placed-in series with the ‘first corrector, by means of the bypass pipes 13 and 15,, while their discharges are in parallel, valve 10 releasing fuel through pipe ‘M to pipe 8. - In the auxiliary correction system, the chamber pressure, and vice-versa; a shiftable stem con nected with said auxiliary throttle, to open and close said auxiliary throttle, said stem being po sitioned in the path of movement of said lever; and means on said lever, co~acting with said stem, to shift said stem to open fully the auxil iary throttle after the lever has been moved to fully open the main throttle. 2. The combination as in claim 1 wherein the capsule has a bellows which is spring positioned but bodily shiftable from normal position to open further the auxiliary throttle; and the manual lever has a contact means operable after the 69 communicates not with the high pressure air main throttle is opened fully to shift the capsule but with the surrounding atmosphere, through bellows and so open fully the auxiliary throttle. hole or vent 75. The operation is that of sup 3. The combination as in claim 1 and wherein plementally adjusting the air-fuel ratio of an the pressure-responsive capsule comprises a bel engine providedlwith a supercharger, with at lows enclosed within a chamber connected to re mospheric pressure changes as the craft ascends ceive the supercharge air pressure, whereby the from the ground up to‘ the prescribed altitude bellows, with lowered surrounding chamber pres at which the full power of the engine is to be sure, lengthens and thus furnishes the actuation established; this ‘being the case with engines 45 for opening further the auxiliary throttle to ad intended to operate at preferred altitudes. mit increased air supply. , The described set of two correction means for 4. In an internal combustion engine of the type adjusting by fuel bypass the fuel-air ratio of the having a supercharger and means for varying feeding mixture, consists substantially in two the fuel supply, control means for automatically pressure responsive devices, such as manometric controlling the supply of liquid fuel and the ‘ bellows, both evacuated, these being-inserted for charging of air into the respective cylinders of parallel discharge in the fuel bypass; and with their responsive variation in length, said bellows ' the engine, to proportion automatically the fuel act, each one for itself, so that the bypassage of . the fuel is controlled and varied, by the motion air mixture comprising, a volumetric pump for forcing liquid fuel toward the engine and having of the piston and plunger with its tapering valve 55 an inlet and an outlet, means constituting two independent - bypasses between said outlet and end moving along the ?xed or seat portion of the said inlet with a bypass valve in each of said by valve. passes, pressure responsive means connected to Of these two correction devices, the ?rst or control one of said bypass valves and responsive main one 60 operates under influence of the air feed pressure of the engine, limiting or enlarging 60 to the pressure produced by the supercharger, and pressure responsive means connected to con the section of the passage of the fuel bypass, ac trol the other of said bypass. valves and respon cording to the increase or decrease of super sive to atmospheric pressure, the ?rst pressure charged air pressure; while the second or auxiliary responsive means comprising an evacuated bel device ' 68 operates under atmospheric pressure so as to reduce or increase the section of,the by 65 lows within a chamber communicating with the supercharger delivery, and operating to increase pass passage according to the decrease or increase bypass of fuel with lower air intake pressure, and of outer atmopsheric pressure. the second pressure responsive means comprising This cooperative combination of the two mano an evacuated bellows exteriorly responsive to at metric bellows 60 and 58, acting through their associated bypass valves, allows the air-fuel ratio 70 mospheric pressure with change of altitude, and operating to decrease bypass of fuel with lowering to be kept practically constant, whatever be the of atmospheric pressure. operating conditions of the engines, or the alti O'I‘TAVIO FUSCALDO. tude of the craft.