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Nav. 5, 1921-6.
Filed Jan, 30, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
v - 6977:4100
, A.
Nov. 5, - 1946‘,
r 2,410,728
' Filed Jan. 30, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Fatented' Nov. 5, 1946
Ottavio Fuscaldo, Milan, Italy; vested in the
Alien Property Custodian
Application'lanuary 30, 1941, Serial No. 376,679
In Italy February 28, 1940
4 Claims. (Cl. 123-119)
by the supercharger, with which the chamber is .
The present invention relates to ‘internal com
connected by means of a small air pipe 5|. Thus
the supercharged pressure determines thev cham
ber pressure and causes response of the bellows,
bustion engines, and consists of a device for at.
taining the object of proportioning automatically
the fuel-air mixture under all practical condi
tions of operation of internal combustion engines
of the known kind ?tted with electromagnetically
.which may actuate directly the air valve 40,.but
is shown as acting through a hydraulic servo
controlled injection means; an instance being
motor 52, the known character of which needs no
disclosed in copending application No. 315,734
?led January 26, 1940, issued February 9, 1943,
as Patent No. 2,310,773.
For securing said object and other objects and,
advantages, the invention consists of the im
The bellows $9 is not ?xed, but is movable lon- ,
gitudinally in the chamber 50, for adjustment
purposes and cooperative control of the airvalve
all. It is held retracted rightward by spring 53 ,
against the inner end of bearing guide 5% in
which slides the stem 55 of the, bellows. The
given as an example and embodiment, but in 15 position of the stem 55 is set so that when the
hand lever St has completely opened the main
tended in no way to restrict the novel principles
throttle 3t, and the telescoping link 36-37 be‘
or range of the invention.
gins to shorten, due to the stop (it, a contact
In the drawings:
screw 56 carried by the hand lever 38 vcontacts
Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically the proportion-.
20 and moves the bellows stem 55, compressing
ing device.
spring 53 and opening the auxiliary throttle to
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a four cylinder in- ’
further, thus allowing a certain partial super
ternal combustion engine to which the device is
charging of air, for instance at the take-oil‘.
The electric current distributor It is shown
Inthe drawings the supercharger 30 draws in
with circuits for the various injectors I of the
air from supply conduit 3| and delivers it through
engine, e. g. four; and may be energized by a
conduit 33 feeding air by manifold A to the
battery i5 when the switch it "is closed. The
various cylinders of the engine M, which may be
distributor M is of the type with variable dura
such as used for propelling aircraft.
tion of contact and injection, and the variation is
In the suction conduit 3| is a. main throttle or
provement disclosedby the following speci?ca
tion, with reference to the attached drawings,
air valve 34 controlling the air admissiomwhich 30 preferably controlled by a centrifugal regulator
or governor l'l through lever 'l9‘and link l8. throttle, by means of its lever arm 35' and the’
yieldable link or rod 36—3‘| is hand-controllable
Details of a suitable distributor are disclosed in
said copending application, which also discloses
by throttle lever 38 fulcrumed at 39. .
‘ an appropriate electromagnetic'ally controlled
,In the same conduit 3| there is provided a
second or auxiliary throttle M for additionally 35 injector.
restricting the air feed when ?ying below a cer
The centrifugal regulator H, or other speed‘
tain' altitude, above which the'full air feed and
responsive device, whether mechanical, hydraulic
‘power of the engine is desirable. The throttle
or air-driven, cooperates in making it possible to
to is controlled through its lever arm BI and the
keep within convenient limits the fuel injection
rod or link (32 actuated by a control device t3,
pressure in relation to the changes in the speed
of the engine, namely making it unnecessary to
later described._
The actuating rod 36-37 for the main throttle
increase the pressure too much at highspeeds.
is yieldable in length, being adapted to be short;
This result‘follows by reason of the regulator
ened by compression of its spring 44, when the
controlling the distributor to adjust the angular '
contact ?nger £115 on rod end 36 meets an adjust 45 duration of each injection, which is one of the
able stop 46, set to correspond to full-open posi
factors, determining the desirable fuel pressure.
tion of throttle 36. But the rod can not lengthen
Thus if in any particular case it should be desired
more than is allowed by the end 41 of the barrel
to keep the fuel pressure constant, it will be su?i
portion Q8 of the rod end 31 which encloses the
cient to keep constant (in respect to time and by
spring at.
50 means of said regulator), and at all speeds, the
The control means 43 is of any known pres
time duration of the injection (by maintaining
sure-responsive type being shown with mano
the angular duration proportional to speed) ; this
metric or vacuum bellows ‘l9 enclosed in an
because of the direct ratio existing between the
air-tight chamber 50, wherein operates the pre
engine speed and the fuel volume, fed by the
. vailing absolute air feeding pressure as produced 55 pump per unit of time.
The fuel supply system comprises a volumetric
There has thus been described an'automatic
governing means for internal combustion engines
pump 5 which draws the fuel from tank 'I by
embodying the principles and attaining the
means of pipe 8 and feeds it under pressure
through pipe 9 to the fuel manifold F whence
stated objects of the invention. Since various
it is supplied to the injectors I in the Ul matters of operation, arrangement, construction
intake pipes ‘M of the engine M; sometimes with
and design may be varied in practice it is not
bypass operable between injections.
intended to limit the invention thereto except so
_ An automatic correcting means is disclosed to
far as stated in the appended claims.
maintain the proper fuel-air ratio. in relation
to the air feed pressure, operating independently
What is claimed is:
1. In an internal combustion engine having a
It comprises, as disclosed, a vacuum bellows
supercharger with an air inlet duct supplying the
'_ supercharger, the combination of a main throttle
60, enclosed in a chamber 5! wherein, by means
in said air duct; an auxiliary throttle in said air
-of air pipe 62, 62' connecting it with the delivery
conduit 33 of the supercharger (or with the air
intake conduit, when the engine has no super
charger) so that there always prevails inlchamber
6| the absolute air feed pressure. The bellows
duct; 9. stop limiting the opening movement of the
of the characteristics and speed of the fuel pump.
main throttle; a manual lever with a yielding
connection with the main throttle for opening
the main throttle to the limit of its stop; a pres
sure-responsive capsule with an air~pipe connec
60 by its variation in length, acts as follows. On
tion with the supercharger to operate said cap
expanding, the bellows shifts downwardly the 20 sule by variation of supercha'rge air pressure;
tapering part 63 of a piston or plunger 64 con
connections from the capsule to the auxiliary
stituting a fuel bypass valve. The bypass route
throttle to move the auxiliary throttle toward
is from fuel pressure pipe 9 through bypass
open position with decrease of supercharge air
passage 13, 15, 65 to the fuel supply pipe 8.
The valve 63, 64 is between pipes ‘I5 and 65, and
with lower air pressure more fuel is bypassed,
reducing the injection pressure and volume.
Another or auxiliary system or correcting means
comprises a bellows 68 within a chamber 69, with
a valve or piston 10 on its stem, and a conical
end ‘ll. This device is placed-in series with the
‘first corrector, by means of the bypass pipes 13
and 15,, while their discharges are in parallel,
valve 10 releasing fuel through pipe ‘M to pipe
In the auxiliary correction system, the chamber
pressure, and vice-versa; a shiftable stem con
nected with said auxiliary throttle, to open and
close said auxiliary throttle, said stem being po
sitioned in the path of movement of said lever;
and means on said lever, co~acting with said
stem, to shift said stem to open fully the auxil
iary throttle after the lever has been moved to
fully open the main throttle.
2. The combination as in claim 1 wherein the
capsule has a bellows which is spring positioned
but bodily shiftable from normal position to open
further the auxiliary throttle; and the manual
lever has a contact means operable after the
69 communicates not with the high pressure air
main throttle is opened fully to shift the capsule
but with the surrounding atmosphere, through
bellows and so open fully the auxiliary throttle.
hole or vent 75. The operation is that of sup
3. The combination as in claim 1 and wherein
plementally adjusting the air-fuel ratio of an
the pressure-responsive capsule comprises a bel
engine providedlwith a supercharger, with at
lows enclosed within a chamber connected to re
mospheric pressure changes as the craft ascends
ceive the supercharge air pressure, whereby the
from the ground up to‘ the prescribed altitude
with lowered surrounding chamber pres
at which the full power of the engine is to be
sure, lengthens and thus furnishes the actuation
established; this ‘being the case with engines 45
for opening further the auxiliary throttle to ad
intended to operate at preferred altitudes.
mit increased air supply.
The described set of two correction means for
adjusting by fuel bypass the fuel-air ratio of the
having a supercharger and means for varying
feeding mixture, consists substantially in two
the fuel supply, control means for automatically
pressure responsive devices, such as manometric
controlling the supply of liquid fuel and the
‘ bellows, both evacuated, these being-inserted for
charging of air into the respective cylinders of
parallel discharge in the fuel bypass; and with
their responsive variation in length, said bellows ' the engine, to proportion automatically the fuel
act, each one for itself, so that the bypassage of
. the fuel is controlled and varied, by the motion
air mixture comprising, a volumetric pump for
forcing liquid fuel toward the engine and having
of the piston and plunger with its tapering valve 55 an inlet and an outlet, means constituting two
independent - bypasses between said outlet and
end moving along the ?xed or seat portion of the
said inlet with a bypass valve in each of said by
passes, pressure responsive means connected to
Of these two correction devices, the ?rst or
control one of said bypass valves and responsive
main one 60 operates under influence of the air
feed pressure of the engine, limiting or enlarging 60 to the pressure produced by the supercharger,
and pressure responsive means connected to con
the section of the passage of the fuel bypass, ac
trol the other of said bypass. valves and respon
cording to the increase or decrease of super
sive to atmospheric pressure, the ?rst pressure
charged air pressure; while the second or auxiliary
responsive means comprising an evacuated bel
device ' 68 operates under atmospheric pressure
so as to reduce or increase the section of,the by 65 lows within a chamber communicating with the
supercharger delivery, and operating to increase
pass passage according to the decrease or increase
bypass of fuel with lower air intake pressure, and
of outer atmopsheric pressure.
the second pressure responsive means comprising
This cooperative combination of the two mano
an evacuated bellows exteriorly responsive to at
metric bellows 60 and 58, acting through their
associated bypass valves, allows the air-fuel ratio 70 mospheric pressure with change of altitude, and
operating to decrease bypass of fuel with lowering
to be kept practically constant, whatever be the
of atmospheric pressure.
operating conditions of the engines, or the alti
tude of the craft.
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