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Nov, 5, 1946.
2,410,778
> C.- M. GOODRICH
CONSTRUCTION OF PIERS
Filed Jan. 1, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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2,419,778
CONSTRUCTION OF PIERS
Filed Jan. l, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheetîè
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‘Nov’ 5, 1.946.
C' M' GOÓDRICH
çoNsTRUcTIoN 0F PIERs
iîiled Jan. 1. 1945
» 2,410,778
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WVENTOR
C-M-GOODR‘CH
ATTORN E‘ÍS
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2,410,778
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
uNiTED¥ STATES- PATENT- oFFlcE-~
CONSTRUCTION or Pleas
Goodrich, Windsor, Ontario,
Chauncey M.
Canada, assigner to The Canadian Bridge Com
pany Limited, Walkerville, Ontario, Canada
l
Application January 1, 1945, Serial N0.v _570,830
7 Claims. (Cl. 61-52)
2
the provision of simple method steps and appa
ratus whereby piers `designed in accordancewith
This invention relates to improvements in the
fabrication of concrete bridge piers andsimilal' ’
structures.
The primary object of the invention is the
provision of a low cost, steel reinforced, concrete
my invention may be erected without the use of
bridge pier or `similar structure designed to per
mit erection thereof by an economical method of
fabrication which eliminates the necessity of
vantages of the invention will bey _apparent from v
caissons or air locks.
'
.
Other objects, characteristic features and ad
the following detailed description of the accom
panying drawings, in which---`
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,
Fig. l'is'an elevational view of a'bridge pier
using caissons, air locks and other expensive and
hazardous equipment ordinarily employed in the
erection of such structures.
fabricated in accordance with my invention.>
_
Fig. 2 is an elevational View showing thebridge
vpier as it appears’when lookingin the direction
A further object is the provision of a steel re
inforced _concrete bridge pier embodying novel
indicated by the arrow X in Fig. 1.
features of design which make it possible to safely
effect a substantial reduction in the size'or mass
of the pier as compared with known types of piers
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken substan
tially along the section line'3-3 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 is a horizontal sectional view taken sub
designed to carry the same loads.
stantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. _3. Y
_
'
A further object is the provision of a steelre
infomed concreteV bridge pier embodying novel
features of design which require considerably less
concrete and steel as compared with known types
of steel reinforced concrete piers intended for use
under the same service conditions.
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Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view taken sub
2O
_
stantially along the section line 5-5 _of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is aplanview of one _of Ythe concrete
.
forms 'usedin fabricating the concrete structure
of my improved bridge pier; and _ _
Fig.ì’7 is a side elevation of the form shown in
_
More particularly, the invention consists`> in
Fig. 6.
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As shown» inv these drawings, my improved
bridge pier comprisesy a relatively slender, taper
(bridge pier or similar structure in which a metal
ing, concrete structure 5 formedwith relatively
lic reinforcing and anchoring 'frame is embedded
wide, flat sides 6 and 'I 'and relatively narrow,
‘to strengthen the concrete `structure and'resist
rounded sides 8 and 9 which slope inwardly from
sidewise and over-turning movements thereof,
said frame being grounded on bed rock on which 30 the bottom to thejtoplof the structure. .This
concrete structure is erected'on bed rock I_û and
the concrete structure is erected'and comprising
has embedded therein-a metallic reinforcing and
a comparatively small number of tubular mem
anchoring frame lII consisting’principally vof two
bers arranged to effectively resist moments tend
pairs‘of .tubular‘membe'ra the members of _one
ing to overturn the concrete structure or tol move
it sidewise, said tubular members being anchored 35 pair beingi'indicated at I2 and the members of
Aproviding a low cost, Isteel reinforced, concrete
in place >by relatively short metal dowels extend
ing downwardly through the lower ends thereof
into dowel-receiving openings drilled in the bed
rock, said dowels being grouted or otherwise'se
cured to the tubular members and to the bed 40
rock.
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Another feature consists in providing an im
the other pair'being indicated at I3'. These tu- .
bular memlbers are grounded von'the-bed rock Il)
and are inclined "so that the members I2 lie par-_alle] with the sloping side 6 of the concrete
structure while the members I3 lie parallel with
the sloping side -I of the concrete' structure.
Each of the tubular members I2 and I3 isran
chored in place by a` relatively short metal dowel
proved steel reinforced, concrete bridge pier or
I4 extending downwardly through the lower end
similar structure of the character described in
which the aforesaid tubular members are in 45 thereof into' a dowel-receiving hole I5 previously
drilled in the bedrock IIJ. The dowels I4 are
clined so that they are widely spaced at the base
grouted tothe walls of -the holes l5 and to the
of the Aconcrete structure and slope inwardly as
surrounding lower portions of the tubular mem
they approach the top of said structural This
bers with which they are associated. The upper
feature of the invention increases the eiïective
ness of the tubular members for resisting over 50 portions of the tubular members I_2 are tied to
- gether and braced by upper land lower lattice type
turning of the concrete structure Vand `also facili
struts I1 which are fastened, by suitable connect
tates the erection of a relatively slender, tapered,
ing members I8, to similar upper and lower struts
concrete bridge pier or similar structure which
has a high load bearing capacity.
'
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I'I connecting and bracing the tubular members
A> further feature of the invention consists- in 55 I3.
The tubular members of each pair are also
2,410,778
4
tied together by crossed tie-rods I 8 equipped with
ing the forms 26 as they are successively lowered
to their proper positions during the fabrication
of the concrete structure. In the present instance
turnbuckles I9. Each tubular member I2 is also
joined to the opposing tubular member I3 by a
series of vertically spaced struts 20 ibetween which
are arranged crossed tie-rods 2I equipped with
turnbuckles 22.
When the pier described herein is in service
upper and lower guide rods 35 are shown ex
tending transversely across the form 26 near each
end thereof in intersecting relation with coop
erating guide rods 36 extending diagonally be
the verticalv loads.are carried >¿principally by the
tween the endV and side portions'of the form.
These guide rods 35 and 3S are designed to en
gage the tubular members I2 and i3 as shown in
Fig. 6 and thus properly guide the form to its final
concrete structure ‘5. >The main functions of the
embedded metal structure, including the inter
connected tubular members and the dowels 114,
are (1) to reinforce and strengthen the concrete
lowered position.
Having thus described the principles of my in
vention and the preferred embodiment thereof,
it will be :understood that various modifications
structure; (2) to iirmly anchor the concrete
structure to the foundation; .and (3) >to provide
adequate resistance against yoverturningor side
wise movement of the concrete-structure >by the
service loads and stresses imposed thereon. _In
may be resorted to within the scope and spirit
of the inventionas deñned by the appended
claims. ‘For example, the tubular members I2
this connection it will be noted that the concrete
structure extends above the embedded vmetal
and I3 may be arranged so that when shown in
structure and is otherwise designed to carry ver
20 a sectional view, such as Fig. 3, they would slope
, inwardly-in somewhat the samernanner as shown
tical loads.
¿Theimproved steel reinforcedconcrete pier de
«in Fig. 5.
I claim:
scribed herein -is :preferably .fabricated in the
following manner: The tubular metal members
l. A bridge pier or the like comprising a con
L I2 and I3 yare initiallyïgrounded on the founda
9.5 crete structure erected on a firm foundation and
tion or bed rock. I0 Ain theinclined or sloping po
designed to carry the vertical loads, intercon
_sitionshownin Fig. 5..and.the »upper .portions of
these tubular members A.are theninterconnected
vbythe »bracing .means :previously described. The
nected, laterally spaced vertically extending hol
low, tubular, metalreinforcing members grounded
tubular 4.members .are used as .guides for -drills Ue CD
ture-said members terminating below the top of
said structure, and `relatively short anchoring
.dowels extending downwardly through the lower
.which `are .passed l.downwardly >therethrough to
drill the dowel--receivingî holes I5 inthe bed rock
I0. The dowels `Vlllfare -then -passed downwardly
through .the tubularmembers and driven orin
serted into ¿the holes I5. These dowels are then
„firmly fixed iny position Aby- >grouting them to the
walls of the openings or holes I5 and to the lower
`portionswof the tubularmembers I Zand I3. AThe
on said foundation and embedded in said struc
ends of said members-into preformed sockets pro
vided in said foundation, saidfanchoring dowels
being grouted'in place ywithin said members and
said sockets and terminating a substantial dis
tance below theupper ends of said-members.
. 2. A bridge .pier or the like as set forth in claim
completed metal `frame Astructure .is then Tem
l, in which the tubular members are inclined to
»bedded inthe concrete structure 5 which is built 40 slope inwardlytoward the top of the concrete
insections, beginning with -the1 bottom` section . A
1 structure.
resting on the _bed rockY I~0 -îand -endingwith the
3. 1A bridge‘pierzor the-like comprisinga poured
top section» (3- which extends' a `.suitable distance
in-place concrete jstructure erected on a firm
above the water line H. In the completed struc-y
«foundation an'dwdesigned to carry the _vertical
loads and a-preeplacedmetallic skeleton frame em
frture `all, ispaces »within- rand -betweenwthe> tubular
„metal membersarefcompletelyfñlled bythe con
»crete:structuref5.Y
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.beddedfincand bonded to said Ístructureduring the
Apouring thereof «and îanchored to Ysaid foundation
,
„The -variousfsections v`Aito G` inclusive of the
.concrete- structure- 5 >lare ,successively'fabrioated
L.with theaid :of suitable tapered V»forms >such as
:indicatedat lNijn-Figs.-öfand '7. ¿The 'forms used
to .resist overturning fandsidewise movements of
said structure, said frame comprising> a plurality
50 of . interconnected.I laterally » spaced,4 vertically ex
_ iin fabricating-.the different ¿sections fof the con
cretestructure A:are,exact,duplicates yexcept fthat
ïtheyfare ¿graduatedin '-size»;.to1impart._to the »_ con
tending, .tubularimetal-members grounded on said
foundation,.and relatively short loadetransmit
.ting edowels anchoring the tubular'members to
form 125` comprises Aupper, and lower i angle .iron
said foundation, `each --of said -dowels extending
downwardly‘throughthe lower end of one’of said
members into'apreformed; socket provided in the
foundation andzbeing grouted >in place within said
frame ‘members‘îß `and‘29 >to which the .wall vmem- y
member and said socket and terminating-:a sub
>crete.structure the tapered _configuration 'pre- > ~
.viouslygreferred to. -Aslhereshown- each tapered
berfVBB-.offthe form issuitablysecured, said `walì
subeingfbraced on the-outside by suitable'verti
cally, reXtendin-g -:bracing members . 3I :extending
stantial distance ,below the upper end of -said
member, the'size and strength characteristics and `
between -"the top, and ¿.bottomwframe 'members 28
anchorage of said metal members being such as
to effectively anchor andbrace the lconcrete> struc
and:29_ - vThetopîframe'member 2,8 is smaller than
tureagainstf all overturning or sidewise-displacing
.the bottom .iframe *.member ZSfandfthe‘wall 39 is
moments to which the concrete structure is sub
formed so that `.it'hasba 1 predetermined inward v -
jected under ordinaryservice conditions.
`4. A bridge .pier orthe like vcomprisinga con
taper toward its :upper edge. ` The sides ofthe
Awallç3ll¢are :bracedA against yrelative iinward. .dis
placement'ïby transversely. lextending 'upper and
lower bracing 'membersï321 iDuring- 'the building
of1the¢concrete structure 5 these'forms 26 may be
successively¿lowered_'totheir-proper concrete re
ceivìng :positions -from ia »~ platform` .mounted on
top of thetubular members >,or from a'frame car
riedbytworbarges.
.
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Any-suitable'means may be provided for gui@n
crete structure erected on .a firm foundation `and
designed to carry the‘vertícall loads and a metallic,
skeleton, reinforming: frame embedded in said
structure `and anchored to said foundation to re
sist overturning and-sidewise >movements of said
structure, said iframe Vcomprising verticallyv eX
tending, hollow, tubular members grounded‘on
said foundation. andi terminating shortrof the top
of Said` Structure, Ibracing means' interconnecting
2,410,778
5
6
the upper portions of said members and relatively
grouted in place within holes provided in said
short anchoring dowels extending downwardly
`foundation, said dowels extending only a rela
tively short distance upwardly within said tu
from the lower ends of said members into pre
formed holes drilled in said foundation, said
dowels extending only a relatively short distance
upwardly within said tubular members and being
grouted in place 'within said members and said
holes.
5. A bridge pier or the like comprising a con
crete structure erected on a ñrm foundation and
designed to carry the vertical loads and a pre
formed metallic reinforcing frame embedded in
said structure and anchored to said foundation
to resist overturning and sidewise movements of
said structure, said frame including vertically ex
tending, hollow, tubular members which are
bulall members and terminating a substantial dis
tance below the upper ends of said members.
6. A bridge pier or the like comprising a con
crete structure erected on a ñrrn foundation and
designed to carry the vertical loads and a metal
lic reinforcing frame embedded in said structure
and anchored to said foundation to resist over
turning and sidewise movements of said struc
ture, said means comprising a plurality of lat
erally spaced, vertically extending tubular mem
bers which are grounded on the foundation and
are inclined to slope inwardly toward the top of
the concrete structure, bracing members inter
connecting the upper portions of said tubular
members and anchoring dowels extending down
that they slope inwardly toward the top of the
wardly through the lower ends of the tubular
concrete structure, said members terminating
~short of the top of said structure, bracing and 20 members into the foundation.
'7. A bridge pier as set -forth in claim l in which
spacing means interconnecting the upper por
the tubular members are inclined to slope in
tions of said tubular members and means firmly
wardly toward the top of the concrete structure
anchoring the lower ends of said tubular mem
and in which the concrete structure is tapered to
bers to said foundation, said means comprising.
relatively short dowels having their A’upper por 25 ward the top thereof.
tions grouted in place within the lower ends of
CHAUNCEY M. GOODRICH.
said tubular members and their lower portions
grounded on the foundation and are inclined so
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