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Nov. 12, 1946-
Filed Jan. 9. 1942
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
Robert Black, Jr., South Grange, and Frank F.
Romanow, Berkeley Heights, N. ll., assignors to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application `lanuary 9, 1942, Serial No. 426,130
3 Claims.
» This invention relates to electromechanical
transducers and, more particularly, to such de
vices for use in detecting signal waves or other
(Cl. lill-_0.5)
with successive portions broken away or in sec
tion to- bring out details of construction;
Fig. 3 is another view, enlarged, of the detector
or microphone unit of the device of Fig. 1, partly
disturbances in a liquid medium, specifically,
Ox in section and partly broken away;
Fig. 4 is a top plan view of the insulator disc
An object of the invention is to detect under
immediately under the diaphragm of the micro
water signal waves or other disturbances in a
simple eiîective manner.
phone unit; and
Another object is to protect the detecting
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional View, enlarged, of a
fragment of the device of Figs. 1-4 to show in
means or unit from the water, without affecting
the detecting properties of such means or unit
greater detail the diaphragms of the device and
and without requiring any complex pressure
the tensioned condition of the outer diaphragm. .
equalizing means because of the hydrostatic
The electromechanical transducer, submarine
pressure head existing at the depth at which the
signal detector or microphone embodying the in
detecting means might be submerged.
vention and shown in Figs. 1 to 5 comprises a
.A feature of the invention comprises enclosing
heavy case or enclosure Ill of metal including
a known type of telephone receiver unit in a case
a cylindrical cup-shaped portion II and a clo
orenclosure with its diaphragm opposite an ap
sure or cover plate or portion I2. These portions
erture ina wall portion of the case and closing
are secured together by a plurality of screws I3,
such aperture against water ingress with a flexi 20 a water-tight seal being provided by virtue of the
ble diaphragm.
annular ridge I4 on the plate fitting into the an
Y Another feature comprises shaping such aper
nular rubber-ñlled groove I5 in the portion Il.
ture so that it flares outwardly from the inside
The base or planar wall portion I6 of the portion
of the case, and employing rubber as the mate
, II is recessed on its outer surface to receive a
rial of the flexible diaphragm.
circular insert or diaphragm Il of flexible, elastic
In accordance with this invention, a known
or resilient material, preferably soft rubber, ce
type of telephone receiver unit is mounted in a
mented to the base I6 where adjacent thereto.
case having a flaring, or, speciiically, frusto
An annular clamping member I8 is fastened to
conically shaped, aperture in one wall portion
, the case portion II by a plurality of screws I9,
opposite which is located the diaphragm of the
‘its inner portion overlapping the marginal area
receiver unit. A relatively thick diaphragm of
of the diaphragm I'I and having an annular ridge
20 protruding into the rubber insert. The base
flexible material, preferably rubber, is clamped
against and cemented to the water side of the
I ß contains an aperture or passage 2| of sub
case wall portion so as to overlie the aperture ‘ ,_ stantially frusto-conical shape, having its smaller
and seal the case interior against water ingress
base at the inner surface and its larger base at
through the aperture. The receiver unit is so
the outer surface of the case portion II.
constructed and so spaced from the apertured
. The ñuid chamber 22 contains a telephone re
wallportion that the iluid, for example, air, in
ceiver unit 23 of a type manufactured by the
the case, may flow, at a very low rate, between
Western Electric Company. This unit 23 em
the front and back sides of the diaphragm of the
bodies the magnetic circuit, acoustical network
unit. Connection between the terminals of the
and electroacoustical circuit such as is incorpo
receiver unit and suitable indicating or recording
rated in the receiver unit shown in Figs. 1 to 5
electrical equipment at a point remote from the
of L. A. Morrison et al. Patent 2,220,942 of No
described device, is made through a cord or cable, . ‘vember 12, 1940, but diliers from the latter re
which may also constitute the means to support
ceiver unit principally in the character of the'
the device in the water.
protector plate in front of the diaphragm and in
` Other objects and features of the invention will
the means for securing the protector plate to the
be apparent, and a more complete understand
receiver unit frame.
ing of the latter will be derived from the detailed
Specifically, the unit 23 comprises a cast metal
description that follows, taken in conjunction
with the appended drawing, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional View of a submarine
signal detector or microphone embodying the in
frame 25 having a pair of projections or bosses
2t to which are secured by rivets 2S' L-shaped
pole-pieces 28 and an insulator terminal plate or
disc 3Q. Windings or coils 3l encircle the vertical
legs of the pole-pieces, and are connected in se
Fig. 2 is a top plan View of the device of Fig. 1 55 ries between the concentric spaced terminals 32,
33. A pair of bar permanent magnets 21 are
welded to and extend between the horizontal legs
of the pole-pieces. An insulator plate or disc
35 contains a pair of appropriately shaped open
invention, the diaphragm I1 was about 2.5 inches
in diameter and about .125 inch in thickness; wall
portion I6 was about à inch in thickness; the
large base of the aperture 2l was about .5 inch
ings for the upper ends of the pole-pieces, and, 5 in diameter and its small base about .25 inch in
also, an aperture or passage 40 over which is laid
diameter, the aperture being centrally located in
one or more strips of silk fabric 5D. The dia
the base lf3. The distance between the inner
phragm 35 forms a shallow air chamber 38 with
surface of diaphragm Il and the outer surface
the plate 36, and is supported at its peripheral
of diaphragm 35, with the device out of the water,
portion by the frame 25, the diaphragm being
was of the order of .25 inch. The device re
held in position by magnetic attraction under the
sponded effectively to vibrations over a band of
influence of the permanent magnet flux. The
frequencies from about 200 cycles per second to
diaphragm protector plate is a multiaperture
about 4000 cycles per second. Fig. 1 shows ap
sheet metal stamping 6Fl secured to the frame at
proximately the relative proportions of the com
its edge by the spun-over metallic annulus 6l. 15 ponents of the device.
A moisture-prooñng diaphragm 62 of oiled silk
, The term transducer refers to a device absorb
may be interposed between the diaphragm Sii and
ing power from one system and supplying power
the protector plate. The structure on the under
to another system or systems. These systems
side of the plate 36 is so proportioned and ar
may be electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
ranged that the chambers 22 and 38 are intercon
Although this invention has been disclosed with
nected through the passage lill.
reference to a specific embodiment, it will be ap
The unit 23 makes a loose fit with the cylindri
parent that it is not limited thereto, but is of a
cal inner surface of the case portion ll, with
scope evidenced by the appended claims.
its diaphragm 35 disposed opposite the small base
What is claimed is:
of the aperture 2l. A thin split ring washer 63 25
l. A submarine signal detector comprising a
is interposed between the unit 23 and the base
water-tight fluid~containing enclosure, having a
S5, the gap 64 providing an air passage for slow
wall portion with an aperture that flares out
air leak between the front and rear sides of the
wardly between inner and outer surfaces of the
Electrical connection of the unit
wall portion, a fiexibie rubber diaphragm con
23 with indicating or recording electrical equip 30 tiguous with and fastened against said outer sur
ment at a remote point, is made through cord
face to prevent water entering said enclosure
or cable ëë containing conductors 65 terminated
through said aperture, and a diaphragm within
at spring terminals Sii, tl carried by insulator
said enclosure spaced from said inner surface and
plate §53 and engaging with the terminals 3‘2, 33
of the unit. The gland lil provides a water 35 arranged so that iluid within the enclosure may
now between opposite sides of the diaphragm.
tight seal around, and also acts as a strain re
A signaling device for use in a liquid medium,
liever for the cable.
comprising a hollow container having an aperture
When the device of Figs. 1 to 4 is submerged
in one wall, a diaphragm of elastic material on
in water the hydrostatic pressure head acting
on the rubber diaphragm Il will increase as the> 40 the outside of said container and overlying said
aperture, said diaphragm under pressure of the
depth or submersion is increased. Under the
liquid medium being adapted to be forced
increased force, the rubber diaphragm will tend
partially into said aperture and thereby ten
to be forced into the aperture 2l. Because of
sioned; a unitary assembly within said container
the flaring wall contour of the latter, even a very
great pressure will do no more than cause the 45 and including a diaphragm and a plate form
ing a shallow air chamber with one side of the
central portion of diaphragm l'l to assume the
diaphragm, said plate containing an aperture
general position indicated in enlarged detail in
connecting said air chamber with the remaining
This will be a small-area stretched dia
space in the container, the other side of the
phragm coupled to the diaphragm of the re
ceiver unit through the air space or chamber 50 diaphragm being disposed opposite to the aper
ture in the container wall portion; and spacer
between. Obviously, the volume change in front
means between the unitary assembly and said
of the diaphragm 35 because of the displacement
Wall portion, containing a restricted air passage
of diaphragm il is small, and, with the presence
connecting the space between the unitary as
of the pressure equalizing leak 64, does not re
sult in any pressure unbalance or non-equaliza 65 sembly and said wall portion with the remaining
space in the container.
tion developing with respect to the diaphragm
3. A transducer for use in a liquid medium
The stiffness of the portion of the diaphragm
comprising a fluid-containing enclosure exclud
l? overlying the aperture is increased as a result
ing the liquid medium and having a wall por
of its deformation and its radiation mass is
60 tion with an aperture therein that flares out
An underwater signal wave or other disturb
wardly between inner and outer surfaces of the
ance incident on the portion of diaphragm Il
wall portion, a diaphragm of elastic material
overlying the aperture 2l, is transferred to the
contiguous with and fastened against said outer
diaphragm 35 through the air space between the
surface to prevent entrance of the liquid medium
two diaphragme. The vibration of diaphragm 65 into said enclosure through said aperture, the
portion or” said diaphragm overlying said aper
35i in response thereto varies the reluctance of the
magnetic circuit of the receiver unit, and the reture being forced into said aperture by the liquid
sultant changes in ñux in the pole-pieces induce
medium whereby said diaphragm portion is ten
in the colis 3l currents corresponding to such
sioned, and a second diaphragm, said second dia
changes. These currents are led over the
phragm being within said enclosure and spaced
conductors of the cable to suitable indicating or
from said inner surface.
recording electrical equipment (not shown).
In a device constructed in accordance with this
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