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Nov. 12, 1946.
2,410,817
E. L. GINZVTON EI'AL
FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed May 19, 1942
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BY
” IC A-JENKS
ATTORNEY
- Patented Nov. 12, 1946
. 2,410,817
‘ UNITE-D ~ STATES PATENT OFFlCE
.
2,410,817
FREQUENCY CONTROL, SYSTEM
Edward L. Ginzton, Wantagh, Winslow Palmer,
West Hempstead, and Frederic A. Jenk‘s, Rock
ville Centre, N. Y., assignors to‘ Sperry Gyro
scope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corpo
ration of New York
Application May 19, 1942, Serial No. 443,605 5
15 Claims.
o.
(01. 25o_-36)
’
1
This invention relates,» generally, to automatic
frequency control, and, the invention has refer
velocity modulation oscillator, utilizing as a. ref
ence, more speci?cally, to a type ‘of automatic
frequency control system most useful for con
locity modulation multiplier tube whose frequen
trolling the output frequency of ultra high fre
erence frequency a low-power electron beam ve
' cy output is stabilized as by means of a quartz
quency oscillators'of the electron beam velocity
crystal oscillator used in connection with a con
ventional vacuum tube frequency multiplication
modulation type.
circuit.
_
~
In prior art frequency control systems oper
A further object lies in the provision of an au
ating at radio frequencies, it has been common to
_ tomatic frequency control system utilizing the
use a thermostatically controlled quartz-crystal 10 signal from a narrow discriminator during nor
oscillator and to obtain higher frequencies there'
mal operating conditions and that from a broad
from by the use of conventional vacuum tube
discriminator during extreme operating condi
frequency multiplication circuits. At radio or
tions and during “warm-up" of the system.‘
intermediate frequencies, multiplier tubes having
Other objects and advantages will become ap
su?icient output to drive'the succeeding multipli
cation stage are well known to the art, but at
the ultra high frequencies at which electron beam
velocity modulation tubes of the type disclosed in
prior United States Patent Number 2,242,275 en
15 parent from speci?cations taken in connection 1
with the accompanying drawing, wherein the in
' vention is embodied in concrete form.
-
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is a schematic wiring diagram of the pre
titled, Electrical translating device, ?led October 20 ferred form of the present invention.
‘
Fig. 2 is an explanatory graph.
11, 1937, in the name of Russell H. Varian, op
erate, it is di?icult to provide su?icient driving
Fig. 3 is an alternate form of a portion of Fig. 1.
voltage to give optimum excitation of the ?rst
Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown at l a
resonator of the electron beam velocity modula
conventional three resonator electron beam ve
tion tube acting as the last step in the multipli 25 locity modulation tube, such as has been pre
cation chain. Without such an excitation level,
viously disclosed in copending application Serial
further steps of ampli?cation at ultra high fre
Number 393,868, entitled “High frequency tube
quency would be required, thus necessitating con
structure,” ?led May 1'7, 1941, in the names of
trol devices for tuning many resonators, probably
William W. Hansen and John R. Woodyard. The
30
individually, to the operating frequency.
?rst two resonators of the device are coupled by
It is, therefore, one object of the present inven
the coaxial line 2, these two resonators serving
tion to provide an automatic sensitive frequency
in the conventional manner as an ultra high
control system especially adapted to the control
frequency oscillator. Resonators I and 5 are
of the output frequency of radio apparatus such
electrically coupled only by the electron beam
as high power ultra-high frequency electron 35 from the cathode, and resonator 5 serves in a well
beam velocity modulation oscillators, the said
known manner as a buffer resonator so that
system being operable even under conditions of
loading of resonator 5 does not a?ect the output
large deviation from the desired output fre
frequency of the oscillator. Ultra high frequency
energy may be extracted from resonator 5 by
An object of the invention is to provide an" 40 means of coaxial line 6, which may lead to any
automatic frequency control system in which op
desired type of utilization, apparatus. Inserted
eration of the control system is relatively unin
into the walls of resonators 3 and 4 are shown
?uenced by the loading of the equipment con
metal or dielectric plugs 'l and 8, which may be
quency.
~
inserted to a greater or lesser degree into reso
A further object is to provide an automatic fre 45 nators 3 and 4 by rotation ‘of gearing 9 and Ill
quency control system utilizing broad and nar
by shaft H. The tuning plugs-1 and 8 distort
row band discriminators adapted to control ra
the electro-magnetic ?eld inside of the resonators
dio equipment such as electron beam velocity
3 and 4,‘ thus altering the natural frequency of
modulation oscillators or of other types of oscil
these resonators, as described in United States
lators over a large range to correct the effects of 50 Patent Number 2,259,690, entitled “High frequen
varying operating parameters such as tempera
cy radio apparatus,” ?led April 20, 1939, in the
ture changes.
names of John R. Woodyard, William W. Hansen,
An object of the present invention lies in the
and Russell H. Varian. Any other well known
provision of an automatic frequency control sys
type of. mechanical or electrical tuning device“
tem for control of a high power electron beam 55 may be used in connection with resonators 3, 4,
trolled.
'
'
2,410,817
4
3
frequency control system using a broad band dis
criminator to drive the tuning device under con
ditions of large deviation from the desired output
and, resonator I may be also tuned, if desired,
although resonator 3 need not be, as it is not a
frequency determining element.
frequency, and a-narrow band discriminator to
provide very tight and positive control about the
desired frequency. A further advantage of the
By means of coupling loop l2 inserted in res
.onator 4, an arbitrary portion of the ultra high
frequency energy therein is introduced through
coaxial line l3 to ultra high frequency mixer i4.
use of two channels is that the narrow band
discriminator provides a much greater absolute
This frequency f1 may be, for instance, 3000
megacycles per second.
stability of the controlling output about the cho
A conventional frequency stabilized oscillator 10 sen frequency than would a single broad band
discriminator of equal tightness.
II, which may be of the quartz-crystal variety,
In Fig. 3, there is shown a modi?cation of a
supplies a frequency f to a conventional vacuum
portion of the system of Fig. 1 which may be
tube frequency multiplier circuit ii. If the fre
used to replace direct current amplifier 33 and
quency multiplication constant of multiplier I6 is
n, this ‘output frequency of multiplier l6 supplied 15 motor 36 and which will afford improved oper
ation of the system. The apparatus and circuit
through coaxial line I‘! to resonator ll of elec
shown in Fig. 3 is substitutable bodily in place
tron beam velocity modulation multiplier tube
of that shown in the dot-dash line rectangle
i3, is then nf. Oscillator l5 and multipliers l6
and I3 constitute a stabilized frequency multipli
in Fig. 1, the connections to tuning shaft II and
cation chain. The operation of the multiplier 20 leads 3| and 32 being clearly indicated. Here
I! has been shown in copending application Se
the reversing polarity direct current signal ap
rial Number 416,170, entitled “A high frequency
pearing on leads 3|, 32 is applied to a voltage
ampli?er 39, the output of which is converted
electron tube structure,” ?led October 23, 1941,
by William W. Hansen, John R. Woodyard,
by balanced modulator 40 to a variable magni
Sigurd F. Varian, and Russell H. Varian, to be 25 tude phase reversing alternating voltage, bal
that of utilization of harmonic components of
anced modulator 40 being supplied by any con
the velocity modulated electron beam to pro
venient source of alternating current placed on
duce harmonics of the frequency producing the
leads 49. The output of balanced modulator 40
velocity modulation. The multiplication con
is supplied to conventional power ampli?er 4|,
stant of multiplier I9 is chosen so that the out 30 whose output is, in turn, applied to one coil of
put frequency of resonator 2|, supplied through
two phase induction motor 44, the other coil of
coaxial line 20 to mixer I4, is very close to fre
which is supplied from the same alternating cur
quency 11. For instance, if this freq'ien'y ,f: is
rent source as is balanced modulator 40.
made 2975 megacycles per second, the output
If desired, an anticipation signal may be ap
of mixer i4 is then 11-h or 25 megacycles per 35 plied to the ampli?er input‘ 33 by use of a con
second in the example given.
ventional ?eld distortion generator 45, rotated by
This output frequency may be further ampli
extension 50 of shaft II, which is in turn at
?ed by intermediate frequency ampli?er 22 and
tached to motor 44 to drive tuning plugs 8 and ID.
supplied to a broad band frequency discriminator
The same source of alternating current as ap
23, whose reversing polarity direct current output 40 plied to coil 43 and to modulator 40 is applied to
is shown as a function of frequency at 24 in Fig.
one coil, 41, of the field distortion generator 45.
2. A portion of the frequency ,fi-j: is supplied
The output of the other coil, 45, is then propor
by means of lead 25 to an intermediate frequency
tional to the rate of rotation of shaft 50, and may
mixer 26.
Also supplied to mixer 26 is a fre
quency 11! derived at any convenient point in fre
quency multiplier i6. Frequency nf is preferably
made very close in frequency to the value of
ji-h. For instance, if .fi-fa is made 25 mega
cycles, frequency 11f may conveniently be 30 meg
acycles. The output frequency of mixer 26 is fed
to intermediate frequency ampli?er 21, and from
there to a narrow band discriminator 28.
The
reversing polarity direct current output of dis
criminator 23 has the frequency characteristic
shown at 23 in Fig. 2. At 30 in Fig. 2 is shown
the combined output of the discriminators 23 and
26, which appears on leads 3| and 32 to be sup
be applied in any convenient manner to the in
45
put of ampli?er 33, introducing a signal to the
system which causes the motor to apply a torque
proportional to and opposing its own motion, thus
providing damping and smoothing of the oper
ation of the system.
As many changes could be made in the above
construction and many apparently widely differ
ent embodiments of this invention could be made
without departing from the scope thereof, it is
intended that all matter contained in the above
description or shown in the accompanying draw
ing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in
a limiting sense.
plied to direct current ampli?er 33. The output
What is claimed is:
of direct current ampli?er 33- may be conven
1. A stabilization system for stabilizing the
iently supplied to the field coils 34 and 35 of a 60 frequency of an oscillator comprising, supply
direct current motor 36, whose armature 31, is
supplied from a source of constant voltage, such
means for producing a reference voltage of a
frequency somewhat different from the desired
as by battery 38. It is seen that the pass bands
frequency of operation of said oscillator, a mixer
of discriminators 23, 28, may have any conven
connected for receiving energy from said oscil
later and from said supply means, a broad band
ient value.
It is seen that the provision of the desired fre
discriminator connected for receiving a version
quencies for use in the discriminators 23, 28 can
of the output of said mixer, a second mixer con
nected for receiving a portion of the output of
be obtained in many ways. For instance, if de
said first mixer and for receiving a second ref
sired, a third frequency U can be derived from
the frequency multiplier ii to be mixed with 70 erence voltage from said supply means, such sec
ond reference voltage being of a frequency close
the output of intermediate frequency amplifier
21, and, after further ampli?cation, to be ap
to that of the output of said ?rst mixer, a nar
plied to a‘ very narrow band discriminator in
row band pass discriminator connected for re
place of discriminator 28. It is seen that the
ceiving a version of the output of said second
mixer, means for connecting the outputs of said
system shown in Fig. 1 provides an automatic
2,410,817
5
.
discriminators together, tuning motive means fo
eifecting tuning of said oscillator, and means con
nected for combining the outputs of said dis
criminators for controlling said tuning motive
means.
viding means for deriving a ?rst frequency differ
ent from said source frequency and varying in
synchronism therewith, means coupled to said
source and said signal-providing means for de
6
2. In apparatus of the character described, an
ultra high frequency high power oscillator, motive
means for tuning said oscillator, a stabilized fre
quency multiplication chain, a mixer connected ,
for receiving energy from said multiplication»
chain and from said power oscillator, a broad ‘
riving a second frequency of a diiferent order of
magnitude from said ?rst frequency and also
varyingqin synchronism with said source fre
quency, broad and narrow band discriminators
coupled to said mixing means and said second
frequency-deriving means and responsive respec
tively to the greater and lesser of said ?rst and
second frequencies for producing respective out
band discriminator supplied from said mixer, a
second mixer supplied from said ?rst mixer and
put signals corresponding to deviations of said
from said multiplication chain, a narrow band
?rst and second frequencies from respective pre
discriminator supplied from said second mixer, 15 determined ‘values, variable means for control
and means connecting the outputs of said dis
ling the frequency of said source, and means re
criminators in series and connected for control
sponsive to the outputs of said discriminators for
ling said tuning motive means.
controlling said variable means.
3. Means for stabilizing the operating fre
7. In a system for automatically controlling
quency of an ultra high frequency power oscilla 20 frequency, a source, means providing a signal of
tor comprising, tuning motive means connected
reference frequency, means for mixing voltages
for tuning said power oscillator, a stabilized fre
from said source and said signal-providing means
quency multiplication chain, a mixer connected
to produce a. difference frequency, broad and nar
to be supplied with a portion of the output of said
row band discriminators connected to said mixing
power oscillator and with a voltage from said 25 means and responsive to said difference frequency
multiplication chain of a frequency near that of
to produce respective output signals correspond
said oscillator, means for amplifying the differ
ing to deviation of said difference frequency from
ence output of said mixer, a broad band dis
a desired value, said broad-band discriminator
criminator connected to be fed from said ampli
beingresponsive to deviations extending over a
?er, a second mixer connected for receiving a 30 relatively large range, and said narrow-band dis
portion of the output of said ampli?er and for
criminator being responsive only to deviations
receiving a voltage from said stabilized frequency
over a relatively small range, variable means for
multiplication chain of a frequency near that of
controlling the frequency of said source, means
the output of said ampli?er, an ampli?er con
for connecting said signals in series and means
nected for amplifying the output of said second 35 responsive to said series connected signals for
mixer, a narrow band discriminator fed from said
operating said variable means.
'
last named ampli?er, and means connected for
8. In a system for automatically controlling the
receiving the outputs of said discriminators and
output frequency of a source, stabilized frequency
for controlling said tuning motive means in ac
supply means, a ?rst frequency multiplier con
cordance with the sum thereof.
‘
40 nected to said supply means, a second frequency
4. Apparatus as de?ned in claim' 3 wherein said
multiplier connected to the output of said ?rst
means for receiving the outputs of said discrimi
frequency multiplier, means for mixing the out
nators comprises a balanced modulator for con
puts of said source and said second frequency
verting the resultant direct current output of said _ multiplier, means for mixing the outputs of said
discriminators to a variable magnitude, reversible ‘ '
phase alternating voltage ‘for controlling said
tuning motive means.
I
5. Apparatus of the character described for
stabilizing the frequency of a power oscillator
having tuning motive means, comprising a
stabilized frequency multiplication chain, a
mixer connected for receiving a voltage from said
chain and from said power oscillator to produce
a difference frequency voltage, a broad band dis
criminator connected to be fed with a version of
said difference frequency voltage, a second mixer
also connected to be fed with a version of said
?rst frequency multiplier and said ?rst mixing
means, variable means for controlling the fre
quency of said source, and frequency sensitive
means responsive to the outputs of said mixing
means for controlling said variable means, said
frequency-sensitive means comprising a broad
band discriminator connected to said ?rst mixing
means, a narrow-band discriminator connected
to said second mixing means, and means combin
ing the outputs of said discriminators.
9. In apparatus for stabilizing the operating
frequency of an oscillator, variable means for
tuning said oscillator, a stabilized frequency
multiplication chain, a mixer connected to be
supplied with a portion of the output of said
difference frequency voltage and with a voltage
from said frequency multiplication chain of a
somewhat different frequency, a narrow band 6 O oscillator and with a voltage from said multipli
discriminator fed with a version of the output
cation chain of a frequency near that of the
of said second mixer, means for connecting the
oscillator, a broad band discriminator connected
outputs of said discriminators in series, means
to said mixer, a. second mixer connected for re
for amplifying said combined discriminator out
_ ceiving a portion of the output of said ?rst mixer
puts, balanced modulator means for converting
and for receiving a voltage from said frequency
said outputs to a reversible-phase signal for con
multiplication chain of a frequency near the out
trolling said tuning motive means, and generator
put frequency of said ?rst mixer, a narrow band
means responsive to the velocity of said tuning
discriminator connected to said second mixer, and
motive means for supplying a negative feed back
means connected for combining the outputs of
to said balanced modulator to prevent hunting of '10 said discriminators and for controlling said
said tuning motive means.
'
variable tuning means in accord therewith.
6. In a system for automatically controlling the
10. The apparatus de?ned in claim 9, wherein
output frequency of a source, means providing a
said means for combining the outputs of said
signal of reference frequency, means for mixing
discriminators comprises means for converting
voltages from said source and said signal pro 75 the direct current output of said discriminators
2,410,817
7
8
to a variable magnitude and reversible phase
alternating voltage for controlling said variable
and narrow band discriminators connected to said
mixers and responsive respectively to deviations
of said ?rst and second di?erence frequencies
from respective predetermined values, said nar
tuning means.
11. Automatic frequency stabilization appa
ratus comprising an oscillator, the output fre
row-band discriminator being adapted to produce
quency of which is to be stabilized, variable means
for tuning said oscillator, means providing a ref
a greater oscillator tuning effect for a small
change in said second difference frequency than
said broad-band discriminator.
erence frequency, frequency sensitive moans con
nected to said oscillator and to said reference
frequency means, said frequency sensitive means
embodying means operable to produce an output
signal representing ‘the amount of deviation of
14. In a system for automatically controlling
frequency, a source of frequency to be controlled,
stabilized frequency supply means, a mixer, means
for introducing a voltage from said source into
said mixer, means for introducing into said mixer
said oscillator frequency from a desired relation
a voltage of a frequency which is a version of
with respect to said reference frequency and over
a relatively large range of such deviation, and 15 said supply frequency, a second mixer, means for
introducing into said second mixer a voltage of
also embodying further means operable to pro
a frequency which is another version of said sup
duce a second output signal representing the
ply frequency, means introducing a version of the
amount of said deviation over only a relatively
output of said ?rst mixer into said second mixer,
small range of such deviation, said second signal
being greater than said ?rst signal for equal 20 variable means controlling the frequency of said
source, and frequency sensitive means respon
deviations within said small range, means com
sive to the outputs of said mixers for controlling
bining said signals in series, and means for con
said variable means, said frequency sensitive
necting the output of said combining means to
means comprising a broad-band discriminator
said variable tuning means to actuate said tuning
25 coupled to said ?rst mixer and a narrow-band
means.
discriminator coupled to said second mixer.
12. In a system for automatically controlling,
frequency, an oscillator, stabilized frequency
15. High frequency apparatus comprising an
ultra high frequency oscillator, means for tuning
supply means, frequency multiplier means con
said oscillator, a source of reference frequency,
nected to said supply means, a mixer inter-con
necting said multiplier means and said oscillator 30 a mixer connected for receiving energy from said
reference frequency source and from said oscil
to produce a ?rst difference frequency, a second
lator, a broad-band discriminator supplied from
mixer coupled to the outputs of said ?rst mixer
said mixer, a source of second ~reference fre
and said multiplier means to produce a second
quency, a second mixer supplied from said ?rst
difference frequency of a smaller order of magni
tude than said ?rst difference frequency, fre 35 mixer and from said second source, a narrow
band discriminator supplied from said second
quency sensitive means for maintaining the fre
mixer, and means responsive to the outputs of
quency of said oscillator in ?xed relation to that
said discriminators for controlling said tuning
of said supply means, and means for coupling
motive means.
said ?rst and second mixers to said frequency
40
EDWARD L. GINZTON.
sensitive means.
13. The system defined in claim 12, wherein
said frequency sensitive means comprises broad
WINSLOW PALMER.
FREDERIC A. JENKS.
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