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‘Nov. 12, 1946.
L. A. MAYBARDUK EI‘AL
2,410,831
SCANNING DENlECE
‘Filed April 10, 1942
4 Sheets~$heet 2
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(272 (27!
8
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93 an em
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' 'INVENTORS,
LAMAYBARDUK, WJMMIEHER,
'
S.J.ZAND and G_E.WHlT-E,
THEIR A‘ITEY'.
' NOV-12, 194st
' L. A. MAYBARDUK EI'AL
I’
2,410,331
SCANNING DEVICE
Filed April 10 ,' 194-2}
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
331
_
_ Clulch Conh‘ol
Brake Conhol
INVENTORS,
L.A.MAYBARDUK,
wWMlEHER.
S.J.ZAND and
GE. H Ti?
Nov. 12, 1946.
L. A. MAYBARDUK ETAL
2,410,831
SQANNING DEVICE
Filed April 10, 1942-
‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
J 245
22!
""WW/// /////
INVENTORS,
L. A.MAYBARDUK,W.WMIEHER,
THE-IR ATTORNEY.
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,410,831
FFlCE
UNITED STATES PATENT.
2,410,831
SCANNING DEVICE
Leon A. Maybarduk, Forest Hills, Walter W.
Mieher, Mineola, Stephen J. Zand, Forest Hills,
and Gifford E. White, Hempstead, N. Y., assign
ors to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brook
'
lyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application April 10, 1942, Serial N0. 438,388
29 Claims. (Cl. 250-11)
1
2
The present invention ‘m concerned with de
vices for scanning a beam 01 fadiant energy, or
scanning a directive reception pattern over a
spiral scan or the axis of the circular scan, both
coinciding with the spin axis, in order that the
radiating system may have its center‘ directed
in any desired orientation within the range of
In many applications, such as in object de
the system. For this purpose the spinning axis
tector, distance measuring, and radio-_locating de
of the radiating system may be made adjustable
vices, it is desirable to scan a projected beam of
both in azimuth and elevation, whereby either the
radiant energy over a predetermined solid angle
circular scanning or the spiral scanning may be
usually conical in form in order that the pres
directed toward any point of the sphere within
ence and/or distance of a distant object located 10 the limitations of the system.
within that solid angle may be detected and meas
Alternatively, such orientation may be desired
ured by associated apparatus, In such systems
only during circular scanning, to provide track
it may also be desirable, after such an object has
ing with the distant re?ecting object. Then
been detected, and its presence indicated, to di
either or both the nod and spin axes may be al
rectly orient the radiant energy transmitting sys
ternatively used, during circular scanning, as the
tem toward the distant object in order to accu
elevation and azimuth axes, respectively. In
rately indicate its orientation, relative to the lo~
such case, the spin motion may be interrupted
cation of the transmitting system.
at the proper point, and the radiating system may
predetermined solid angle.
According to the present invention such a de
be then rotated about a further axis slightly an
vice is provided, adapted to scan a predetermined 20 gularly displaced from the beam axis, to thereby
conical angle up to and including a complete
provide the circular tracking scanning. There
hemisphere by means of a spiral conical motion
after, the new axis may be oriented in elevation
of a sharply directed radiant energy beam. This
and azimuth by the use of the nod and former
motion is provided by rapidly spinning the radi
spin axes as elevation and azimuth axes, or by
ating system about one axis while slowly nodding 25 independent elevation and azimuth axes.
the system about a second axis perpendicular to
Accordingly, ‘its is an object of the present in
and rotating with the ?rst axis.
vention to provide improved devices for sweeping
In addition to such a spiral scanning or search
ing operation it is desirable in some systems to
convert the spiral scanning, which is generally
eiiective over a wide solid angle, to a type of cir
cular conical scanning having a very narrow apex
angle, such as of the order of 2 to 8 degrees,
whereby the actual orientation of the distant ob
ject may be accurately indicated by suitable in
dicating systems, such as are shown in copending
application Serial No. 441,188, ?led \April 30, 1942,
for Radio gun control system in the name of G. E.
an orientable member over a predetermined solid
angle of space.
30
It is another object of the present invention
to provide improved radio scanners for spirally
sweeping a directive radiation pattern over a
conical solid angle.
It is a further object of the present invention
35 to' provide improved devices for converting one
' kind of scanning to a di?erent type.
It is still another object of the present inven
tion to provide improved devices for alternatively
White, C. G. Holschuh, W. W. Mieher and J. E.
scanning spirally or circularly.
Shepherd. Such a change from spiral to circular 40 It is a still further object of the present in
scanning may be produced in the present device
vention to provide improved scanners for al
by interrupting the nodding motion at a point in
ternatively scanning spirally, as for searching, or
its cycle at which the axis of the radiated beam
circularly, as for tracking, and for adjusting the
is at an angle to the spinning axis equal to, half
scanning axis orientation.
the desired apex angle of the circular scanning, 45 It is yet another object of the present inven—
while retaining the spin motion. In the illus
tion to provide improved scanning devices adapt—
tration used above this might be, for example,
ed to produce spiral scanning of an orientable
4 degrees. In this manner,- by interrupting the
member by a combination of nodding and spin
nodding motion and maintaining the spinning
ning
motions of this member, and to convert to
motion, the beam is caused to move in a narrow 50 circular scanning by interruption of the nodding
circular conical pattern as desired.
motion.
It is further desirable to be able to adjust or
It is still another object of the present inven
vary, in elevation and azimuth, the general ori
tion to provide improved spiral scanning of an
entation of the radiating system, which may be
orientable member by a combination of nodding
taken to be the orientation of the pole of the 55. and spinning motions of this member, and to
2,410,881
3
4
>nvert to circular scanning by interruption of the
gear 9 is preferably made in the form of a semi
circle in order to clear the path for scanning in a
downward direction, as will be apparent from the
»inning motion and initiation of a new spin
,ng motion.
Further objects and advantages will become
Jparent from the following speci?cation and
description below.
Pivoted in supporting mount I about a nor
mally horizontal axis, such as axis 21 intersect
rawings in which
ing azimuth axis 3, is a housing 29 which carries
Figure 1 comprises a perspective view of one
the radiating system and its spinning and nod
mm of scanner, embodying independent azimuth
ding operating mechanism. Fixed to the pivot
id elevation controls.
Figure 2 comprises a perspective view of a modi 10 axis of housing 29 is a worm wheel sector 3|
driven from a worm 33 which in turn is energized
ed form of scanner in which the nod and eleva
from the elevation output shaft I9 as by way of‘
on axes are combined.
1
gearing 35, shaft 31, and gearing 39. In this
Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of a suitable con
way, upon energization of elevation control unit
ol circuit for the scanner of Figure 2 for ef
I8 and actuation of the output shaft I9, the
:cting changeover from spiral to conicalscan
lng.
‘
.
housing 29 is caused to rotate about a horizontal
Figure 4 is a wiring diagram disclosing a modi
axis. By the above mechanism, therefore, hous
ing 29 is adapted to be rotated both in elevation
zation of the control circuit of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a perspective view showing a fur
and azimuth and may, therefore, be oriented in
ier modi?cation of the scanner of Figure 2, com 20 any desired direction.
Mounted on supporting mount I is a driving
vning the spin and azimuth axes.
motor 4| whose output shaft 43 is preferably
Figure 6 is a wiring diagram of a control cir
made concentric with the horizontal pivot axis
iit for the scanner of Figure 5.
21 of housing 29. If desired, motor 4| may be
Figure 7 is a perspective view of a controller
Shaft 43
rr determining the point at which the scanner 25 mounted anywhere on housing 29.
passes through a suitable bearing in housing 29
:‘ Figure 5 is to convert from searching to
and drives, as by way of gearing 44, a bevel gear
'acking.
41 which in turn actuates a further bevel gear
Figure 8 is a wiring diagram of a control circuit
49 and a shaft 63 ?xed thereto. Shaft 53 drives a
)r use with the scanner of Figure 5 and con
‘oller of Figure 6.
30 large gear 48 through pinion 45, Gear 48 is
mounted in housing 29 for rotation about spin
Figure 9 is \a diagrammatic view of a modifica
axis 5|, which is preferably chosen to intersect
on of the scanner of Figure 5.
both elevation axis 21 and azimuth axis 3.
Referring to Figure 1, a supporting mount I
Fastened to gear 48 as by a hub 5| is a yoke 53
. pivotally supported about a vertical axis 3,
s on a suitable step or thrust bearing 5 mounted 35 which, as will be seen, carries the nod axis 55
about which is pivoted a member 51 carrying the
n a fixed support ‘I. Support ‘I also carries ?xed
directional radiating system illustrated as com
> it a horizontal gear 9 which engages with a
prising a parabolic re?ector 59. Nod axis 55
inion || mounted on a shaft I3 journaled in
preferably intersects‘ spin axis 6|. In this way,
iount I as by a suitable bearing l5. Carried on
power motor 4| supplies the driving power for
ie supporting mount | is a suitable variable
spinning the parabola 59 about the spin axis 8|.
The nodding motion of the parabola 59 is-actu
a-ted from the spinning motion, thereby permit
ting the same motor 4| to provide power for both
rising respective variable displacement pumps 45 spinning and nodding.
"hose ?uid outputs actuate respective hydraulic
Thus, also ?xed to shaft 63 and driven there
with from motor 4| is a pinion '65 which meshes
rotors and thereby rotate the respective output
with and drives a gear 61 ?oatingly supported on
‘Crafts I9 and 2|.
hub 5|. Fixed to gear 61 is a further gear 69,
One of these units, such as I8, is adapted to
Jtate the radiating system in elevation, as will 50 which engages a pinion ‘II fastened to a shaft 12
journaled in an extending arm 13 integral with
e seen, and the other unit, such as 20, is adapted
'yoke 53. Also fastened to shaft ‘I2 is a pinion ‘I4
) rotate the system in azimuth. The output
which ‘drives a gear ‘I5 having its forward- face
oeeds of shafts I9 and 2| are under the control
vseed driving mechanism, illustrated in this in
;ance as being of the variable-displacement hy
raulic transmission type, comprising an electric
riving motor I'I driving two units I8 and 20 com
formed as a driving clutch plate, which cooper
I? a suitable control box 23 adapted to control
1686 shafts I9 and 2| under the in?uence of a 55 ates with a driven clutch plate 11 to drive the lat- ter when these two plates are in engagement.
emote controlling station, Such a control box
Fixed to driven clutch plate 11 is an eccen
my assume the form shown in copending ap
tric projection 19 cooperating with a slot 8| in a
lication Serial No. 417,580, for Remote aircraft
sliding member 83 which carries on its outer face
irret control mechanism, ?led November 1, 1941,
1 the name of W. C. Hartman, J. A. Peoples, Jr., 60 a rack 85. Member 83 is guided by suitable guide
slides 81 fastened to yoke 53 and is thereby con
nd H. L. Hull. The control station may be any
strained to move only perpendicularly with re
rientable device, such as a telescope, gun sight
spect to the spin axis BI and yoke 53,
omputer, search-light, etc, or any suitable con
With clutch plates ‘I5, 11 in engagement, the
rol for producing control signals to actuate con
65 gear ratios are so chosen that driven clutch plate
rol box 23 .
TI is rotated at a speed different from that of
Any other type of actuating device may be used,
yoke 53, so that eccentric ‘I9, cooperating with
E desired, with any suitable type of control, ac
slot 8| in slide 83, will cause an oscillatory trans
ording to the requirements of a particular ap
lational motion of slide 83 and rack 85. Meshing
ilication.
Azimuth shaft 2| is coupled directly to shaft I3 70 with rack 85 is a pinion 89 oscillated thereby.
Pinion 89v is ?xed to a shaft 9| journaled within
,s by suitable gearing 25.v In this Way upon aetu~
yoke 53 and also carrying gear sectors 93 ?xed
,tion of the azimuth unit 20, pinion I I is caused
thereto. Sectors 93 engage with cooperating gears
o rotate and thereby causes the supporting
95 ?xed to member 51 carrying parabola 59, and
count I and the radiating apparatus to walk
.round the ?xed azimuth gear 9. The azimuth 75 thereby the oscillatory rotational motion of pinion
2,410,881
89 is transferred to parabola 59, which is thereby
caused to nod about axis 55. Accordingly, this
nod motion combined with the spin motion
‘causes the axis of parabola 59 to sweep out a
spiral cone in space, whose outermost limits are
determined by the maximum amount of nod as
measured with respect to the spin axes.
Preferably the nod and spin rates are so ad
justed that energy may be radiated to or received
6
motion of the parabola at the proper point in its
cycle of nod. For this purpose there is provided
mounted on housing 29 a control solenoid. I99
whose coil is fixed to housing 29. The armature
III of solenoid I09 is fastened to a ring Iii as
by a rod II5. Ring I I3 is adapted to slide axially
along housing 29, and will be so actuated. as to
move toward parabola 59 upon energization of
solenoid I09. If desired, a plurality of solenoids
from every point of the conical solid angle within 10 I09 may be disposed symmetrically about housing
29 to produce a proper axial motion of ring I I3.
which scanning occurs. For this purpose, the
Carried on yoke 53, as by a suitable bracket
pitch of the spiral, which may be de?ned as the
angular separation between consecutive layers
III, is a slidable rod II9 having at one end a
roller I2I which normally rolls about ring H3.
of the spiral, and is therefore equivalent to the
change in nod angle per spin revolution, is chosen 15 Roller I2I,'is urged against ring Iii! by means of
I _‘ to be no larger than the angular width of the
a spring connected between arm I iii and. bracket
radiation transmitting or receiving pattern formed
by‘ parabola 59. For example, a suitable radiation
pattern width has been found to be 4 degrees.
“1, this spring not being shown in the view
than 4 degrees in nod for each spin revolution.
an interposing knife member IZ'I.
_ Suitable rates of rotation have been i'qund to
It will be clear from the above description that
energization of solenoid I09 will push ring II3
forward, thereby pushing upon arm I II) no matter
taken. Arm H9 at its other end is pivoted to a
bell crank E23 having a. pivot I25 ilxed to the
Accordingly, the scanner must not change more 20 yoke 53. The other end of bell crank I23 actuates
be 1200 R. P. M. for spin and 30 complete revo
lutions per minute for nod. In this way a com
'
plete cycle comprising two spiral scans, one out 25 what the position of yoke 53 might be at the
moment of energization, and hence, rotating bell
ward and one inward, over the desired conical
crank I23 and pushing interposing member i2?
solid angle is produced each two seconds, and
each spiral scan comprises 20 complete spins. The
toward the spin axis,
extent of the conical solid angle may be suitably
Interposing member IZ'I operates to separate
selected by determining the eccentricity of eccen 30 driving clutch plate 15 from. the driven clutch.
tric in 19 to produce a suitable range of nodding
motion, or by properly choosing the gear ratios
of sectors 93 and pinions 95. Thus, if it is desired
plate 'I'I. These two clutch plates 75 and II’ are
connected to move together by means o1’: a pin
I3I which is slidably mounted in driven clutch
to scan over a complete hemisphere, the system
plate ‘I1 and engages a slot or recess I32 on driv
would be adjusted so that the nodding motion of
parabola axis 60 takes place between 0 degrees
and 90 degrees with respect to the spin' axis.
ing clutch plate ‘I5 to thereby couple the two
clutch plates together. Pin I3I is normally urged
For smaller solid angles the limitation in nod
toward plate ‘I5 and held within recess I32 by a
suitable spring, (not shown).
Operation of interposing member I27! acts to
would be correspondingly restricted.
The system thus far described, therefore, is 40 remove pin I3I from its recess in driving clutch
capable of performing spiral scanning over a pre
plate ‘I5 and thereby releases driven clutch plate
- determined selected conical solid angle whose axis
11 from its driving source. Thus, pin I3I is
is. adjustable in azimuth and elevation. In order
to suitably synchronize an indicator with this
scanning motion it is desirable to transmit‘the
instantaneous position of the parabola in terms
of its spin and nod components to the indicator. ,
For this purpose a self-synchronous transmitter
91, ofany suitable type, such as the “Selsyn,”
“Autosyn,” or “Telegon” type, is coupled directly
to the nod axis 55, as by suitable gears 99, to
_ _ provide signal currents corresponding to the posi
tion of the parabola in nod.
In view of the fact that this nod transmitter
91 must be ?xed to spinning yoke 53, it is necessary
to provide suitable slip rings for connecting these
currents to external circuits. Such slip rings are
shown atIUI, ?xed to hub 5i and gear 48, and
formed with a tapered or slanted notch I34. The
end of member I2‘! is also tapered in a similar
_fashion. When member IZ‘I is moved toward spin
axis BI, the motion of pin I M relative to yoke
53 causes notch I35 to engage member I27. Con
tinued rotation of plate TI causes pin I3I to ride
up on the slanted portion of member I271, and to
50 ‘pull itself out of recess I32. Plate ‘II is therefore
no longer supplied with driving power, and. a fric~
tion brake I33, which continuously engages
clutch plate 'I'I, under the action of suitable spring
I35, is thereby permitted to immediately stop
55 clutch plate 11' in its rotation with respect to
yoke 53. Thereafter clutch plate ‘IT does not
move with respect to yoke 53, but spins with it.
Hence, eccentric ‘I9 has no relative motion with
respect to slide 83, and the nodding motion of the
therefore ?xed with respect to transmitter 91.
These slip rings may therefore be connected to 80 parabola 59 is interrupted.
transmitter 91 by suitable conductors (not
The relationship between the position of eccen
shown).
Stationary brushes (not! shown)
tric ‘I9 and slide BI is so chosen that when pin
mounted within housing 29 may be provided for
I3I comes into the position wherein it is engaged
conducting these currents to the external circuits.
In order to transmit the instantaneous spin 65 by interposing member I21, parabola 59 will be
at the position of nod at which it is desired to
position of the parabola to a distant point, a spin
stop the nodding motion. In this way the spiral
transmitter I03, which maybe of the same type
as nod transmitter 91, is suitably coupled to the
scanning may be converted into circular scanning
spinning part of the system as by suitable gears
by remote electrical energization of solenoid I09,
I05 and H11. No slip rings are necessary for 70 Without affecting in any way the spinning motion
transmitter I03 since it is ?xedly mounted with
of parabola 59 or its orientability in elevation and
respect to housing 29._
. azimuth.
In order to transfer from spiral scanning to
It will be clear that the present scanning device
circular scanning, as described above, it is neces
need not be restricted to the transmission or
sary in the present instance to interrupt the nod 75 reception of radio energy, but may be used to
2,410,831
7
transmit or receive other forms of energy, such
as light, sound, infra-red rays, etc.
In view of the multiplicity of axes of rotation of
the system it is necessary to provide special de
vices for introducing the energy to be radiated to
or for abstracting energy from the parabolic re
?ector 59. The present device is especially
adapted for use with ultra high frequency radiant
tinuously oscillated about axis I50 thereby pro
ducing the nod component of motion of reflector
59.
~
The motive power for the scanning operation is
produced from a suitable_motor I59 carried in a
relatively stationary housingIBI. Motor I59 is
adapted to selectively drive a gear I63 or a gear
I65, the selection being effected by means of a
energy, which can be conveniently conducted by
means of hollow wave guides, although it is to be 10 suitable remotely actuated clutch such as mag
netic clutch I61. Gear I63 is floatingly mounted
noted that the system is in no way so restricted
‘ on a hollow stanchion I69 ?xed within housing
and that concentric transmission lines or other
I6I concentric with the spin axis 6I.' Fixed to
types of conductors may be used, if desired.
gear IE3 is a sleeve I1I which passes through
However, for the purpose of illustration; the
present system has been illustrated as using hol 15 an opening I13 in the base of spin casing I51 and
terminates in a gear I15. Stanchion I69 extends
low wave guides for conducting high frequency
radiant energy.
,_
concentrically beyond gear I15 and terminates
in a stationary gear I11. Gear I65 is ?oatingly
Thus, a wave guide I39 leading from the energy
mounted upon sleeve Ill and in turn is ?xed to a
source, or to the receiver, is conducted to the
sleeve I19 ?xed to spin casing I51.
'
base ‘I of the apparatus. Preferably such a wave 20
In this way, upon suitable actuation of clutch
guide is rectangular in form for convenience of
I61 to its spiral scanning position, gear [65 is
construction and use, and to provide desirable
continuously rotated by motor I59, gear I63 re
electrical characteristics, although it may be of
maining stationary. This produces a continu
any other suitable shape. At the base 1 wave
ous rotation of casing I 51 about the spin axis
guide I29 is connected to a circular wave guide 26
6i.
Journalled within casing I51 is a shaft I8I
IIII concentrically situated with respect to the
?xed
to a gear I83 engaging with gear I15, now
azimuth axis 3. Suitable types of wave guide
stationary. Shaft I8I drives one member of a
couplings for converting from a rectangular wave
guide I39 to a circular wave guide IIlI are shown
suitable mechanical differential I85, another of
members is actuated by means of a gear
in copending application Serial No. 429,494, for 30 whose
I81 engaging stationary gear I11. The third
Directive antenna structure, ?led February 4,
member I89 of di?erential I85 drives a pinion
1942, in the name of R. J. Marshall, W. L. Barrow,
I9I ?xed to a second shaft I93 journalled within
and W. W. Mieher, and in copending application
Serial No. 447,524, for High frequency apparatus,
casing I51, and thereby rotates a ?exible shaft
axis 3. Therefore,'between wave guide sections
MI and M3 there is provided a rotatable joint
I45 also described in above-mentioned copending
tion corresponding to the spiral searching opera
tion, motor I59 will continuously rotate gear I65,
I95 to which the parabola 59 is coupled, as by
?led June 18, 1942, in the names of‘ W. W. Mieher 35 means of suitable gearing I 91, the parabola 59,
and J. D. Mallett.
now being made rotatable .about an axis 62 ?x
Circular wave guide ItI is fixed to the base 1.
edly displaced from the parabola axis 60 by the
A cooperating wave guide I43 is provided ?xed to
amount of nod needed for circular scanning, as
the mount I which, as has been described, is
will be seen.
‘
rotatable with respect to base 1 about azimuth
Thus, assuming that clutch I61 is in the posi
applications Serial Nos. 429,494, and 447,524.
sleeve I19 and easing I51 at the spin rate and
about the spin axis. Gear I63, sleeve HI and
Wave guide I93 is again converted by similar 45 gear I15 will be stationary. Gear I11 is also
waves to a rectangular wave guide ml, which is _ - stationary. Accordingly,
as casing I51 rotates
then conducted to the elevation axis 21, at which
about gears I15 and I11, a corresponding rota
point it is again converted to a circular wave guide
tion of gear I83 and gear I81 will be produced.
I189 coaxial with axis 21. This guide I49 is con
Hence two members of di?erential I85 are driv
nected as by a rotatable joint I5I to a wave guide 50 en. Differential?l85 and its associated gearing
section I53 ?xed to the spin housing 29. Similar
converting devices and rotatable joints are pro
vided about the spin axis SI and the nod axis 55,
eventually leading the radiant energy to the
terminating device or antenna 10 within parabola 55
59. Suitable forms of termination are also shown
are so arranged that under these conditions no
rotation of gear I 9| and shaft I93 with respect
to casing I51 is produced. Accordingly, flexible
shaft I95 does not rotate and parabola 59 is ?xed
relative to shaft I53. However, spin motion is
produced by the rotation of spin casing I51.
Also engaging with stationary gear I11 is a
in copending application Serial No. 429,494.
It is to be noted that any suitable type of high
pinion I99 which actuates one member of a me
frequency energy conducting apparatus may be
chanical differential 20I. A second member 203
provided to energize the radiator 59, the above 60 of differential 20I is actuated in accordance with
described system merely being one type which
the elevation control of the scanner as will be
has been found to be suitable.
later seen, but during searching operations is
Figure 2 shows a scanning device functioning
maintained stationary. Accordingly, during
similarly to that of Figure 1. In this instance,
searching, any motion of gear I99 will be trans
however, the nod axis and elevation axis have 65 mitted directly to the third member 205 of dif
been combined into a, single axis such as axis I50,
ferential 20I, which, through pinion 201, worm
alternatively utilized as a nod axis and as an
elevation axis.
Thus, parabolic reflector 59 is
fastened to a shaft I52 coaxial with an axis I50
209, worm wheel 2“, link 2I3' and crank 2I5
serves to oscillate shaft I53 about the nod axis
I50, producing motion of the parabola 59 in nod.
and which is joui'nalled in a pair of arms I55 ex— 70 Motion of pinion I99 is produced during search
tending from a casing I51. As will be later seen,
casing I51 is continuously rotating at the spinning
ing by rotation of casing I 51 about stationary
speed, during the spiral scanning operation. At
the same time, to produce the spin motion in a
01' motion of parabola, 59. The various gear ratios
gear I11, thereby producing the nod component
involved are so chosen and the link mechanism
manner to be inter (lcucrllmd, sliul‘l, I03 lI-I cone 76 lI-I m) iiIYlIlIltIlIl that it suitable .l‘ItllU-U ltllll rate 01'
2,410,831
9
10
nod is produced according to the requirements
a gear I66. Gear I66 is adapted to be driven by
a pinion I68, which, in turn, is actuated from a
of the particular problem at hand. In this way,
the same type of spiral scanning is produced to
effect searching as described with respect to Fig
ure 1.
suitably controlled azimuth servo motor or other
servo device I10 adapted to be controlled in any
desired manner. Servo I10 may be of the form
shown in Figure 1, or any other well-known type.
It will be clear that this azimuth control will
-'
Continuously engaging spinning casing I51 is
a brake 2|‘! held against casing I51 by means of
a suitable spring 2I9. It will be clear that a
plurality of such brakes and springs will ordi
narily be used symmetrically disposed about cas
remain effective during both the spiral searching
scanning and the circular tracking scanning just
10 described.
However, after circular scanning is
initiated, it is desirable also to be able to adjust
or vary the orientation of the spin axis 62, in
ing I 51. Brake 2I1 is insuflicient of itself to
affect the motion of casing I51 during search
ing, when casing I51 is driven by motor I59.
However, should casing I51 be disengaged from
motor I59, brake 2 I1 would be immediately effec
tive to stop rotation of the casing I51.
Thus, upon actuation of clutch I61 to the op
posite or tracking position, gear I65 is no longer
driven from motor I59. Accordingly, the source
elevation.
For this purpose, an elevation servo
unit 22I, which may be of the same type as servo
15 I10, actuates one member 223 of a compensating
differential 225 to be described.
The output of differential 225 rotates a suitable
sleeve 221 formed concentrically within sup
porting member I64. Sleeve 221 terminates in a
of power is removed from casing I51, which is 20 gear 229 within housing I6I and its rotation is
immediately brought to a standstill by brake 2 I1._
transmitted by way of a pinion 23I, shaft 233,
At the same time, gear I63, sleeve HI and gear
gearing 235, shaft 231, gearing 239‘, worm MI and
I15 are set into rotation. Since casing I51 is no
gear 243 to one member of a differential 245.
A
longer rotating, member I81 of differential I05
second member 241 of differential 245 is driven
from gear I65 through an idler gear 249. The
is no longer actuated and is held motionless by
?xed gear I11. Accordingly, the rotation of gear
third or output member 25I of differential 245
I15 is transmitted to gear I83, shaft I8I through
actuates a gear 253 ?oating about the search spin
di?erential I85 to gear I9I and through ?exible
axis 6|. Gear 253 actuates a pinion 255 ?xed to
a shaft 251 which is journalled within the spin
shaft I95 to the parabola 59 thereby maintain
ing the spinning motion of parabola 59 either 30 ning casing I51. Shaft 251 operates through gear
at the same rate as the previous spinning motion,
ing 259 and worm 26I to actuate the member
or at a higher rate as may be desired. It will
203 of differential 20I heretofore described.
During the spiral searching scanning operation
be noted that parabola 59 now rotates about an
servo 22I is generally stationary, which thereby
axis 62 which is not necessarily coincident with
immobilizes sleeve 221, gear 229, pinion 23I and
spin axis 6|.
The immobilizing of casing I51 also causes gear
I99 to stop rotating.
Since member 203 of dif
ferential 20I is also motionless, no motion is ~
transmitted through gear 201 and thereby to
shaft I52. Accordingly, the motion of parabola
member 243 of differential 245. At the same time,
gear I65 continuously rotates member 241 of dif
ferential 245 through idler pinion 249. The re
sulting operation is such that gear 253 is rotated
by differential 245 at the same rate and in the
same direction as casing I51. Because of this,
59 in nod has been stopped and the only result
shaft 251 is rotating about search spin axis 61
ant motion is the spinning motion of parabola
at the same rate as pinion 253, resulting in no
59 about its new spin axis 62, which in this in
rotation of gear 255 and a consequent immobiliza
stance, may be di?erent from the normal axis
of spinning 6| by virtue of the fact that the 45 tion of member 203 of di?’erential 20I, whose
effect has already been described.
nodding motion may be interrupted at any de
sired point.
~
Hence, during the spiral scanning, the sta
tionary elevation control described above has no
In order to produce the very small circular
effect upon the operation of the scanner. How
scanning described with respect to Figure 1, pref
erably the axis 60 of the beam radiated from or 50 ever, after spiral scanning has been stopped and
casing I51 rendered stationary, any motion of the
received by parabola 59 is offset slightly with re
output of elevation servo unit 22I will be trans
spect to the new spin axis 62 in order that the
mitted through di?erential 225, sleeve 221, gear
beam may sweep through the narrow circular
229, shaft 231, etc., to member 243 of diITeren~
cone described above.
tial 245. Gear I65 is now held stationary by the
It is usually desirable to interrupt the spiral
action of brake 2I1 on casing I 51, and accord
searching scanning and initiate the circular
ingly the motion of member 243 of differential
tracking scanning at an instant such that the
245 will be transmitted directly to gear 253 and
axis of the resulting circular scanning will coin
thence to gear 255, shaft 251, gearing 259, worrr
cide with the orientation of the distant object
to be detected.
60 26I, di?erential 20I, pinion 201, worm 209, worrr
wheel 2| I, link 2I3, crank 2I5 to displace shafI
In order to accomplish this, the entire device
I53 about the nod axis I5I. In this way, the ori
thus far described while spirally searching is ori
entation of parabola 59 with respect to the not
ented in azimuth by a separate control to be de
ax'is I5I may be adjusted, and in e?‘ect, the nod
scribed, until the azimuth of the spinning axis
6| coincides with the azimuth of the distant ob 65 axis I5I becomes the elevation axis.
The radiant energy may be fed to or led frorr
ject. When this has been adjusted, the nodding
the antenna 59 in a manner similar to that de
motion is interrupted at the instant that the
scribed with respect to Figure 1, preferably using
amount of nod corresponds to the elevation of
circular wave-guides wherever rotating joints an
the distant object, and thereafter the new circu
lar scanning will have its spin axis 62 oriented 70 necessary and rectangular wave-guides wherever
bends or angles are required. Such a wave-guidi
towards the distant object as required.
system is shown in Figure 2 but need not be fur
To produce the desired motion in azimuth, the
housing I6I is mounted for rotation about a ver
' ther described.
Di?erential 225 acts to compensate the eleva
tical azimuth axis such as axis 3 and is ?xed to
a supporting member I64 to which is also fastened 75 tion control for any motion in azimuth. Thus, 1:
11
2,410,831
12
the scanner is rotated in azimuth about aXis 3,
pinion 23I will walk around stationary gear 229,
thereby producing rotation of shaft 233 and con
sequent change in elevation.
searching, but are opened in any known man
ner in response to reception of a re?ected pulse
from the distant object, whereupon relay 211 is
deenergized, closing its contacts 215 and ener
gizing clutch I61, so that gear I65 is disengaged
from motor I51, and is halted by brake 2I9. En
To prevent this,
differential 225 causes gear 229 to rotate by the
proper amount to keep shaft 233 stationary, and
thus compensate for the azimuth motion in its
ergization of clutch I61 now causes motor I51 to
effect on elevation adjustment.
drive gear I63 and perform the circular scanning
It will be clear that azimuth, spin and nod
already described. The control for contacts 285
elevation self-synchronous transmitters may be 10 may be of any well known type, and is prefer
suitably coupled to these respective axes to re
ably of the quick-open, delayed-close type,
motely indicate the instantaneous attitude of the
whereby circular tracking scanning is main
scanner with respect to these axes, if desired.
If desired, gear I63 may be continuously driven
from motor I59 at all times. This would cause a
continuous rotation of parabola 59 about its spin
axis 62, at the same rate as the rotation about axis
Relay 211 is also preferably made to be quick
opening and delayed-closing, to prevent needless
6I, thereby distorting the
not materially, because
the spinning of parabola
62. In this case, clutch
tained so long as reflected pulses are received.
chattering between searching
spiral scan slightly, but
of the small angle of
axis 6| about spin aXis
I61 would only act to
Figure 4 shows a modi?ed circuit for perform
ing the transfer between scanning and track
ing, now replacing continuously acting brake 2I9
with a solenoid operated brake 2I8. Thus, clutch
engage or disengage gear I65 from motor I59,
the operation otherwise being as described above.
For proper operation as described above, it is
necessary that casing I51 be stopped with
I61 has one terminal connected to side 21I of
power line 213. The other terminal of clutch
I61 is connected to side 212 of line 213 through
contacts 215 of time delay relay 211, whose wind
nod axis I50 substantially horizontal, and that
the nod motion of parabola 59 be stopped at the
proper elevation of the distant object. As de
scribed above, the scanner, while spirally search
ing, is preferably oriented in azimuth until the
ing is adapted to be directly energized from
power line 213 when transfer switch 219 is thrown
in the left “search” position.
Time delay relay 211 is preferably of the quick
azimuth of search spin axis 6| is the same as
that of the distant object, as shown on any suit
able indicator, one type being described in the
above-mentioned copending application Serial
No. 441,188. As therein described, periodic pulses 35
of radiant energy may be transmitted from the
radiating system 59, being re?ected by any ob
jects within the scanning range. A cathode ray
indicator is used in which an electron beam is
spirally actuated in synchronism and correspond
ence with the motion of the scanner. Reception
of a re?ected pulse causes momentary brightening
and tracking.
Thereafter tracking with the distant object in
elevation and azimuth may be effected by suit
able control of servos 22I and I10, respectively.
open, delayed-close type, and, upon its energiza
tion, clutch I61 is deenergized through opening
of contacts 215. This occurs in the left or
“search” position of switch 219. Under these
conditions brake 2I8 is deenergized, since it is
connected in series with switch 219 when in the
tracking position and also in series with relay
contacts 28I, whose energizing coil 283 has one
40 terminal connected to line 21I and its second
terminal connected through radio controlled con
tacts 286 to terminal T of switch 219.
of the beam trace, indicating by its position on
Accordingly, in the searching position, clutch
the cathode ray screen, the orientation of the dis
I61 is deenergized and brake 2I8 also is deener
tant object. The orientation of the search spin
axis 6I corresponds to the center of the screen. 45 gized, resulting in the spiral scanning or search
ing operation described above. Upon switching
Accordingly, the operator need merely actuate
to the “tracking” position of switch 219, clutch
azimuth servo I10 until the azimuths of spin axis
I61 is energized, thereby disconnecting the drive
6| and the distant object are the same. thereby
for the nodding motion as described above. How
assuring that when the scanner axis 60 sweeps
ever, due to the inertia of the various moving
across the object, the nod axis is horizontal.
parts, spiral scanning will continue until brake
The operator must then stop the spiral scanning
2I8 is energized. Brake 2I8 is under the control
at the point where the scanner is oriented in nod
of contacts 28I of relay 283. This relay in turn
toward the distant object. This may most simply
is under the control of radio~controlled contacts
be done by interrupting the spiral spin and nod at
the instant that a re?ected pulse is received, when, 55 286. Contacts 286 are placed under the control
of the received pulses, that is, are adapted, in a
since scanner and object are already lined up in
manner well known, to close only at the time
azimuth, the scanner nod position will be sub
when pulses are received from the distant re
stantially identical with the elevation of the
fleeting object, and to remain closed for a ?xed
object.
One type of apparatus for producing this re 60 interval after the last pulse received.
Accordingly, before throwing the switch 219
sult is schematically shown in Figure 3, by suit
to the tracking position, the operator will orient
able control of clutch I61. Thus clutch I61, has
one terminal connected directly to one side 21I
of a power line 213, the other terminal being
connected to the other line side 212 through
contacts 215 of a relay 211. During searching,
relay 211 is energized through switch 219 in its
left or “search” position, so that contacts 215 are
the scanner in azimuth by means of a suitable
control of azimuth, servo unit I10 until the
azimuthal orientation of the spin axis BI is the
same as the azimuth of the distant object.
Thereafter, he may throw the switch 219 to the
tracking position at any desired moment. At
the ?rst instant after the switching operation
open, thereby deenergizing clutch I61 and en
gaging gear I65 to be driven by motor I51 to 70 that the parabola axis 66 is directed at the dis
tant object, a re?ected pulse will be received by
perform spiral search scanning. When circular
the system and contacts 286 will close, thereby
tracking scanning is desired, switch 219 is thrown
energizing relay winding 283 and closing its con
to the right or “tracking” position, thereby plac
tacts 28I and so energizing brake 2I8 which
ing relay 211 in series with contacts 285. These
contacts are normally closed, so as to maintain 75 thereupon stops the spiral scanning motion.
13
2,410,831
lid
It will be clear that in this position the nod
displacement of the parabola axis 55 will be sub
. is actuated to its other position and magnetic
stantially the actual elevation of the distant
object and that thereafter elevation control dur
brake EH2 is momentarily energized, thereby stop-n
ping yoke I51 and rotating gear I53. Since yoke
ing the circular scanning used in tracking may
be obtained by suitable adjustment about the
For tracking and circular scanning, clutch I51
I51 is now stationary, pinion I99 no longer ro»
tates and both the spin motion of yoke I51 and
the nod motion are interrupted. However, mom
nod axis under the control of the elevation servo
22I as described above.
tion in elevation derived from elevation servo 22I
Closing of contacts 286 also energizes a time
through gearing 222, differential 255, gear 253
delay relay 281 controlling a series of contacts 10 and pinion 255 causes control of the nod~eleva~
293, 295, 291, etc., which may serve to control
tion axis I53 in a manner already described with
the changeover operation from searching to
tracking of the remaining parts of the system,
respect to Figure 2, brake ‘ZIB by this time being
deenergized.
such as the radio circuits, indicator circuits,
Rotation of gear I63 now causes rotation of
servo circuits, etc., as described more in detail 15 sleeve HI and gear I
thereby rotating gear
in ‘copending application Serial No. 441,188. In
IBI and acting through differential I55 to rotate
this way there is provided a scanning unit sim
gear I91 and thereby ?exible shaft I95 to spin
ilar in operation to that of Figure 1, but com—
the parabola 59 in its circular scanning about new
bining nod and elevation axes into one axis.
spin axis 52.
It is to be noted that the device of Figure 2 20
In order to control the rotation of the parabola
reaches its greatest utility when scanning over a
orientation in azimuth, azimuth servo I10 now
solid angle having a horizontal axis, in distinc
drives a worm I12 engaging one element 1150f a
tion to the device of Figure 1, wherein any solid
differential I15. This serves" to rotate pinions
angle within the azimuth and elevation range
I18 and I80 engaging gear I55 and thereby ad~
of variation of the device may be scanned. How 25 justs yoke I51 in azimuth. Combined azimuth~
ever, the device of Figure 2 need not be so re
spin and combined nod~elevation self-‘synchro
stricted, since axis 3 may be oriented as desired.
nous transmittei's may be provided here also.
In such case, however, rotation about axis 3 is no
From the ‘foregoing, it will be seen that in
longer true azimuth variation, an axis I50 no
transferring from searching to tracking the spin
longer represents a true elevation axis, but rather 30 ning motion of spinning yoke I51 must be
instead of elevation and azimuth there are used
stopped, but then yoke I51 must be left free for
two other independent coordinates having no
motion in azimuth. Accordingly, the braking ac»
tion must be only momentary. Also the nod mo"
Figure 5 shows a still further modi?ed scanner,
tion must be interrupted when parabola axis 55
useful mainly where the range of the instrument 35 is directed at the distant object as in Figure 2.
is to be restricted to a ?xed hemisphere. Here
Figure 6 shows a suitable control circuit for
the nod and elevation axes have been combined
producing these desired results, similar in many
into one axis and the spin and azimuth axes have
respects to Figure 4. Here again switch 21 51 when
also been Combined into a single axis. The con
in the search position keeps clutch I 51 deener»
structional details and type of operation of the 10 gized by energizing relay 211 which maintains
well-de?ned description.
scanner of Figure 5 are quite similar to that of
Figure 2 and like parts will be given the same
contacts 215 open. ' Upon switching to the track»v
either gear I63 or gear I55, according as track
sui?cient to fully stop yoke I51. Thereafter yoke
ing position of switch 219, relay 211 is deeIl€1‘
reference numerals.
gized, closing contacts 215 and energizing clutch
Thus, a stationary stanchion I69 is provided
I81 to convert from search to track. When ra~
preferably concentric with the now combined spin 45 dio-controlled contacts 285 similar to those oi’
and azimuth axes BI and carrying a stationary
Figure 4 are closed, relay 283 is energized, congear I11 at its upper end. Rotatably supported
tacts 288 of relay 291 being normally closed.
on stanchion IE5 is a floating gear I53 ?xed to
Thereby contacts EEII are closed, energizing brake
a sleeve I1I at whose upper end is fastened a
2I8 and stopping the spin motion of yoke I51.
gear I15. Rotatably supported on sleeve I1I is a 50
Closing of radio contacts 285 also. energizes
further gear I65 ?xed to a sleeve I19 carrying
time delay relay 281, whose contacts 25%? close
at its upper end the spinning casing I51 shown
after a predetermined time interval, thereby eu—
' in this instance as being formed simply of an open
ergizing relay ml, which. acts to open contacts
yoke rather than a closed housing' as in Figure
288 as wellas to close contacts 293, 295, etc.
2. Drive motor I59 in cooperation with electro 55 Opening of contacts 288 deenergizes brake 215,
,magnetic clutch I61 is adapted to selectively drive
which therefore acts only momentarily, for a time
ing or searching is to be performed.
' I51 is free to be actuated by azimuth servo I115
Considering for the moment the searching op
for azimuth tracking control.
eration, clutch I61 is actuated to drive gear I65 60
Here also, gear I63 may be continuously op
from motor I 59 through differential I16, whose
erated by motor I 59, in the same manner as with
member I14 is held stationary by irreversible
respect to Figure 2.
_worm I12, thereby spinning yoke I51. At the
Figures '1 and 8 illustrate another method of
same time, gear I63, sleeve I1! and gear I15 are
correctly determining the exact point at which
stationary, and therefore ?exible shaft 195 is pre 65 the spiral searching scanning should be convert
vented from rotating in the manner described
ed to circular tracking scanning. Thus, it may
with respect to Figure 2. However, pinion I99 is
be desirable to determine in advance the ori~
caused‘to rotate, thereby driving through differ
entation, in azimuth and elevation, for example,
ential ZIJI, pinion 201, worm 2139, worm wheel 2t I,
at which it is desired to stop thevspiral scanning
link 2I3 and crank 2I5 to operate the nod shaft
of the scanner of Figure 5 and convert its mo
I53 and thereby cause nodding of the parabola
tion to circular scanning for tracking purposes.
59 about the nod axis I 50, at the same time that
Thus, in Figure '7 is shown a manually orien'table
spinning is produced by rotation of spinning yoke
' direction-indicating member 50 I, having a handle
I51 about the spin axis 8 I. In this manner, spiral
3133 adapted for manual manipulation. Direc
scanning is performed.
tion-indicating member 301 is adapted to be ori~
2,410,881
15
16
ented about a horizontal axis 305 corresponding
ing 323, will vary from maximum to zero several
times as the azimuthal position of parabola 59
passes through the position of correspondence
with that of member 30I. If the speed of rota
tion of scanner 59 about spin axis 6| at the in
stant the current in relay winding 323 becomes
zero is quite rapid, armature 332 does not have
time to fall out before it is again held in by the
to an elevation axis, and a vertical axis 301 cor
responding to an azimuth axis. Coupled to each
of these axes are respective self-synchronous
transmitters 309 and -3I I of any of the well-known
types, which are thereby adapted to transmit to a
remote point signal currents representing the
respective orientation'of direction indicator 30I
reenergizing of relay winding 323. However, due
in elevation and azimuth.
In operation, the required or desired orienta 10 to frictional effects, the speed of rotation is con
tinually decreasing and eventually a point is
tion of the scanner of Figure 5 may be deter
reached at which this speed is slow enough to
mined by any suitable means, such as the oath
permit armature 332 to make contact with ?xed '
ode ray indicator described above. After this
contact 333. When this is done, since contacts
orientation is determined, member 30I is oriented
correspondingly. This may be done by means 15 325 and 829 are already closed, brake 2I8 will
be energized and the spinning motion about axis
of suitable scales indicating angular elevation and
6| will be instantly stopped. In this way brake
.angular azimuth, or by matching member 30I
2I8 need not absorb the full rotationalspin en
with the indication of the cathode ray indicator
ergy. Since at this moment both the signal out
in any suitable manner.
As shown in Figure 8, the elevation transmitter 20 put from nod signal generator 3I3 and speed
signal generator 3I5 are zero, it will be clear that
309 is connected to the nod self-synchronous de
the orientation of the parabola 59 will be sub
vice 3I3, acting in this instance as a signal gen
stantially the same as that of member 30I, the
erator, to produce in its output an alternating
only difference being occasioned by the change in
voltage having a magnitude corresponding to the
di?erence in orientations of scanner axis 60 and 25 nod caused by the coasting period. This may be
member 30I in elevation.
made small by providing a suitable damping or
I
friction brake .continuously engaging the spin
‘ In a similar manner, azimuth transmitter 3“
is connected to the spin self-synchronous device
3I5 of the scanner of Figure 5, serving also as a
signal generator producing an alternating volt
age havingan amplitude corresponding to the dif
ference in the orientations of the’ scanner axis
60 and member 30I in azimuth.
ning part of the device, as in Figure 1. The
coasting period is desirable in order to prevent
30 large stresses due to too rapid deceleration, and
to assure accurate stopping. In this manner the
scanner of Figure 5 may be converted from the
spiral searching scanning to circular tracking
.
scanning at any desired orientation under the
These two displacement or di?erence voltages
are recti?ed in suitable respective reoti?ers, such 35 control of direction-indicating member 30I. A
suitable device for deenergizing brake 2I8 after
as 3" and 3I9, to obtain corresponding unidi
the scanner has begun conical scanning is also
rectional voltages which thereupon maintain re
provided as in Figure 6.
spective relay windings 32I andv 323 energized
It will be clear that it is not necessary to use
as long as the orientations differ. Relay winding
32I cooperates with a relay armature 325 and 40 the particular type of control member shown in
Figure '1. Thus, control member 30I may be re
two ?xed contacts 321 and 329. While relay
winding 32I is energized, armature ‘325 breaks
placed by a telescope, sound locator, gun director,
a computing gun sight, or any other orientable
contact with ?xed contact 321, thereby main
device.
taining in an open condition the control circuit
for clutch I61 connected to wires 33I, and de 45
Figure 9 shows a modi?cation of the scanning
energizing clutch I61 to effect spiral searching.
system of Figure 5 adapted to produce the same
Upon deenergization of relay winding 32I, arma
ture 325 makes contact with ?xed contact 329,
to condition the energizing circuit of brake 2I8,
as will be seen. Also, armature 325 makes con
functions in a somewhat simpler manner. In
_ this modi?cation the changeover clutch I61a. is
50
tact with ‘contact 321 and energizes clutch I61.
gear 200 is actuated from gear 202 driven from
Relay 323 cooperates with armature 332 and'a
?xed contact 333.
provided with two energizing coils, such as I36
and I68. When coil I68 is energized, ?oating
motor I59, corresponding to the searching opera
When relay winding 323 is
tion. When coil I66 is energized gear 200 is in
stead actuated from worm wheel I82 driven from
Upon deenergization of relay 55 the azimuth servo I14, corresponding to the
energized, armature 332 and contact 333 are
open-circuited.
winding 323,,armature 332 makes contact with
?xed contact 333. When contacts 325, 329 and
tracking operation. During searching, motor I59
332, 333 are closed, the control circuit of brake
2IB, connected thereto as by wires 334, is then
closed and brake 2I8 becomes energized.
60
From the above it will be clear that the voltage
or‘ current applied to relay winding 32I can be
come zero only when the nod position of parab
ola 59 is the same as the elevation setting of
member 30I. When this occurs, armature 325 65
of relay 32I closes the clutch control circuit by
engaging ?xed contact 321. By this action, mo
tor I59 is disengaged from spin yoke I58 and
parabola 59 becomes actuated by ?exible shaft
I95, as described above, to start its tracking scan
70
ning. However, due to the inertia of the various
parts of the system, the spin motion about-axis
6| will continue for several revolutions. During
this time the output of spin signal generator 3 I5,
and accordingly the current supply to relay wind 75
actuates gears 202 and 200 and thereby drives
gear I65 and the yoke I51 carrying the nod axis
I53 as before, and thus providing the spinning
motion of parabola 59. At the same time motor
I59 drives gear I63, sleeve HI and gear I15 at
the same angular velocity as yoke I51. Accord
ingly, gear I83 meshing with gear I15 and having
its bearing I84 ?xed to yoke I51, will not be
rotated, since its shaft I86 is carried around
gear I15 by yoke I51 at the same speed as the
speed of rotation of gear I15 itself. Accordingly,
for this condition of operation ?exible shaft I95
fixed to gear I83 will not be rotated, and the pa
rabola 59 will remain stationary about axis 62.
The motion of spinning yoke I51 causes gear
I99, mounted on a shaft I98 rotatably mounted
within yoke I51, to rotate about a stationary
gear I11 ?xed to stationary stanchion I69. This
rotation of gear I99 is led through differential.
2,410,831
17
18
2M, gear 201, worm 209, worm wheel 2“ eccen
a clutch having a driving member and a driven
"trically pivoted link 2 I3 and crank 2 I5‘ to supply
member each rotatably mounted concentrically
with respect to said second axis, means for actu
ating said driving member from said rotating
the nod motion of the parabola in a manner
similarto that shown in Figures 2 and 5, it being
understood that the third member 203 of differ
ential 20I is held stationary by means of the ele
vation servo 22I as described with respect to prior
Figures 2 and 5.
means at a rate di?erent from said predeter
mined rate, an eccentric and slide arrangement
actuated by said yoke and ‘said driven member
for producing an oscillatory translational motion
To convert to the tracking operation, clutch
with respect to said yoke, means for oscillating
section I68 is deenergized and. clutch section 10 said antenna means about said ?rst axis by said
I66 is energized, the energizing means being as
last motion, a pin slidably mounted in one of said
shown in Figures 3, 4, 6, or 8. Under this con
clutch members and normally engaged in a
dition of operation motor I59 still drives gear
recess in the other of said members for engag
I63 and hence gear I15 continues to rotate.
ing said two clutch members, a slanted notch
However, yoke I5‘! is no longer continuously 15 formed in said pin, a knife member slidably
driven from motor I59 and has had its rotation
mounted in said yoke and adapted when actu
‘ stopped by means of a brake similar to brake
ated to withdraw saidpin from said recess upon
2'I8 of the preceding ?gures.“ Accordingly, the
interaction with said slanted notch, stationary
spinning motion of yoke I51 is interrupted, and
means for actuating said knife member to dis
thereby the nod motion is also interrupted, in 20 engage said clutch and thereby stop said oscil
the manner already described with respect to
latory motion. and means for orienting said sec
Figures 2 and 5. However, rotation of gear I15
now rotates gear I83 actuating ?exible shaft'l95
ond axis in azimuth and elevation.
2. A scanning device comprising directional
and gearing I91, spinning the parabola about
antenna means, a yoke, means for pivotally
axis' 62 to provide the circular tracking scanning 25 mounting said antenna means on said yoke for
of the‘ same type as that produced by the pre
oscillation about a ?rst axis, means for rotating
ceding Figures 2 and 5. Control of the scanner
said yoke at a predetermined rate about a sec
orientation during tracking in azimuth is de
ond axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, a clutch
rived from the azimuth servo I" which actuates
having a driving member and a driven member
worm I12, worm wheel I82 and gear 200 (clutch 30 each rotatably mounted concentrically with re
section I66 now being energized) whereby the
spect to said second axis, means for actuating
position of the yoke I51 may be adjusted under
said driving member from said rotating means at
the .control of azimuth servo I14. The eleva
a rate different from said predetermined rate,
tion servo 22I operates as before through worm
an eccentric and slide arrangement actuated by
and worm wheel arrangement 222, differential 35 said yoke and said driven member for producing
245, gear 253, gear 255, and worm and worm
an oscillatory translational motion with respect
wheel arrangement 26I, 203 to control di?eren
to said yoke, means for oscillating said antenna
~ tial 20I and thereby through gear 207, worm 209,
means about said'?rst axis by said last motion,
worm wheel 2I I, link 2I3 and crank M5 to con
means for disengaging said clutch whereby said
trol the'positioning of the spin axis 62 in nod
oscillatory motion is halted, and means for
about axis vI53.
- -
Suitable nod~elevation and spin-azimuth self
orienting said second axis in azimuth and eleva
tion.
synchronous transmitters may be coupled to axes
3. A scanning device comprising directional
I53 and 62 or 6|, as desired.
antenna means, a support, means for pivotally
It will be clear that, if desired, stanchion I69 45 mounting said antenna means on said support
may be made rotatable about an axis perpen
for oscillation about a ?rst axis, means for ro
dicular thereto and azimuth servo I14 may be
tating said support at a predetermined rate
made effective to control the position of stanchion
"about a second axis perpendicular to said ?rst ‘
I69 (and hence spin axis 6|) about this per
axis, a clutch having a driving member. and a
pendicular axis in the manner similar to Figure 50 driven member, means for actuating said driv
2 so that the simpli?cation e?ected by the de
ing member from said rotating means at a rate
vice of Figure 9 may be applied to the device of
different from said predetermined rate, means
Figure 2, as well as to Figure 5, as illustrated.
actuated by‘ said driven member for oscillating
The control of clutch I6‘la may be the same as
said antenna means about said ?rst axis, and
in Figures 3, 4, 6, or 8, merely requiring a fur 55 means for disengaging said clutch whereby said
ther contact on the clutch control relay de
oscillatory motion is stopped while retaining said
scribed to cause energization of clutch section
rotational motion.
I66 at the same'time that section I68 is deener
4. A scanning ' device comprising directive
gized, and vice versa.
antenna means. means for pivotally mounting
As many changes could be made in the above 60 said antenna means for oscillation. about a first
construction and many apparently widely diifer-.
axis, means for spinning said ?rst axis about a
ent embodiments of this invention could be made
second axis perpendicular thereto, means ‘for
‘ _=‘without departing from the scope thereof, it is
simultaneously oscillating said antenna means
L intended that all matter contained in the above
about said ?rst axis, and means for stopping‘said
description or vshown in the accompanying draw 65 oscillatory motion while retaining said spinning
ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in
motion.
_
,I
'
a limiting sense.
'
5. A scanning device comprising directive an¢
tenna means, means for pivotally mounting said
antenna means for oscillation about a ?rst axis,
1. A scanning device - comprising directional 70 means for spinning said ?rst axis about a sec
antenna means, a yoke, means for pivotally
ond axis perpendicular‘ thereto, and means for
_ mounting said‘ antenna means'on said yoke for
simultaneously oscillating“ said antenna means
aboutsaid ?rst axis.
oscillationhbout a~?rst axis, means for rotat
ing said yoke at a predetermined rate about a
6. A scanning device comprising directive an
second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, 75 tenna means, means for mounting said antenna
Having described our invention, what we claim
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
2,410,831
19
20
means for rotation about a ?rst axis rigidly ?xed
with respect to the directivity axis of said an
ly spinning said antenna means about a spin axis,
and means for interrupting said nod motion while
maintaining a spin‘ motion of said antenna
tenna means, means for pivotally supporting said
?rst axis for oscillation about a second axis per
pendicular to said ?rst axis, means for rotatably
means.
0
supporting said second axis about a third axis
perpendicular to said second axis, means for
rotating said antenna means about said third
axis and for oscillating said ?rst axis about said
12. A scanning device as in-claim 11, further
including means for adjusting the position of said
antenna means about said nod axis.
13. A scanning device as in claim 11, further
including means for adjusting the position of said
second axis while maintaining said antenna 10 antenna means about said spin axis.
means stationary with respect to said ?rst axis,
14. A scanning device as in claim 11, further
means for orienting said third axis in azimuth,
including means for adjusting the position of
means for stopping said rotation and oscillation
said antenna means about said nod and spin axis.
at a predetermined orientation of said antenna
15. A scanning device as in claim 11, further
means with said second \axis substantially hori 15 including means for converting said nod axis to
zontal and for simultaneously initiating rotation
an elevation axis and for adjusting said an
of said antenna'means about said ?rst axis, and
tenna means about said elevation axis.
means for adjusting the orientation of said an
16. A scanning device as in claim 11, further
tenna means in elevation about said second axis.
including means for converting said spin axis to
'7. A scanning device comprising directive an 20 an azimuth axis, and means for adjusting said
tenna means, means for mounting said antenna
antenna means in azimuth about said azimuth
means for rotation about a ?rst axis rigidly ?xed
axis.
with respect to the directive axis of said antenna
17'. A scanning device as in claim 11, further
means, a yoke, means for pivotally mounting said
including means for converting said nod axis to
?rst axis in said yoke for oscillation about a 25 an elevation axis and said spin axis to an azimuth
second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis,
axis, and for adjusting said antenna means in
means for rotatably mounting said yoke about a
elevation and azimuth about said axis.
third axis perpendicular to said second axis,
18. A scanning device comprising orientable
means for rotating said yoke about_said third
means, means for nodding said orientable means
axis and for oscillating said ?rst axis about said 30 about a nod axis, means for simultaneously spin
second axis while maintaining said antenna
means stationary with respect to said ?rst axis,
means for stopping said rotation and oscilla
ning said orientable means about a spin axis,
and means for interrupting said nod motion
while maintaining a spin motion of said orientable
tion at a predetermined orientation of said an
means.
tenna means and 'for simultaneously initiating 35
19. A scanning device comprising a directive
rotation of said antenna means about said ?rst
antenna adapted to radiate a lobe of radiant
axis, means for adjusting the orientation of said
energy, ?rst scanning means operative on said
antenna. means in elevation about said second
antenna, to sweep said lobe recurrently through
axis, and means for adjusting the orientation of
a ?rst predetermined path con?ned within a
said antenna means in azimuth about said third 40 solid angle, and second scanning means operative
axis.
on said antenna to sweep said lobe recurrently
8. A scanning device, comprising directing an
through a second predetermined path con?ned
tenna means, means for mounting said antenna
within a second solid angle.
means for rotation about a first axis ?xed with
20. A scanning device comprising a directive
respect to the directivity axis of said antenna 45 antenna adapted to radiate a lobe of radiant
means, means for pivotally mounting said ?rst
energy, comprising ?rst scanning means opera
axis for oscillation about a second axis perpendi
tive on said antenna to sweep said lobe recur
cular to said ?rst axis, means for rotatably
rently in a path generating a spiral cone, and
mounting said second axis about a third axis
second scanning means operative when said ?rst
perpendicular to said second axis, means for 50 scanning means is inoperative to sweep said lobe
rotating said antenna means about said third axis
recurrently in a path generating a relatively
and for oscillating said ?rst axis about second
slender circular cone of ?xed apex angle.
axis while maintaining said antenna means sta
21. Apparatus comprising an orientable device
tionary with respect to said ?rst axis, and means
adapted to project a lobe of energy, ?rst scan
for stopping said rotation and oscillation at a 55 ning means operative on said device to sweep
predetermined orientation of said antenna means
said lobe recurrently through a spiral conical
and. for simultaneously initiating rotation of said
path, second scanning means operative on said
antenna means about said ?rst axis.
device to sweep said lobe through‘ a small cir
9. A scanning device comprising directive an
cular arc, power means for actuating said scan
tenna means, means for mounting said antenna
ners, and means for rendering one of said scan
means for rotation about a ?rst axis, means for
ners inoperative while the other is operative.
oscillating said ?rst axis about a second axis,
22. A directive antenna adapted to scan a space
means for spinning said second axis about a third
con?ned Within a solid angle, comprising a para
axis while maintaining said antenna means sta
boloidal radiant energy re?ector, means for
tionary with respect to said ?rst axis, means for 65 spinning said reflector continuously about a ?rst
interrupting said spinning and oscillation and
axis, means for oscillating said re?ector about a
for initiating rotation about said ?rst axis, and
transverse axis, and means for locating said re
means for adjusting the orientation of said ?rst
?ector at predetermined positions about said
axis about said second axis.
transverse axis.
10. A scanning device as in claim 9, further 70
23. Scanning means comprising a paraboloidal
including means foradjusting the orientation of
re?ector, means for spinning said reflector about
said antenna means about said third axis.
an axis initially substantially aligned with the
11. A scanning device comprising directive an
axis of said re?ector, and means for oscillating
' tenna means, means for nodding said antenna
said re?ector axis through a limited are from
means about a nod axis, means for simultaneous 76 said spin axis about a transverse axis.
'
2,410,881
21
24. A scanning device comprising a directive
re?ector adapted to radiate a lobe of energy,
antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant
means for sweeping said re?ector so as to pro-p‘
energy and power means for sweeping said lobe
ject said lobe through successive portions of'a‘
through a solid angle in space, and braking means
solid angle, and means for spinning said re?ecr‘
responsive to energy re?ected from an irradiated
tor about a ?xed axis eccentrically disposed with:
object for stopping the motion of said lobe when
respect to said lobe, but substantially aligned‘
said lobe is directed substantially on said object.
with the axis of said re?ector.
‘
25. A scanning device comprising a directive
28. In the method of scanning, the steps com
antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant en
prising revolving and oscillating the directive axis
ergy, ?rst scanning means adapted to sweep said 10 of an energy radiator through successive portions
lobe through successive portions of a solid angle
of a solid angle in space to locate a target, and
in space, second scanning means operative when
upon receiving radiant energy re?ected from said
said ?rst scanning means is inoperative, to sweep
target, con?ning the sweeping motion of ‘said
said lobe through a narrow zone of said solid
radiator to a relatively narrow solid angle adapted
angle, and control means responsive to radiant 15 to enclose said target.
energy re?ected from a scanned object adapted
29. In the method of locating and tracking
to render said ?rst scanning means inoperative.
targets, the steps comprising sweeping the direc
26. A scanning device comprising a directive
tive axis of an energy radiator through succes
antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant
sive portions of a solid angle to locate a target
energy, ?rst scanning means adapted to sweep 20 therein, discontinuing such sweeping movement
' said lobe through successive portions of a solid
so as to locate said axis substantially on said
angle in space, second scanning means opera
target in response to radiant energy re?ected
tive when said ?rst scanning means is inopera
along said axis from said target, and thereupon
tive, to sweep said lobe through a narrow zone
sweeping said directive axis about an axis eccen
of said solid angle, a control device having a 25 tric to said directive axis so that the directive
directional indicator adjustable to predetermined
axis generates a cone of revolution adapted to
positions denoting the successive positions of said
lobe, and means actuated by said control device
for rendering said ?rst seaming means inopera
tive when said lobe reaches a predetermined 30
position relative to said indicator.
27. A scanning device comprising a paraboloidal
enclose said target.
LEON A. MAYBARDUK.
WALTER W. MIEHER.
STEPHEN J. ZAND.
GIFFORD E. WHITE.
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