‘Nov. 12, 1946. L. A. MAYBARDUK EI‘AL 2,410,831 SCANNING DENlECE ‘Filed April 10, 1942 4 Sheets~$heet 2 . J (272 (27! 8 . 93 an em 273? > ' 'INVENTORS, LAMAYBARDUK, WJMMIEHER, ' S.J.ZAND and G_E.WHlT-E, THEIR A‘ITEY'. ' NOV-12, 194st ' L. A. MAYBARDUK EI'AL I’ 2,410,331 SCANNING DEVICE Filed April 10 ,' 194-2} 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 331 _ _ Clulch Conh‘ol Brake Conhol INVENTORS, L.A.MAYBARDUK, wWMlEHER. S.J.ZAND and GE. H Ti? Nov. 12, 1946. L. A. MAYBARDUK ETAL 2,410,831 SQANNING DEVICE Filed April 10, 1942- ‘ 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 J 245 22! ""WW/// ///// INVENTORS, L. A.MAYBARDUK,W.WMIEHER, THE-IR ATTORNEY. Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,410,831 FFlCE UNITED STATES PATENT. 2,410,831 SCANNING DEVICE Leon A. Maybarduk, Forest Hills, Walter W. Mieher, Mineola, Stephen J. Zand, Forest Hills, and Gifford E. White, Hempstead, N. Y., assign ors to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brook ' lyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 10, 1942, Serial N0. 438,388 29 Claims. (Cl. 250-11) 1 2 The present invention ‘m concerned with de vices for scanning a beam 01 fadiant energy, or scanning a directive reception pattern over a spiral scan or the axis of the circular scan, both coinciding with the spin axis, in order that the radiating system may have its center‘ directed in any desired orientation within the range of In many applications, such as in object de the system. For this purpose the spinning axis tector, distance measuring, and radio-_locating de of the radiating system may be made adjustable vices, it is desirable to scan a projected beam of both in azimuth and elevation, whereby either the radiant energy over a predetermined solid angle circular scanning or the spiral scanning may be usually conical in form in order that the pres directed toward any point of the sphere within ence and/or distance of a distant object located 10 the limitations of the system. within that solid angle may be detected and meas Alternatively, such orientation may be desired ured by associated apparatus, In such systems only during circular scanning, to provide track it may also be desirable, after such an object has ing with the distant re?ecting object. Then been detected, and its presence indicated, to di either or both the nod and spin axes may be al rectly orient the radiant energy transmitting sys ternatively used, during circular scanning, as the tem toward the distant object in order to accu elevation and azimuth axes, respectively. In rately indicate its orientation, relative to the lo~ such case, the spin motion may be interrupted cation of the transmitting system. at the proper point, and the radiating system may predetermined solid angle. According to the present invention such a de be then rotated about a further axis slightly an vice is provided, adapted to scan a predetermined 20 gularly displaced from the beam axis, to thereby conical angle up to and including a complete provide the circular tracking scanning. There hemisphere by means of a spiral conical motion after, the new axis may be oriented in elevation of a sharply directed radiant energy beam. This and azimuth by the use of the nod and former motion is provided by rapidly spinning the radi spin axes as elevation and azimuth axes, or by ating system about one axis while slowly nodding 25 independent elevation and azimuth axes. the system about a second axis perpendicular to Accordingly, ‘its is an object of the present in and rotating with the ?rst axis. vention to provide improved devices for sweeping In addition to such a spiral scanning or search ing operation it is desirable in some systems to convert the spiral scanning, which is generally eiiective over a wide solid angle, to a type of cir cular conical scanning having a very narrow apex angle, such as of the order of 2 to 8 degrees, whereby the actual orientation of the distant ob ject may be accurately indicated by suitable in dicating systems, such as are shown in copending application Serial No. 441,188, ?led \April 30, 1942, for Radio gun control system in the name of G. E. an orientable member over a predetermined solid angle of space. 30 It is another object of the present invention to provide improved radio scanners for spirally sweeping a directive radiation pattern over a conical solid angle. It is a further object of the present invention 35 to' provide improved devices for converting one ' kind of scanning to a di?erent type. It is still another object of the present inven tion to provide improved devices for alternatively White, C. G. Holschuh, W. W. Mieher and J. E. scanning spirally or circularly. Shepherd. Such a change from spiral to circular 40 It is a still further object of the present in scanning may be produced in the present device vention to provide improved scanners for al by interrupting the nodding motion at a point in ternatively scanning spirally, as for searching, or its cycle at which the axis of the radiated beam circularly, as for tracking, and for adjusting the is at an angle to the spinning axis equal to, half scanning axis orientation. the desired apex angle of the circular scanning, 45 It is yet another object of the present inven— while retaining the spin motion. In the illus tion to provide improved scanning devices adapt— tration used above this might be, for example, ed to produce spiral scanning of an orientable 4 degrees. In this manner,- by interrupting the member by a combination of nodding and spin nodding motion and maintaining the spinning ning motions of this member, and to convert to motion, the beam is caused to move in a narrow 50 circular scanning by interruption of the nodding circular conical pattern as desired. motion. It is further desirable to be able to adjust or It is still another object of the present inven vary, in elevation and azimuth, the general ori tion to provide improved spiral scanning of an entation of the radiating system, which may be orientable member by a combination of nodding taken to be the orientation of the pole of the 55. and spinning motions of this member, and to 2,410,881 3 4 >nvert to circular scanning by interruption of the gear 9 is preferably made in the form of a semi circle in order to clear the path for scanning in a downward direction, as will be apparent from the »inning motion and initiation of a new spin ,ng motion. Further objects and advantages will become Jparent from the following speci?cation and description below. Pivoted in supporting mount I about a nor mally horizontal axis, such as axis 21 intersect rawings in which ing azimuth axis 3, is a housing 29 which carries Figure 1 comprises a perspective view of one the radiating system and its spinning and nod mm of scanner, embodying independent azimuth ding operating mechanism. Fixed to the pivot id elevation controls. Figure 2 comprises a perspective view of a modi 10 axis of housing 29 is a worm wheel sector 3| driven from a worm 33 which in turn is energized ed form of scanner in which the nod and eleva from the elevation output shaft I9 as by way of‘ on axes are combined. 1 gearing 35, shaft 31, and gearing 39. In this Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of a suitable con way, upon energization of elevation control unit ol circuit for the scanner of Figure 2 for ef I8 and actuation of the output shaft I9, the :cting changeover from spiral to conicalscan lng. ‘ . housing 29 is caused to rotate about a horizontal Figure 4 is a wiring diagram disclosing a modi axis. By the above mechanism, therefore, hous ing 29 is adapted to be rotated both in elevation zation of the control circuit of Figure 3. Figure 5 is a perspective view showing a fur and azimuth and may, therefore, be oriented in ier modi?cation of the scanner of Figure 2, com 20 any desired direction. Mounted on supporting mount I is a driving vning the spin and azimuth axes. motor 4| whose output shaft 43 is preferably Figure 6 is a wiring diagram of a control cir made concentric with the horizontal pivot axis iit for the scanner of Figure 5. 21 of housing 29. If desired, motor 4| may be Figure 7 is a perspective view of a controller Shaft 43 rr determining the point at which the scanner 25 mounted anywhere on housing 29. passes through a suitable bearing in housing 29 :‘ Figure 5 is to convert from searching to and drives, as by way of gearing 44, a bevel gear 'acking. 41 which in turn actuates a further bevel gear Figure 8 is a wiring diagram of a control circuit 49 and a shaft 63 ?xed thereto. Shaft 53 drives a )r use with the scanner of Figure 5 and con ‘oller of Figure 6. 30 large gear 48 through pinion 45, Gear 48 is mounted in housing 29 for rotation about spin Figure 9 is \a diagrammatic view of a modifica axis 5|, which is preferably chosen to intersect on of the scanner of Figure 5. both elevation axis 21 and azimuth axis 3. Referring to Figure 1, a supporting mount I Fastened to gear 48 as by a hub 5| is a yoke 53 . pivotally supported about a vertical axis 3, s on a suitable step or thrust bearing 5 mounted 35 which, as will be seen, carries the nod axis 55 about which is pivoted a member 51 carrying the n a fixed support ‘I. Support ‘I also carries ?xed directional radiating system illustrated as com > it a horizontal gear 9 which engages with a prising a parabolic re?ector 59. Nod axis 55 inion || mounted on a shaft I3 journaled in preferably intersects‘ spin axis 6|. In this way, iount I as by a suitable bearing l5. Carried on power motor 4| supplies the driving power for ie supporting mount | is a suitable variable spinning the parabola 59 about the spin axis 8|. The nodding motion of the parabola 59 is-actu a-ted from the spinning motion, thereby permit ting the same motor 4| to provide power for both rising respective variable displacement pumps 45 spinning and nodding. "hose ?uid outputs actuate respective hydraulic Thus, also ?xed to shaft 63 and driven there with from motor 4| is a pinion '65 which meshes rotors and thereby rotate the respective output with and drives a gear 61 ?oatingly supported on ‘Crafts I9 and 2|. hub 5|. Fixed to gear 61 is a further gear 69, One of these units, such as I8, is adapted to Jtate the radiating system in elevation, as will 50 which engages a pinion ‘II fastened to a shaft 12 journaled in an extending arm 13 integral with e seen, and the other unit, such as 20, is adapted 'yoke 53. Also fastened to shaft ‘I2 is a pinion ‘I4 ) rotate the system in azimuth. The output which ‘drives a gear ‘I5 having its forward- face oeeds of shafts I9 and 2| are under the control vseed driving mechanism, illustrated in this in ;ance as being of the variable-displacement hy raulic transmission type, comprising an electric riving motor I'I driving two units I8 and 20 com formed as a driving clutch plate, which cooper I? a suitable control box 23 adapted to control 1686 shafts I9 and 2| under the in?uence of a 55 ates with a driven clutch plate 11 to drive the lat- ter when these two plates are in engagement. emote controlling station, Such a control box Fixed to driven clutch plate 11 is an eccen my assume the form shown in copending ap tric projection 19 cooperating with a slot 8| in a lication Serial No. 417,580, for Remote aircraft sliding member 83 which carries on its outer face irret control mechanism, ?led November 1, 1941, 1 the name of W. C. Hartman, J. A. Peoples, Jr., 60 a rack 85. Member 83 is guided by suitable guide slides 81 fastened to yoke 53 and is thereby con nd H. L. Hull. The control station may be any strained to move only perpendicularly with re rientable device, such as a telescope, gun sight spect to the spin axis BI and yoke 53, omputer, search-light, etc, or any suitable con With clutch plates ‘I5, 11 in engagement, the rol for producing control signals to actuate con 65 gear ratios are so chosen that driven clutch plate rol box 23 . TI is rotated at a speed different from that of Any other type of actuating device may be used, yoke 53, so that eccentric ‘I9, cooperating with E desired, with any suitable type of control, ac slot 8| in slide 83, will cause an oscillatory trans ording to the requirements of a particular ap lational motion of slide 83 and rack 85. Meshing ilication. Azimuth shaft 2| is coupled directly to shaft I3 70 with rack 85 is a pinion 89 oscillated thereby. Pinion 89v is ?xed to a shaft 9| journaled within ,s by suitable gearing 25.v In this Way upon aetu~ yoke 53 and also carrying gear sectors 93 ?xed ,tion of the azimuth unit 20, pinion I I is caused thereto. Sectors 93 engage with cooperating gears o rotate and thereby causes the supporting 95 ?xed to member 51 carrying parabola 59, and count I and the radiating apparatus to walk .round the ?xed azimuth gear 9. The azimuth 75 thereby the oscillatory rotational motion of pinion 2,410,881 89 is transferred to parabola 59, which is thereby caused to nod about axis 55. Accordingly, this nod motion combined with the spin motion ‘causes the axis of parabola 59 to sweep out a spiral cone in space, whose outermost limits are determined by the maximum amount of nod as measured with respect to the spin axes. Preferably the nod and spin rates are so ad justed that energy may be radiated to or received 6 motion of the parabola at the proper point in its cycle of nod. For this purpose there is provided mounted on housing 29 a control solenoid. I99 whose coil is fixed to housing 29. The armature III of solenoid I09 is fastened to a ring Iii as by a rod II5. Ring I I3 is adapted to slide axially along housing 29, and will be so actuated. as to move toward parabola 59 upon energization of solenoid I09. If desired, a plurality of solenoids from every point of the conical solid angle within 10 I09 may be disposed symmetrically about housing 29 to produce a proper axial motion of ring I I3. which scanning occurs. For this purpose, the Carried on yoke 53, as by a suitable bracket pitch of the spiral, which may be de?ned as the angular separation between consecutive layers III, is a slidable rod II9 having at one end a roller I2I which normally rolls about ring H3. of the spiral, and is therefore equivalent to the change in nod angle per spin revolution, is chosen 15 Roller I2I,'is urged against ring Iii! by means of I _‘ to be no larger than the angular width of the a spring connected between arm I iii and. bracket radiation transmitting or receiving pattern formed by‘ parabola 59. For example, a suitable radiation pattern width has been found to be 4 degrees. “1, this spring not being shown in the view than 4 degrees in nod for each spin revolution. an interposing knife member IZ'I. _ Suitable rates of rotation have been i'qund to It will be clear from the above description that energization of solenoid I09 will push ring II3 forward, thereby pushing upon arm I II) no matter taken. Arm H9 at its other end is pivoted to a bell crank E23 having a. pivot I25 ilxed to the Accordingly, the scanner must not change more 20 yoke 53. The other end of bell crank I23 actuates be 1200 R. P. M. for spin and 30 complete revo lutions per minute for nod. In this way a com ' plete cycle comprising two spiral scans, one out 25 what the position of yoke 53 might be at the moment of energization, and hence, rotating bell ward and one inward, over the desired conical crank I23 and pushing interposing member i2? solid angle is produced each two seconds, and each spiral scan comprises 20 complete spins. The toward the spin axis, extent of the conical solid angle may be suitably Interposing member IZ'I operates to separate selected by determining the eccentricity of eccen 30 driving clutch plate 15 from. the driven clutch. tric in 19 to produce a suitable range of nodding motion, or by properly choosing the gear ratios of sectors 93 and pinions 95. Thus, if it is desired plate 'I'I. These two clutch plates 75 and II’ are connected to move together by means o1’: a pin I3I which is slidably mounted in driven clutch to scan over a complete hemisphere, the system plate ‘I1 and engages a slot or recess I32 on driv would be adjusted so that the nodding motion of parabola axis 60 takes place between 0 degrees and 90 degrees with respect to the spin' axis. ing clutch plate ‘I5 to thereby couple the two clutch plates together. Pin I3I is normally urged For smaller solid angles the limitation in nod toward plate ‘I5 and held within recess I32 by a suitable spring, (not shown). Operation of interposing member I27! acts to would be correspondingly restricted. The system thus far described, therefore, is 40 remove pin I3I from its recess in driving clutch capable of performing spiral scanning over a pre plate ‘I5 and thereby releases driven clutch plate - determined selected conical solid angle whose axis 11 from its driving source. Thus, pin I3I is is. adjustable in azimuth and elevation. In order to suitably synchronize an indicator with this scanning motion it is desirable to transmit‘the instantaneous position of the parabola in terms of its spin and nod components to the indicator. , For this purpose a self-synchronous transmitter 91, ofany suitable type, such as the “Selsyn,” “Autosyn,” or “Telegon” type, is coupled directly to the nod axis 55, as by suitable gears 99, to _ _ provide signal currents corresponding to the posi tion of the parabola in nod. In view of the fact that this nod transmitter 91 must be ?xed to spinning yoke 53, it is necessary to provide suitable slip rings for connecting these currents to external circuits. Such slip rings are shown atIUI, ?xed to hub 5i and gear 48, and formed with a tapered or slanted notch I34. The end of member I2‘! is also tapered in a similar _fashion. When member IZ‘I is moved toward spin axis BI, the motion of pin I M relative to yoke 53 causes notch I35 to engage member I27. Con tinued rotation of plate TI causes pin I3I to ride up on the slanted portion of member I271, and to 50 ‘pull itself out of recess I32. Plate ‘II is therefore no longer supplied with driving power, and. a fric~ tion brake I33, which continuously engages clutch plate 'I'I, under the action of suitable spring I35, is thereby permitted to immediately stop 55 clutch plate 11' in its rotation with respect to yoke 53. Thereafter clutch plate ‘IT does not move with respect to yoke 53, but spins with it. Hence, eccentric ‘I9 has no relative motion with respect to slide 83, and the nodding motion of the therefore ?xed with respect to transmitter 91. These slip rings may therefore be connected to 80 parabola 59 is interrupted. transmitter 91 by suitable conductors (not The relationship between the position of eccen shown). Stationary brushes (not! shown) tric ‘I9 and slide BI is so chosen that when pin mounted within housing 29 may be provided for I3I comes into the position wherein it is engaged conducting these currents to the external circuits. In order to transmit the instantaneous spin 65 by interposing member I21, parabola 59 will be at the position of nod at which it is desired to position of the parabola to a distant point, a spin stop the nodding motion. In this way the spiral transmitter I03, which maybe of the same type as nod transmitter 91, is suitably coupled to the scanning may be converted into circular scanning spinning part of the system as by suitable gears by remote electrical energization of solenoid I09, I05 and H11. No slip rings are necessary for 70 Without affecting in any way the spinning motion transmitter I03 since it is ?xedly mounted with of parabola 59 or its orientability in elevation and respect to housing 29._ . azimuth. In order to transfer from spiral scanning to It will be clear that the present scanning device circular scanning, as described above, it is neces need not be restricted to the transmission or sary in the present instance to interrupt the nod 75 reception of radio energy, but may be used to 2,410,831 7 transmit or receive other forms of energy, such as light, sound, infra-red rays, etc. In view of the multiplicity of axes of rotation of the system it is necessary to provide special de vices for introducing the energy to be radiated to or for abstracting energy from the parabolic re ?ector 59. The present device is especially adapted for use with ultra high frequency radiant tinuously oscillated about axis I50 thereby pro ducing the nod component of motion of reflector 59. ~ The motive power for the scanning operation is produced from a suitable_motor I59 carried in a relatively stationary housingIBI. Motor I59 is adapted to selectively drive a gear I63 or a gear I65, the selection being effected by means of a energy, which can be conveniently conducted by means of hollow wave guides, although it is to be 10 suitable remotely actuated clutch such as mag netic clutch I61. Gear I63 is floatingly mounted noted that the system is in no way so restricted ‘ on a hollow stanchion I69 ?xed within housing and that concentric transmission lines or other I6I concentric with the spin axis 6I.' Fixed to types of conductors may be used, if desired. gear IE3 is a sleeve I1I which passes through However, for the purpose of illustration; the present system has been illustrated as using hol 15 an opening I13 in the base of spin casing I51 and terminates in a gear I15. Stanchion I69 extends low wave guides for conducting high frequency radiant energy. ,_ concentrically beyond gear I15 and terminates in a stationary gear I11. Gear I65 is ?oatingly Thus, a wave guide I39 leading from the energy mounted upon sleeve Ill and in turn is ?xed to a source, or to the receiver, is conducted to the sleeve I19 ?xed to spin casing I51. ' base ‘I of the apparatus. Preferably such a wave 20 In this way, upon suitable actuation of clutch guide is rectangular in form for convenience of I61 to its spiral scanning position, gear [65 is construction and use, and to provide desirable continuously rotated by motor I59, gear I63 re electrical characteristics, although it may be of maining stationary. This produces a continu any other suitable shape. At the base 1 wave ous rotation of casing I 51 about the spin axis guide I29 is connected to a circular wave guide 26 6i. Journalled within casing I51 is a shaft I8I IIII concentrically situated with respect to the ?xed to a gear I83 engaging with gear I15, now azimuth axis 3. Suitable types of wave guide stationary. Shaft I8I drives one member of a couplings for converting from a rectangular wave guide I39 to a circular wave guide IIlI are shown suitable mechanical differential I85, another of members is actuated by means of a gear in copending application Serial No. 429,494, for 30 whose I81 engaging stationary gear I11. The third Directive antenna structure, ?led February 4, member I89 of di?erential I85 drives a pinion 1942, in the name of R. J. Marshall, W. L. Barrow, I9I ?xed to a second shaft I93 journalled within and W. W. Mieher, and in copending application Serial No. 447,524, for High frequency apparatus, casing I51, and thereby rotates a ?exible shaft axis 3. Therefore,'between wave guide sections MI and M3 there is provided a rotatable joint I45 also described in above-mentioned copending tion corresponding to the spiral searching opera tion, motor I59 will continuously rotate gear I65, I95 to which the parabola 59 is coupled, as by ?led June 18, 1942, in the names of‘ W. W. Mieher 35 means of suitable gearing I 91, the parabola 59, and J. D. Mallett. now being made rotatable .about an axis 62 ?x Circular wave guide ItI is fixed to the base 1. edly displaced from the parabola axis 60 by the A cooperating wave guide I43 is provided ?xed to amount of nod needed for circular scanning, as the mount I which, as has been described, is will be seen. ‘ rotatable with respect to base 1 about azimuth Thus, assuming that clutch I61 is in the posi applications Serial Nos. 429,494, and 447,524. sleeve I19 and easing I51 at the spin rate and about the spin axis. Gear I63, sleeve HI and Wave guide I93 is again converted by similar 45 gear I15 will be stationary. Gear I11 is also waves to a rectangular wave guide ml, which is _ - stationary. Accordingly, as casing I51 rotates then conducted to the elevation axis 21, at which about gears I15 and I11, a corresponding rota point it is again converted to a circular wave guide tion of gear I83 and gear I81 will be produced. I189 coaxial with axis 21. This guide I49 is con Hence two members of di?erential I85 are driv nected as by a rotatable joint I5I to a wave guide 50 en. Differential?l85 and its associated gearing section I53 ?xed to the spin housing 29. Similar converting devices and rotatable joints are pro vided about the spin axis SI and the nod axis 55, eventually leading the radiant energy to the terminating device or antenna 10 within parabola 55 59. Suitable forms of termination are also shown are so arranged that under these conditions no rotation of gear I 9| and shaft I93 with respect to casing I51 is produced. Accordingly, flexible shaft I95 does not rotate and parabola 59 is ?xed relative to shaft I53. However, spin motion is produced by the rotation of spin casing I51. Also engaging with stationary gear I11 is a in copending application Serial No. 429,494. It is to be noted that any suitable type of high pinion I99 which actuates one member of a me frequency energy conducting apparatus may be chanical differential 20I. A second member 203 provided to energize the radiator 59, the above 60 of differential 20I is actuated in accordance with described system merely being one type which the elevation control of the scanner as will be has been found to be suitable. later seen, but during searching operations is Figure 2 shows a scanning device functioning maintained stationary. Accordingly, during similarly to that of Figure 1. In this instance, searching, any motion of gear I99 will be trans however, the nod axis and elevation axis have 65 mitted directly to the third member 205 of dif been combined into a, single axis such as axis I50, ferential 20I, which, through pinion 201, worm alternatively utilized as a nod axis and as an elevation axis. Thus, parabolic reflector 59 is fastened to a shaft I52 coaxial with an axis I50 209, worm wheel 2“, link 2I3' and crank 2I5 serves to oscillate shaft I53 about the nod axis I50, producing motion of the parabola 59 in nod. and which is joui'nalled in a pair of arms I55 ex— 70 Motion of pinion I99 is produced during search tending from a casing I51. As will be later seen, casing I51 is continuously rotating at the spinning ing by rotation of casing I 51 about stationary speed, during the spiral scanning operation. At the same time, to produce the spin motion in a 01' motion of parabola, 59. The various gear ratios gear I11, thereby producing the nod component involved are so chosen and the link mechanism manner to be inter (lcucrllmd, sliul‘l, I03 lI-I cone 76 lI-I m) iiIYlIlIltIlIl that it suitable .l‘ItllU-U ltllll rate 01' 2,410,831 9 10 nod is produced according to the requirements a gear I66. Gear I66 is adapted to be driven by a pinion I68, which, in turn, is actuated from a of the particular problem at hand. In this way, the same type of spiral scanning is produced to effect searching as described with respect to Fig ure 1. suitably controlled azimuth servo motor or other servo device I10 adapted to be controlled in any desired manner. Servo I10 may be of the form shown in Figure 1, or any other well-known type. It will be clear that this azimuth control will -' Continuously engaging spinning casing I51 is a brake 2|‘! held against casing I51 by means of a suitable spring 2I9. It will be clear that a plurality of such brakes and springs will ordi narily be used symmetrically disposed about cas remain effective during both the spiral searching scanning and the circular tracking scanning just 10 described. However, after circular scanning is initiated, it is desirable also to be able to adjust or vary the orientation of the spin axis 62, in ing I 51. Brake 2I1 is insuflicient of itself to affect the motion of casing I51 during search ing, when casing I51 is driven by motor I59. However, should casing I51 be disengaged from motor I59, brake 2 I1 would be immediately effec tive to stop rotation of the casing I51. Thus, upon actuation of clutch I61 to the op posite or tracking position, gear I65 is no longer driven from motor I59. Accordingly, the source elevation. For this purpose, an elevation servo unit 22I, which may be of the same type as servo 15 I10, actuates one member 223 of a compensating differential 225 to be described. The output of differential 225 rotates a suitable sleeve 221 formed concentrically within sup porting member I64. Sleeve 221 terminates in a of power is removed from casing I51, which is 20 gear 229 within housing I6I and its rotation is immediately brought to a standstill by brake 2 I1._ transmitted by way of a pinion 23I, shaft 233, At the same time, gear I63, sleeve HI and gear gearing 235, shaft 231, gearing 239‘, worm MI and I15 are set into rotation. Since casing I51 is no gear 243 to one member of a differential 245. A longer rotating, member I81 of differential I05 second member 241 of differential 245 is driven from gear I65 through an idler gear 249. The is no longer actuated and is held motionless by ?xed gear I11. Accordingly, the rotation of gear third or output member 25I of differential 245 I15 is transmitted to gear I83, shaft I8I through actuates a gear 253 ?oating about the search spin di?erential I85 to gear I9I and through ?exible axis 6|. Gear 253 actuates a pinion 255 ?xed to a shaft 251 which is journalled within the spin shaft I95 to the parabola 59 thereby maintain ing the spinning motion of parabola 59 either 30 ning casing I51. Shaft 251 operates through gear at the same rate as the previous spinning motion, ing 259 and worm 26I to actuate the member or at a higher rate as may be desired. It will 203 of differential 20I heretofore described. During the spiral searching scanning operation be noted that parabola 59 now rotates about an servo 22I is generally stationary, which thereby axis 62 which is not necessarily coincident with immobilizes sleeve 221, gear 229, pinion 23I and spin axis 6|. The immobilizing of casing I51 also causes gear I99 to stop rotating. Since member 203 of dif ferential 20I is also motionless, no motion is ~ transmitted through gear 201 and thereby to shaft I52. Accordingly, the motion of parabola member 243 of differential 245. At the same time, gear I65 continuously rotates member 241 of dif ferential 245 through idler pinion 249. The re sulting operation is such that gear 253 is rotated by differential 245 at the same rate and in the same direction as casing I51. Because of this, 59 in nod has been stopped and the only result shaft 251 is rotating about search spin axis 61 ant motion is the spinning motion of parabola at the same rate as pinion 253, resulting in no 59 about its new spin axis 62, which in this in rotation of gear 255 and a consequent immobiliza stance, may be di?erent from the normal axis of spinning 6| by virtue of the fact that the 45 tion of member 203 of di?’erential 20I, whose effect has already been described. nodding motion may be interrupted at any de sired point. ~ Hence, during the spiral scanning, the sta tionary elevation control described above has no In order to produce the very small circular effect upon the operation of the scanner. How scanning described with respect to Figure 1, pref erably the axis 60 of the beam radiated from or 50 ever, after spiral scanning has been stopped and casing I51 rendered stationary, any motion of the received by parabola 59 is offset slightly with re output of elevation servo unit 22I will be trans spect to the new spin axis 62 in order that the mitted through di?erential 225, sleeve 221, gear beam may sweep through the narrow circular 229, shaft 231, etc., to member 243 of diITeren~ cone described above. tial 245. Gear I65 is now held stationary by the It is usually desirable to interrupt the spiral action of brake 2I1 on casing I 51, and accord searching scanning and initiate the circular ingly the motion of member 243 of differential tracking scanning at an instant such that the 245 will be transmitted directly to gear 253 and axis of the resulting circular scanning will coin thence to gear 255, shaft 251, gearing 259, worrr cide with the orientation of the distant object to be detected. 60 26I, di?erential 20I, pinion 201, worm 209, worrr wheel 2| I, link 2I3, crank 2I5 to displace shafI In order to accomplish this, the entire device I53 about the nod axis I5I. In this way, the ori thus far described while spirally searching is ori entation of parabola 59 with respect to the not ented in azimuth by a separate control to be de ax'is I5I may be adjusted, and in e?‘ect, the nod scribed, until the azimuth of the spinning axis 6| coincides with the azimuth of the distant ob 65 axis I5I becomes the elevation axis. The radiant energy may be fed to or led frorr ject. When this has been adjusted, the nodding the antenna 59 in a manner similar to that de motion is interrupted at the instant that the scribed with respect to Figure 1, preferably using amount of nod corresponds to the elevation of circular wave-guides wherever rotating joints an the distant object, and thereafter the new circu lar scanning will have its spin axis 62 oriented 70 necessary and rectangular wave-guides wherever bends or angles are required. Such a wave-guidi towards the distant object as required. system is shown in Figure 2 but need not be fur To produce the desired motion in azimuth, the housing I6I is mounted for rotation about a ver ' ther described. Di?erential 225 acts to compensate the eleva tical azimuth axis such as axis 3 and is ?xed to a supporting member I64 to which is also fastened 75 tion control for any motion in azimuth. Thus, 1: 11 2,410,831 12 the scanner is rotated in azimuth about aXis 3, pinion 23I will walk around stationary gear 229, thereby producing rotation of shaft 233 and con sequent change in elevation. searching, but are opened in any known man ner in response to reception of a re?ected pulse from the distant object, whereupon relay 211 is deenergized, closing its contacts 215 and ener gizing clutch I61, so that gear I65 is disengaged from motor I51, and is halted by brake 2I9. En To prevent this, differential 225 causes gear 229 to rotate by the proper amount to keep shaft 233 stationary, and thus compensate for the azimuth motion in its ergization of clutch I61 now causes motor I51 to effect on elevation adjustment. drive gear I63 and perform the circular scanning It will be clear that azimuth, spin and nod already described. The control for contacts 285 elevation self-synchronous transmitters may be 10 may be of any well known type, and is prefer suitably coupled to these respective axes to re ably of the quick-open, delayed-close type, motely indicate the instantaneous attitude of the whereby circular tracking scanning is main scanner with respect to these axes, if desired. If desired, gear I63 may be continuously driven from motor I59 at all times. This would cause a continuous rotation of parabola 59 about its spin axis 62, at the same rate as the rotation about axis Relay 211 is also preferably made to be quick opening and delayed-closing, to prevent needless 6I, thereby distorting the not materially, because the spinning of parabola 62. In this case, clutch tained so long as reflected pulses are received. chattering between searching spiral scan slightly, but of the small angle of axis 6| about spin aXis I61 would only act to Figure 4 shows a modi?ed circuit for perform ing the transfer between scanning and track ing, now replacing continuously acting brake 2I9 with a solenoid operated brake 2I8. Thus, clutch engage or disengage gear I65 from motor I59, the operation otherwise being as described above. For proper operation as described above, it is necessary that casing I51 be stopped with I61 has one terminal connected to side 21I of power line 213. The other terminal of clutch I61 is connected to side 212 of line 213 through contacts 215 of time delay relay 211, whose wind nod axis I50 substantially horizontal, and that the nod motion of parabola 59 be stopped at the proper elevation of the distant object. As de scribed above, the scanner, while spirally search ing, is preferably oriented in azimuth until the ing is adapted to be directly energized from power line 213 when transfer switch 219 is thrown in the left “search” position. Time delay relay 211 is preferably of the quick azimuth of search spin axis 6| is the same as that of the distant object, as shown on any suit able indicator, one type being described in the above-mentioned copending application Serial No. 441,188. As therein described, periodic pulses 35 of radiant energy may be transmitted from the radiating system 59, being re?ected by any ob jects within the scanning range. A cathode ray indicator is used in which an electron beam is spirally actuated in synchronism and correspond ence with the motion of the scanner. Reception of a re?ected pulse causes momentary brightening and tracking. Thereafter tracking with the distant object in elevation and azimuth may be effected by suit able control of servos 22I and I10, respectively. open, delayed-close type, and, upon its energiza tion, clutch I61 is deenergized through opening of contacts 215. This occurs in the left or “search” position of switch 219. Under these conditions brake 2I8 is deenergized, since it is connected in series with switch 219 when in the tracking position and also in series with relay contacts 28I, whose energizing coil 283 has one 40 terminal connected to line 21I and its second terminal connected through radio controlled con tacts 286 to terminal T of switch 219. of the beam trace, indicating by its position on Accordingly, in the searching position, clutch the cathode ray screen, the orientation of the dis I61 is deenergized and brake 2I8 also is deener tant object. The orientation of the search spin axis 6I corresponds to the center of the screen. 45 gized, resulting in the spiral scanning or search ing operation described above. Upon switching Accordingly, the operator need merely actuate to the “tracking” position of switch 219, clutch azimuth servo I10 until the azimuths of spin axis I61 is energized, thereby disconnecting the drive 6| and the distant object are the same. thereby for the nodding motion as described above. How assuring that when the scanner axis 60 sweeps ever, due to the inertia of the various moving across the object, the nod axis is horizontal. parts, spiral scanning will continue until brake The operator must then stop the spiral scanning 2I8 is energized. Brake 2I8 is under the control at the point where the scanner is oriented in nod of contacts 28I of relay 283. This relay in turn toward the distant object. This may most simply is under the control of radio~controlled contacts be done by interrupting the spiral spin and nod at the instant that a re?ected pulse is received, when, 55 286. Contacts 286 are placed under the control of the received pulses, that is, are adapted, in a since scanner and object are already lined up in manner well known, to close only at the time azimuth, the scanner nod position will be sub when pulses are received from the distant re stantially identical with the elevation of the fleeting object, and to remain closed for a ?xed object. One type of apparatus for producing this re 60 interval after the last pulse received. Accordingly, before throwing the switch 219 sult is schematically shown in Figure 3, by suit to the tracking position, the operator will orient able control of clutch I61. Thus clutch I61, has one terminal connected directly to one side 21I of a power line 213, the other terminal being connected to the other line side 212 through contacts 215 of a relay 211. During searching, relay 211 is energized through switch 219 in its left or “search” position, so that contacts 215 are the scanner in azimuth by means of a suitable control of azimuth, servo unit I10 until the azimuthal orientation of the spin axis BI is the same as the azimuth of the distant object. Thereafter, he may throw the switch 219 to the tracking position at any desired moment. At the ?rst instant after the switching operation open, thereby deenergizing clutch I61 and en gaging gear I65 to be driven by motor I51 to 70 that the parabola axis 66 is directed at the dis tant object, a re?ected pulse will be received by perform spiral search scanning. When circular the system and contacts 286 will close, thereby tracking scanning is desired, switch 219 is thrown energizing relay winding 283 and closing its con to the right or “tracking” position, thereby plac tacts 28I and so energizing brake 2I8 which ing relay 211 in series with contacts 285. These contacts are normally closed, so as to maintain 75 thereupon stops the spiral scanning motion. 13 2,410,831 lid It will be clear that in this position the nod displacement of the parabola axis 55 will be sub . is actuated to its other position and magnetic stantially the actual elevation of the distant object and that thereafter elevation control dur brake EH2 is momentarily energized, thereby stop-n ping yoke I51 and rotating gear I53. Since yoke ing the circular scanning used in tracking may be obtained by suitable adjustment about the For tracking and circular scanning, clutch I51 I51 is now stationary, pinion I99 no longer ro» tates and both the spin motion of yoke I51 and the nod motion are interrupted. However, mom nod axis under the control of the elevation servo 22I as described above. tion in elevation derived from elevation servo 22I Closing of contacts 286 also energizes a time through gearing 222, differential 255, gear 253 delay relay 281 controlling a series of contacts 10 and pinion 255 causes control of the nod~eleva~ 293, 295, 291, etc., which may serve to control tion axis I53 in a manner already described with the changeover operation from searching to tracking of the remaining parts of the system, respect to Figure 2, brake ‘ZIB by this time being deenergized. such as the radio circuits, indicator circuits, Rotation of gear I63 now causes rotation of servo circuits, etc., as described more in detail 15 sleeve HI and gear I thereby rotating gear in ‘copending application Serial No. 441,188. In IBI and acting through differential I55 to rotate this way there is provided a scanning unit sim gear I91 and thereby ?exible shaft I95 to spin ilar in operation to that of Figure 1, but com— the parabola 59 in its circular scanning about new bining nod and elevation axes into one axis. spin axis 52. It is to be noted that the device of Figure 2 20 In order to control the rotation of the parabola reaches its greatest utility when scanning over a orientation in azimuth, azimuth servo I10 now solid angle having a horizontal axis, in distinc drives a worm I12 engaging one element 1150f a tion to the device of Figure 1, wherein any solid differential I15. This serves" to rotate pinions angle within the azimuth and elevation range I18 and I80 engaging gear I55 and thereby ad~ of variation of the device may be scanned. How 25 justs yoke I51 in azimuth. Combined azimuth~ ever, the device of Figure 2 need not be so re spin and combined nod~elevation self-‘synchro stricted, since axis 3 may be oriented as desired. nous transmittei's may be provided here also. In such case, however, rotation about axis 3 is no From the ‘foregoing, it will be seen that in longer true azimuth variation, an axis I50 no transferring from searching to tracking the spin longer represents a true elevation axis, but rather 30 ning motion of spinning yoke I51 must be instead of elevation and azimuth there are used stopped, but then yoke I51 must be left free for two other independent coordinates having no motion in azimuth. Accordingly, the braking ac» tion must be only momentary. Also the nod mo" Figure 5 shows a still further modi?ed scanner, tion must be interrupted when parabola axis 55 useful mainly where the range of the instrument 35 is directed at the distant object as in Figure 2. is to be restricted to a ?xed hemisphere. Here Figure 6 shows a suitable control circuit for the nod and elevation axes have been combined producing these desired results, similar in many into one axis and the spin and azimuth axes have respects to Figure 4. Here again switch 21 51 when also been Combined into a single axis. The con in the search position keeps clutch I 51 deener» structional details and type of operation of the 10 gized by energizing relay 211 which maintains well-de?ned description. scanner of Figure 5 are quite similar to that of Figure 2 and like parts will be given the same contacts 215 open. ' Upon switching to the track»v either gear I63 or gear I55, according as track sui?cient to fully stop yoke I51. Thereafter yoke ing position of switch 219, relay 211 is deeIl€1‘ reference numerals. gized, closing contacts 215 and energizing clutch Thus, a stationary stanchion I69 is provided I81 to convert from search to track. When ra~ preferably concentric with the now combined spin 45 dio-controlled contacts 285 similar to those oi’ and azimuth axes BI and carrying a stationary Figure 4 are closed, relay 283 is energized, congear I11 at its upper end. Rotatably supported tacts 288 of relay 291 being normally closed. on stanchion IE5 is a floating gear I53 ?xed to Thereby contacts EEII are closed, energizing brake a sleeve I1I at whose upper end is fastened a 2I8 and stopping the spin motion of yoke I51. gear I15. Rotatably supported on sleeve I1I is a 50 Closing of radio contacts 285 also. energizes further gear I65 ?xed to a sleeve I19 carrying time delay relay 281, whose contacts 25%? close at its upper end the spinning casing I51 shown after a predetermined time interval, thereby eu— ' in this instance as being formed simply of an open ergizing relay ml, which. acts to open contacts yoke rather than a closed housing' as in Figure 288 as wellas to close contacts 293, 295, etc. 2. Drive motor I59 in cooperation with electro 55 Opening of contacts 288 deenergizes brake 215, ,magnetic clutch I61 is adapted to selectively drive which therefore acts only momentarily, for a time ing or searching is to be performed. ' I51 is free to be actuated by azimuth servo I115 Considering for the moment the searching op for azimuth tracking control. eration, clutch I61 is actuated to drive gear I65 60 Here also, gear I63 may be continuously op from motor I 59 through differential I16, whose erated by motor I 59, in the same manner as with member I14 is held stationary by irreversible respect to Figure 2. _worm I12, thereby spinning yoke I51. At the Figures '1 and 8 illustrate another method of same time, gear I63, sleeve I1! and gear I15 are correctly determining the exact point at which stationary, and therefore ?exible shaft 195 is pre 65 the spiral searching scanning should be convert vented from rotating in the manner described ed to circular tracking scanning. Thus, it may with respect to Figure 2. However, pinion I99 is be desirable to determine in advance the ori~ caused‘to rotate, thereby driving through differ entation, in azimuth and elevation, for example, ential ZIJI, pinion 201, worm 2139, worm wheel 2t I, at which it is desired to stop thevspiral scanning link 2I3 and crank 2I5 to operate the nod shaft of the scanner of Figure 5 and convert its mo I53 and thereby cause nodding of the parabola tion to circular scanning for tracking purposes. 59 about the nod axis I 50, at the same time that Thus, in Figure '7 is shown a manually orien'table spinning is produced by rotation of spinning yoke ' direction-indicating member 50 I, having a handle I51 about the spin axis 8 I. In this manner, spiral 3133 adapted for manual manipulation. Direc scanning is performed. tion-indicating member 301 is adapted to be ori~ 2,410,881 15 16 ented about a horizontal axis 305 corresponding ing 323, will vary from maximum to zero several times as the azimuthal position of parabola 59 passes through the position of correspondence with that of member 30I. If the speed of rota tion of scanner 59 about spin axis 6| at the in stant the current in relay winding 323 becomes zero is quite rapid, armature 332 does not have time to fall out before it is again held in by the to an elevation axis, and a vertical axis 301 cor responding to an azimuth axis. Coupled to each of these axes are respective self-synchronous transmitters 309 and -3I I of any of the well-known types, which are thereby adapted to transmit to a remote point signal currents representing the respective orientation'of direction indicator 30I reenergizing of relay winding 323. However, due in elevation and azimuth. In operation, the required or desired orienta 10 to frictional effects, the speed of rotation is con tinually decreasing and eventually a point is tion of the scanner of Figure 5 may be deter reached at which this speed is slow enough to mined by any suitable means, such as the oath permit armature 332 to make contact with ?xed ' ode ray indicator described above. After this contact 333. When this is done, since contacts orientation is determined, member 30I is oriented correspondingly. This may be done by means 15 325 and 829 are already closed, brake 2I8 will be energized and the spinning motion about axis of suitable scales indicating angular elevation and 6| will be instantly stopped. In this way brake .angular azimuth, or by matching member 30I 2I8 need not absorb the full rotationalspin en with the indication of the cathode ray indicator ergy. Since at this moment both the signal out in any suitable manner. As shown in Figure 8, the elevation transmitter 20 put from nod signal generator 3I3 and speed signal generator 3I5 are zero, it will be clear that 309 is connected to the nod self-synchronous de the orientation of the parabola 59 will be sub vice 3I3, acting in this instance as a signal gen stantially the same as that of member 30I, the erator, to produce in its output an alternating only difference being occasioned by the change in voltage having a magnitude corresponding to the di?erence in orientations of scanner axis 60 and 25 nod caused by the coasting period. This may be member 30I in elevation. made small by providing a suitable damping or I friction brake .continuously engaging the spin ‘ In a similar manner, azimuth transmitter 3“ is connected to the spin self-synchronous device 3I5 of the scanner of Figure 5, serving also as a signal generator producing an alternating volt age havingan amplitude corresponding to the dif ference in the orientations of the’ scanner axis 60 and member 30I in azimuth. ning part of the device, as in Figure 1. The coasting period is desirable in order to prevent 30 large stresses due to too rapid deceleration, and to assure accurate stopping. In this manner the scanner of Figure 5 may be converted from the spiral searching scanning to circular tracking . scanning at any desired orientation under the These two displacement or di?erence voltages are recti?ed in suitable respective reoti?ers, such 35 control of direction-indicating member 30I. A suitable device for deenergizing brake 2I8 after as 3" and 3I9, to obtain corresponding unidi the scanner has begun conical scanning is also rectional voltages which thereupon maintain re provided as in Figure 6. spective relay windings 32I andv 323 energized It will be clear that it is not necessary to use as long as the orientations differ. Relay winding 32I cooperates with a relay armature 325 and 40 the particular type of control member shown in Figure '1. Thus, control member 30I may be re two ?xed contacts 321 and 329. While relay winding 32I is energized, armature ‘325 breaks placed by a telescope, sound locator, gun director, a computing gun sight, or any other orientable contact with ?xed contact 321, thereby main device. taining in an open condition the control circuit for clutch I61 connected to wires 33I, and de 45 Figure 9 shows a modi?cation of the scanning energizing clutch I61 to effect spiral searching. system of Figure 5 adapted to produce the same Upon deenergization of relay winding 32I, arma ture 325 makes contact with ?xed contact 329, to condition the energizing circuit of brake 2I8, as will be seen. Also, armature 325 makes con functions in a somewhat simpler manner. In _ this modi?cation the changeover clutch I61a. is 50 tact with ‘contact 321 and energizes clutch I61. gear 200 is actuated from gear 202 driven from Relay 323 cooperates with armature 332 and'a ?xed contact 333. provided with two energizing coils, such as I36 and I68. When coil I68 is energized, ?oating motor I59, corresponding to the searching opera When relay winding 323 is tion. When coil I66 is energized gear 200 is in stead actuated from worm wheel I82 driven from Upon deenergization of relay 55 the azimuth servo I14, corresponding to the energized, armature 332 and contact 333 are open-circuited. winding 323,,armature 332 makes contact with ?xed contact 333. When contacts 325, 329 and tracking operation. During searching, motor I59 332, 333 are closed, the control circuit of brake 2IB, connected thereto as by wires 334, is then closed and brake 2I8 becomes energized. 60 From the above it will be clear that the voltage or‘ current applied to relay winding 32I can be come zero only when the nod position of parab ola 59 is the same as the elevation setting of member 30I. When this occurs, armature 325 65 of relay 32I closes the clutch control circuit by engaging ?xed contact 321. By this action, mo tor I59 is disengaged from spin yoke I58 and parabola 59 becomes actuated by ?exible shaft I95, as described above, to start its tracking scan 70 ning. However, due to the inertia of the various parts of the system, the spin motion about-axis 6| will continue for several revolutions. During this time the output of spin signal generator 3 I5, and accordingly the current supply to relay wind 75 actuates gears 202 and 200 and thereby drives gear I65 and the yoke I51 carrying the nod axis I53 as before, and thus providing the spinning motion of parabola 59. At the same time motor I59 drives gear I63, sleeve HI and gear I15 at the same angular velocity as yoke I51. Accord ingly, gear I83 meshing with gear I15 and having its bearing I84 ?xed to yoke I51, will not be rotated, since its shaft I86 is carried around gear I15 by yoke I51 at the same speed as the speed of rotation of gear I15 itself. Accordingly, for this condition of operation ?exible shaft I95 fixed to gear I83 will not be rotated, and the pa rabola 59 will remain stationary about axis 62. The motion of spinning yoke I51 causes gear I99, mounted on a shaft I98 rotatably mounted within yoke I51, to rotate about a stationary gear I11 ?xed to stationary stanchion I69. This rotation of gear I99 is led through differential. 2,410,831 17 18 2M, gear 201, worm 209, worm wheel 2“ eccen a clutch having a driving member and a driven "trically pivoted link 2 I3 and crank 2 I5‘ to supply member each rotatably mounted concentrically with respect to said second axis, means for actu ating said driving member from said rotating the nod motion of the parabola in a manner similarto that shown in Figures 2 and 5, it being understood that the third member 203 of differ ential 20I is held stationary by means of the ele vation servo 22I as described with respect to prior Figures 2 and 5. means at a rate di?erent from said predeter mined rate, an eccentric and slide arrangement actuated by said yoke and ‘said driven member for producing an oscillatory translational motion To convert to the tracking operation, clutch with respect to said yoke, means for oscillating section I68 is deenergized and. clutch section 10 said antenna means about said ?rst axis by said I66 is energized, the energizing means being as last motion, a pin slidably mounted in one of said shown in Figures 3, 4, 6, or 8. Under this con clutch members and normally engaged in a dition of operation motor I59 still drives gear recess in the other of said members for engag I63 and hence gear I15 continues to rotate. ing said two clutch members, a slanted notch However, yoke I5‘! is no longer continuously 15 formed in said pin, a knife member slidably driven from motor I59 and has had its rotation mounted in said yoke and adapted when actu ‘ stopped by means of a brake similar to brake ated to withdraw saidpin from said recess upon 2'I8 of the preceding ?gures.“ Accordingly, the interaction with said slanted notch, stationary spinning motion of yoke I51 is interrupted, and means for actuating said knife member to dis thereby the nod motion is also interrupted, in 20 engage said clutch and thereby stop said oscil the manner already described with respect to latory motion. and means for orienting said sec Figures 2 and 5. However, rotation of gear I15 now rotates gear I83 actuating ?exible shaft'l95 ond axis in azimuth and elevation. 2. A scanning device comprising directional and gearing I91, spinning the parabola about antenna means, a yoke, means for pivotally axis' 62 to provide the circular tracking scanning 25 mounting said antenna means on said yoke for of the‘ same type as that produced by the pre oscillation about a ?rst axis, means for rotating ceding Figures 2 and 5. Control of the scanner said yoke at a predetermined rate about a sec orientation during tracking in azimuth is de ond axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, a clutch rived from the azimuth servo I" which actuates having a driving member and a driven member worm I12, worm wheel I82 and gear 200 (clutch 30 each rotatably mounted concentrically with re section I66 now being energized) whereby the spect to said second axis, means for actuating position of the yoke I51 may be adjusted under said driving member from said rotating means at the .control of azimuth servo I14. The eleva a rate different from said predetermined rate, tion servo 22I operates as before through worm an eccentric and slide arrangement actuated by and worm wheel arrangement 222, differential 35 said yoke and said driven member for producing 245, gear 253, gear 255, and worm and worm an oscillatory translational motion with respect wheel arrangement 26I, 203 to control di?eren to said yoke, means for oscillating said antenna ~ tial 20I and thereby through gear 207, worm 209, means about said'?rst axis by said last motion, worm wheel 2I I, link 2I3 and crank M5 to con means for disengaging said clutch whereby said trol the'positioning of the spin axis 62 in nod oscillatory motion is halted, and means for about axis vI53. - - Suitable nod~elevation and spin-azimuth self orienting said second axis in azimuth and eleva tion. synchronous transmitters may be coupled to axes 3. A scanning device comprising directional I53 and 62 or 6|, as desired. antenna means, a support, means for pivotally It will be clear that, if desired, stanchion I69 45 mounting said antenna means on said support may be made rotatable about an axis perpen for oscillation about a ?rst axis, means for ro dicular thereto and azimuth servo I14 may be tating said support at a predetermined rate made effective to control the position of stanchion "about a second axis perpendicular to said ?rst ‘ I69 (and hence spin axis 6|) about this per axis, a clutch having a driving member. and a pendicular axis in the manner similar to Figure 50 driven member, means for actuating said driv 2 so that the simpli?cation e?ected by the de ing member from said rotating means at a rate vice of Figure 9 may be applied to the device of different from said predetermined rate, means Figure 2, as well as to Figure 5, as illustrated. actuated by‘ said driven member for oscillating The control of clutch I6‘la may be the same as said antenna means about said ?rst axis, and in Figures 3, 4, 6, or 8, merely requiring a fur 55 means for disengaging said clutch whereby said ther contact on the clutch control relay de oscillatory motion is stopped while retaining said scribed to cause energization of clutch section rotational motion. I66 at the same'time that section I68 is deener 4. A scanning ' device comprising directive gized, and vice versa. antenna means. means for pivotally mounting As many changes could be made in the above 60 said antenna means for oscillation. about a first construction and many apparently widely diifer-. axis, means for spinning said ?rst axis about a ent embodiments of this invention could be made second axis perpendicular thereto, means ‘for ‘ _=‘without departing from the scope thereof, it is simultaneously oscillating said antenna means L intended that all matter contained in the above about said ?rst axis, and means for stopping‘said description or vshown in the accompanying draw 65 oscillatory motion while retaining said spinning ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in motion. _ ,I ' a limiting sense. ' 5. A scanning device comprising directive an¢ tenna means, means for pivotally mounting said antenna means for oscillation about a ?rst axis, 1. A scanning device - comprising directional 70 means for spinning said ?rst axis about a sec antenna means, a yoke, means for pivotally ond axis perpendicular‘ thereto, and means for _ mounting said‘ antenna means'on said yoke for simultaneously oscillating“ said antenna means aboutsaid ?rst axis. oscillationhbout a~?rst axis, means for rotat ing said yoke at a predetermined rate about a 6. A scanning device comprising directive an second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, 75 tenna means, means for mounting said antenna Having described our invention, what we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 2,410,831 19 20 means for rotation about a ?rst axis rigidly ?xed with respect to the directivity axis of said an ly spinning said antenna means about a spin axis, and means for interrupting said nod motion while maintaining a spin‘ motion of said antenna tenna means, means for pivotally supporting said ?rst axis for oscillation about a second axis per pendicular to said ?rst axis, means for rotatably means. 0 supporting said second axis about a third axis perpendicular to said second axis, means for rotating said antenna means about said third axis and for oscillating said ?rst axis about said 12. A scanning device as in-claim 11, further including means for adjusting the position of said antenna means about said nod axis. 13. A scanning device as in claim 11, further including means for adjusting the position of said second axis while maintaining said antenna 10 antenna means about said spin axis. means stationary with respect to said ?rst axis, 14. A scanning device as in claim 11, further means for orienting said third axis in azimuth, including means for adjusting the position of means for stopping said rotation and oscillation said antenna means about said nod and spin axis. at a predetermined orientation of said antenna 15. A scanning device as in claim 11, further means with said second \axis substantially hori 15 including means for converting said nod axis to zontal and for simultaneously initiating rotation an elevation axis and for adjusting said an of said antenna'means about said ?rst axis, and tenna means about said elevation axis. means for adjusting the orientation of said an 16. A scanning device as in claim 11, further tenna means in elevation about said second axis. including means for converting said spin axis to '7. A scanning device comprising directive an 20 an azimuth axis, and means for adjusting said tenna means, means for mounting said antenna antenna means in azimuth about said azimuth means for rotation about a ?rst axis rigidly ?xed axis. with respect to the directive axis of said antenna 17'. A scanning device as in claim 11, further means, a yoke, means for pivotally mounting said including means for converting said nod axis to ?rst axis in said yoke for oscillation about a 25 an elevation axis and said spin axis to an azimuth second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, axis, and for adjusting said antenna means in means for rotatably mounting said yoke about a elevation and azimuth about said axis. third axis perpendicular to said second axis, 18. A scanning device comprising orientable means for rotating said yoke about_said third means, means for nodding said orientable means axis and for oscillating said ?rst axis about said 30 about a nod axis, means for simultaneously spin second axis while maintaining said antenna means stationary with respect to said ?rst axis, means for stopping said rotation and oscilla ning said orientable means about a spin axis, and means for interrupting said nod motion while maintaining a spin motion of said orientable tion at a predetermined orientation of said an means. tenna means and 'for simultaneously initiating 35 19. A scanning device comprising a directive rotation of said antenna means about said ?rst antenna adapted to radiate a lobe of radiant axis, means for adjusting the orientation of said energy, ?rst scanning means operative on said antenna. means in elevation about said second antenna, to sweep said lobe recurrently through axis, and means for adjusting the orientation of a ?rst predetermined path con?ned within a said antenna means in azimuth about said third 40 solid angle, and second scanning means operative axis. on said antenna to sweep said lobe recurrently 8. A scanning device, comprising directing an through a second predetermined path con?ned tenna means, means for mounting said antenna within a second solid angle. means for rotation about a first axis ?xed with 20. A scanning device comprising a directive respect to the directivity axis of said antenna 45 antenna adapted to radiate a lobe of radiant means, means for pivotally mounting said ?rst energy, comprising ?rst scanning means opera axis for oscillation about a second axis perpendi tive on said antenna to sweep said lobe recur cular to said ?rst axis, means for rotatably rently in a path generating a spiral cone, and mounting said second axis about a third axis second scanning means operative when said ?rst perpendicular to said second axis, means for 50 scanning means is inoperative to sweep said lobe rotating said antenna means about said third axis recurrently in a path generating a relatively and for oscillating said ?rst axis about second slender circular cone of ?xed apex angle. axis while maintaining said antenna means sta 21. Apparatus comprising an orientable device tionary with respect to said ?rst axis, and means adapted to project a lobe of energy, ?rst scan for stopping said rotation and oscillation at a 55 ning means operative on said device to sweep predetermined orientation of said antenna means said lobe recurrently through a spiral conical and. for simultaneously initiating rotation of said path, second scanning means operative on said antenna means about said ?rst axis. device to sweep said lobe through‘ a small cir 9. A scanning device comprising directive an cular arc, power means for actuating said scan tenna means, means for mounting said antenna ners, and means for rendering one of said scan means for rotation about a ?rst axis, means for ners inoperative while the other is operative. oscillating said ?rst axis about a second axis, 22. A directive antenna adapted to scan a space means for spinning said second axis about a third con?ned Within a solid angle, comprising a para axis while maintaining said antenna means sta boloidal radiant energy re?ector, means for tionary with respect to said ?rst axis, means for 65 spinning said reflector continuously about a ?rst interrupting said spinning and oscillation and axis, means for oscillating said re?ector about a for initiating rotation about said ?rst axis, and transverse axis, and means for locating said re means for adjusting the orientation of said ?rst ?ector at predetermined positions about said axis about said second axis. transverse axis. 10. A scanning device as in claim 9, further 70 23. Scanning means comprising a paraboloidal including means foradjusting the orientation of re?ector, means for spinning said reflector about said antenna means about said third axis. an axis initially substantially aligned with the 11. A scanning device comprising directive an axis of said re?ector, and means for oscillating ' tenna means, means for nodding said antenna said re?ector axis through a limited are from means about a nod axis, means for simultaneous 76 said spin axis about a transverse axis. ' 2,410,881 21 24. A scanning device comprising a directive re?ector adapted to radiate a lobe of energy, antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant means for sweeping said re?ector so as to pro-p‘ energy and power means for sweeping said lobe ject said lobe through successive portions of'a‘ through a solid angle in space, and braking means solid angle, and means for spinning said re?ecr‘ responsive to energy re?ected from an irradiated tor about a ?xed axis eccentrically disposed with: object for stopping the motion of said lobe when respect to said lobe, but substantially aligned‘ said lobe is directed substantially on said object. with the axis of said re?ector. ‘ 25. A scanning device comprising a directive 28. In the method of scanning, the steps com antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant en prising revolving and oscillating the directive axis ergy, ?rst scanning means adapted to sweep said 10 of an energy radiator through successive portions lobe through successive portions of a solid angle of a solid angle in space to locate a target, and in space, second scanning means operative when upon receiving radiant energy re?ected from said said ?rst scanning means is inoperative, to sweep target, con?ning the sweeping motion of ‘said said lobe through a narrow zone of said solid radiator to a relatively narrow solid angle adapted angle, and control means responsive to radiant 15 to enclose said target. energy re?ected from a scanned object adapted 29. In the method of locating and tracking to render said ?rst scanning means inoperative. targets, the steps comprising sweeping the direc 26. A scanning device comprising a directive tive axis of an energy radiator through succes antenna adapted to project a lobe of radiant sive portions of a solid angle to locate a target energy, ?rst scanning means adapted to sweep 20 therein, discontinuing such sweeping movement ' said lobe through successive portions of a solid so as to locate said axis substantially on said angle in space, second scanning means opera target in response to radiant energy re?ected tive when said ?rst scanning means is inopera along said axis from said target, and thereupon tive, to sweep said lobe through a narrow zone sweeping said directive axis about an axis eccen of said solid angle, a control device having a 25 tric to said directive axis so that the directive directional indicator adjustable to predetermined axis generates a cone of revolution adapted to positions denoting the successive positions of said lobe, and means actuated by said control device for rendering said ?rst seaming means inopera tive when said lobe reaches a predetermined 30 position relative to said indicator. 27. A scanning device comprising a paraboloidal enclose said target. LEON A. MAYBARDUK. WALTER W. MIEHER. STEPHEN J. ZAND. GIFFORD E. WHITE.