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Nov. 12, I946.
,
2,410,843
' J. E. SHEPHERD
PHASE SENSITIVE APPARATUS
Filpd June 21, 1943
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INVENTOR
JAMES E. SHEPHERD
BY .27 M
'
ATTORNEY
7
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,410,843
UNITED STATES V’KPATENJ'T
' OFF-ice -
2,410,843
PHASE SENSITIVE vAPPARATUS
James E. Shepherd, Hemps'teaiL-N. Y.; assignor to
Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., a c?l'lloration' '
of New York vA/a
Application June 21, iaiasenai'no. 491.623
5 Claims. , (or. 112-245).
My invention relates to phase responsive appa
. Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram of one embodiment
ratus and concerns particularly methods and
of my invention;
apparatus for indicating phase relationship be~ I
tween alternating electrical quantities and .con
trolling other apparatus in accordance with such
variations in phase.
‘
_
_
' Fig. 2 is a vector diagram illustrating the prin
ciple of operation of the‘invention when the two ‘
input voltages are in phase quadrature:
Fig. 3 is a vector diagram illustrating the prin- '
'
necessity for the use of transformers in'phase
ciple of operation of the invention when the in-_
put voltages are out of phase but depart con
responsive‘ apparatus.
siderably from phase quadrature; and
An object of my invention is to eliminatethe
Another object of my invention is to vprovide 10 Fig. 4 is a fragmentary circuit diagram of a I
modi?cation in the arrangement of Fig. 1.
means for simultaneous ampli?cation of input
Fig. 1 illustrates a phase responsive circuit
' signals and indication of phase relationship be
which may be used, for example, in connection
tween them.
.
with spinning-scanner type of radio locator ap
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide a method for vectorially combining electrical 15 paratus for indicating the phase relationship
input quantities without interaction between the
between the modulation envelope’ of a radio signal
and a reference voltage provided for they purpose
input circuits or reaction from the load circuits
upon the input circuits.
of affordingv a basis of comparison, such varia- '
Furthermore, it is an object of my invention - 'tions in the phase of the- modulation envelope
'to .provideuan arrangement ,for combination of 20 occurring when an object to be located varies in
currents proportional to input voltages.
Other and further objects and advantages will
orientation.
However, it will be understood that ,
my invention‘ is not limited to any speci?c ap
'become apparent as the description proceeds. '
plication and may be used in connectionwith
-In\carrying*out my invention in its preferred
form, “for comparing a reference voltage and'a
signal voltage in phase, I provide a pair of vacu
various types of apparatus in which a phase re
lationship’is to be indicated-or other apparatus
is tobe operated in accordance with variations
» um tube ampli?ers with parallel output connec
tions, with a signal voltage input to .one ampli- '
in phase relationship‘, between two input voltages.‘ >
Referring to Fig. 1, a radio signal from a pulse
receiver (not shown) is assumed to be applied to,
ampli?er. An asymmetric or non-linear circuit, 30 a pair of radio. signal input terminals H, and a
reference voltage from a reference voltage gen
such as a recti?er, is included in the common
output circuits for producing a unidirectional
erator ,(not shown) is'assumed to be applied to '
voltage representing the vectorial combination
a pair of reference voltage terminals i2. The
of ‘the input voltages. A third vacuum tube
frequency of the voltage at the terminals I2 is
ampli?er is also provided with an input corre 35 chosen to equal the'frequency of modulation of
sponding to one of the ?rst-mentioned input
the radio signals'or the spin frequency of the >
voltages but of opposite polarity. The output of ,
scanner. For recovering the modulation en
one of the ?rst tubes is combined with the output - velope of the radio frequency (or video frequency) ’
of the third tube in a ‘second non-linear or
.voltage at the terminals II, a detector i3 is pro- \
asymmetric circuit for producing a second uni 40' vided which may be of ‘the peak voltmeter type,
for example, having an adjustable voltage output '
directional voltage ‘representing the vectorial
and a pair of detector output terminals H, at
combination of the -two_input voltages. - The
' which a spin-frequency signal voltage appears.
polarized or unidirectional output circuits are
connected in opposition to'a pair of output ter
One of the terminals i4 may be grounded if de
minals at which a direct voltage or direct, current 45
appears which varies’ in polarity and magnitude
For vectorially combining the voltages at the
with variations in phase relationship between the
pairs of terminals l2 and I‘, an electronic trans
inputcircuits.
_
formation and combination circuit is provided
A better understanding of the invention will
comprising current controlling devices such as.‘
be afforded by the following detailed description 50 triode vacuum tubes l6, I6, I‘! and la. The tube
considered in connection with the accompany
i8 is so connected as to serve as a phase splitter
ing drawing, and those‘ features of‘the invention
or inverter supplying voltages of opposite polarity
which are believed'to be novel and patentable
to control electrodes or grids l9 and 20, respec
?er-and a reference voltage input to the other
sired.
will be pointed out in the claims appended hereto. .
In the drawing,
.
,
v
tively, of the tubes is and i1, varying in accord
65 ance with the voltage supplied to the reference
2,410,848
4
voltage terminals I2. In the arrangement as
illustrated, the signal voltage between the termi
nals I4 is applied directly to a control electrode
2| of the tube I5. Preferably, the tubes I5, I5
and II are so arranged as to act as ampli?ers as
well as bu?er stages, isolating the input voltages
from each other and from the output circuits.
A common output circuit 22 is provided for
series with the rectifying circuit 23, which is thus
common to the tubes I5 and II.
The rectifying circuit 22 comprises a pair of
unilateral non-linear or asymmetric elements 55
and 56 connected in series with like polarity, that
is, with the cathode of one connected to the anode
of the other, and a load resistor 51 to which the
elements 55 and 56 are connected in series. A
coupling and ?ltering condenser 58 is connected
the tubes I5 and I6 which is asymmetric or non
linear in character and may take the form of a 10 between a junction terminal 59 of the resistors 5|
single or bi-phase recti?er. A similar rectifying
output circuit 23 is provided which is common to
the tubes I5 and II.
Final output terminals 24 are provided at'which '
and 53 and a junction terminal 60 of the recti?ers
55 and 55. For completing the recti?er circuit
to ground, since the tubes I5 and I6 are grounded
on the cathode side, a pair of coupling and ?lter
‘ a voltage appears proportional to the net differ 15 condensers BI and 62 is connected in series across
the load resistor 51 with their junction terminal
ence between the outputs of the recti?ers 22
53 connected to ground.
and 23.
The rectifying circuit 23 comprises recti?er ele
The detector or demodulator I3 in the form
ments 64 and 65, a load resistor 56, a coupling and
illustrated comprises a resistor 25 connected
across the radio signal terminals II. A recti?er 20 ?lter condenser 51, and a pair of coupling and
?lter condensers 58 and ‘II connected in the same
or diode vacuum tube 26 is in series with a con
denser 21 across the input resistor 25, and a time
constant adjusting rheostat 28 is connected across
the condenser 21. For coupling the recti?ed volt
age or modulation envelope voltage appearing
across the condenser 21 to the output terminals
‘I4, 9. coupling condenser 29 and a potentiometer
3| may be provided.
As shown, one end of the _
. manner as corresponding elements of the recti
fying circuit 22. Junction terminal ‘I2, between
condensers 69 and ‘II, is grounded.
The rectifying elements 55, 56, 64 and 65 are
so connected that one end, in this case the left
hand end, of each of the resistors 51 and 66 is of
the same polarity, namely, positive polarity, and
the opposite end is of the opposite polarity,
potentiometer 3| is grounded, and an adjustable
potentiometer tap or brush 32 is provided which 30 namely, negative polarity. Points of like polarity
are connected together. For example, the nega
is connected to one of the detector output ter
tive polarity ends of the resistors may be joined
minals It.
\
by the resistor ‘I3, and the postive terminals of
For adjusting the input magnitude of the ref
the resistors 51 and 66 are connected to the out
erence voltage, a potentiometer 33 may be con
put terminals 24.
nected across the reference voltage terminals I2,
with an adjustable tap or sliding brush 34 cou
pled through a condenser 35 to a control elec
trode or grid 35 of the tube l8. A common power
The output terminals 24 may be connected to '
any suitable indicator or current or voltage re
sponsive device which is to be operated in accord
ance with variations in phase relationship be
vided for the triode vacuum tubes illustrated in 40 tween the input voltages of the pairs of terminals
I2 and I4. For example, a voltage responsive de
the drawing.
supply represented by a battery 3‘! may be pro
For causing the tube ‘I8 to act as a phase split_ _
ting stage, it is connected to the power supply
3‘! with load resistors in both anode and cathode
circuits, comprising an anode resistor 38 and a
cathode resistor divided into two parts 39 _and
4| with a junction terminal 42. For negatively
biasing the grid 35, a grid leak resistor 43 may be
connected between the grid 36 and the cathode
resistor junction terminal 42, and for adjustment
of the balance between the anode and cathode
output voltages, the resistor 4| may be made ad
justable. The anode output voltage of the tube
I8‘ is applied to the grid I9 of the tube I5 by
means of a condenser 80, and its cathode output
voltage is applied to the grid 20 of the tube I‘!
by means of a condenser 8|. Grid-leak resistors
vice such as a cathode ray indicator may be em
ployed having a ?uorescent screen ‘I4 at the end
of a cathode ray oscilloscope tube ‘I6 (indicated
herein schematically) containing a pair of de
?ection plates ‘I5 connected to the output ter
minals 24 of the phase responsive circuit.
In the circuit illustrated there is no reaction
between the voltages at the pairs of terminals I2
and I4 and the circuits connected either of these
pairs of terminals are unaffected by any voltage
which might be applied to the terminals 24 by an
external source, because the tubes I5, I5 and Il
act as buffer stages. Thus circuit isolation is ob
tained without requiring the use of transformers.
Vectorial current summation is obtained by the
tubes having a common output circuit.
For ex
ample, in the case of the tubes I5 and I6, plate
82 and 83 are provided for tubes I5 and I1, respec
currents are produced proportional respectively
tively.
to the input voltages applied to the grids 2I and
The tubes I5, I5, and II are connected to the 60
I9. These currents are in turn translated into
power supply 31 through anode load resistors 43, ,
plate voltages which result in the ?ow of alter-.
45 and 46, respectively. In order to provide suf
Y nating current components of output current in
?cient degeneration for stabilization, cathode re
the resistors 5| and 53, respectively. Since the
sistors 41, 46, and 49 may also be provided.
65 rectifying circuit 22 is connected to the resistors
One output circuit for the tube I5 comprises a
5I and 53 as a parallel output circuit for the tubes
resistor 5| in series with therecti?er circuit 22,
I5 and I5, currents are vectorially combined which
and a second output circuit for the tube I5 com
are proportional to the input voltages supplied
prises a resistor 52 in series with the rectifying
from the pairs 'of terminals I2 and I4, respectively.
circuit 23.
'
It will be understood that the condensers 58,
70
BI, 52, 61, 69 and ‘II should be large enough to
An output circuit for the tube I6 comprises a
have relatively low impedance at the frequencies
resistor 53 in series with the rectifying circuit
of the alternating input voltages. Since bi-phase
22. The circuit 22 thus forms the common output
recti?ers are employed, full wave rectifying ac
for the tubes I5 and I6. Similarly, an output cir
cuit for the tube II comprises a resistor 54 in 75 tion is obtained in the circuit. However, if full
aaraesa
d '
.
wave action is not required, one of the recti?er
elements may be omitted from each of the cir
cuits 22 and 23. For example, the recti?er tubes
56 and 65 may be omitted. In this case the rec
ti?er circuit connections will be completed as in
dicated in Fig. 4. Filtering and coupling con
i‘?
nected in opposition whereby the net output varies
in polarity‘ and magnitude inaccordance with
variations in phase relationship.
2. A phase-responsive system comprising-in
5 combination, two pairs of input terminals to
which two voltages may respectively be applied
densers 62 and ll are also omitted in case the
which are to be compared in phase, a ?rst mixer
rectifier elements 56 and 65 areomitted.
The manner in which the circuit output varies
with input connections from said terminals and
an asymmetric output circuit, a second mixer I
in accordance with phase is indicated by vector 10 with input connections from said terminals and
diagrams of Figs. 2 and 3. If it is assumed that
the alternating voltages at the pairs of termi
nals it and i2 are in phase quadrature, the
an asymmetric output circuit, and a pair of out
put terminals to which said asymmetric output
circuits are connected in opposition, the input
anode signal voltage at the tubes IE, it, and ill,
connections from one of said pairs of input tore
represented by the letters A, E, and F will have 15 minals comprising a current-controlling device
the relationship indicated in Fig. 2. The volt
with a control element coupled to the said pair
ages E and F will, of course,'be in phase opposi
of input terminals, an anode, a cathode, anode
tion as a result of the use of-the phase splitting
and cathode load impedances, and couplings
inversion stage 88. The resultant of the vectors
from the anode and the cathode for supplying
A and E or the voltage of the point 59 will be the
opposite polarity inputs to said mixers from said
vector resultant represented in Fig. 2 by the
pair of input terminals.
i
vector X. Likewise the resultant of the voltages
3. In combination, a ?rst electric control de-v
A and P will be the voltage of the point 68, repre
vice responsive to an alternating quantity, 9. secsented by the vector Y. The resultant voltages
ond electric control device responsive’ to a sec-=
X and Y have the same magnitude and, when 25 0nd alternating quantity to be compared in phase .
recti?ed, act in opposition so that zero'output
with the ?rst, means for vectorially combining
voltage appears between the output terminals 26. ' the alternating outputs oi’ said control devices,
The equality of the scalar values of X and Y is
a third electric control device responsive to
represented in Fig. 2 by the dotted arc 18.
the second alternating quantity, means for
If it is assumed that the input voltages at the 30 vectorially combining the outputs of the ?rst and
pairs of terminals l2 and It are not in quad
third electric control devices, a phase-splitter
rature, the outputs of the rectifying circuits 22
connected in advance of said second and third
and 23 will not be balanced. This is illustrated
electric control devices for causing opposite
by the vector diagram of Fig. 3 where the volt
polarity e?'ects therein in response to the sec
ages at the anodes of the tubes 85, it, and ii 35 ond alternating quantity, means for separately
are represented by vectors ‘A’, E’, and F’. As in
rectifying the said two vectorially combined out
dicated by the are ‘it, the resultant X’ of the
puts, and means for opposing the recti?ed out
voltages A’ and E’ is substantially greater than
puts.
the resultant Y’ of A'and F’. Consequently,
4. A phase-responsive system comprising in
when the voltages X’ and Y’ are recti?ed and 40 combination ?rst and second pairs of input ter=
act in series opposition, a substantial unbalance
minals to which two voltages may respectively
will occur, and a voltage will be supplied to the
be applied which are to be compared in phase; 7
output terminals 26 which varies in polarity and
system output terminals; an electronic inversion
magnitude with the departure from quadrature
circuit with an input from the second of said
phase relationship between voltages at the pairs 45 pairs of input terminals and with opposite po
of input terminals i2 and it.
larity output terminals; an electronic mixer with
' I have herein shown and particularly described
an input conectnion from the ?rst of said pairs
certain embodiments of my invention and certain
of input terminals, an input connection from one
methods of operation embraced therein for the
of the inversion circuit output terminals, and
purpose of explaining its principle of operation 50 output connections including a ?rst recti?er; and
and showing its application, but it will be obvious
a second electronic mixer circuit with an input .
to those skilled in the art that many modi?ca
connection from the remaining inversion circuit _
tions and variations are possible, and I aim,
output terminal, an input connection from the
therefore, to cover all such modi?cations and
?rst of said pairs of input terminals, and output'
variations as fall within the scope of my inven 55 connections. including a second recti?er; said
tion which is de?ned in the appended claims.
recti?ers being connected in opposition to said _
_
system output terminals.
1. A phase-responsive system comprising, in
5. A phase-responsive system comprising, in
combination, two pairs of input terminals to
combination: two pairs of input terminals ‘to
which two voltages may respectively be applied 60 which two voltages, to be compared in phase,
What is claimed is:
which are to be compared in phase, an electronic
may respectively be applied; a ?rst mixer with
mixer circuit having input connections from said
input connections from said temiinals and with
input terminals and an output connection with
an output including a ?rst asymmetric circuit; a
a recti?er therein, a second electronic mixer cir
second mixer. with input connections from said
cuit with an input connection from one pair of 65 terminals, the connection from one pair of said
said terminals. and means. including a phase
terminals being reversed, and with an output in—
inverter for connecting the other pair of said
cluding a second asymmetric circuit; and output
terminals to said second mixer circuit, said sec
terminals to which said asymmetric circuits are
and mixer circuit also having an output connec
connected in series opposition.
tion with a rectifier therein. said recti?ers hav 70
ing output terminals to which they are con
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