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Nov. 12, 1946.
w. R. HOLMAN
2,4l0,942
OPTICAL THICKNESS GAUGË
Filed' Jan. 2, 1945
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INVENTOR.
M//u/AM !2 HOzMAN
BY
›
A Patented Nov. 12,_ 1946
2,4?o,942 l
UNITED ' STATES. PATENT
I
OFFICE ‹ `
2,4?`o,942
v
v
orT?cAL THICKNESS GAUGE'
William' a. 'Holina?n Vallejo, Calif., 'assignor to
y
› The Permanente Metals Corporation, Oakland,
Calif., a corpo?'ation ol' Delaware
Application January 2; 1945, Serial No. 571,()50
3 Claims.
1
(CI. 88-1)
2
_employed for supporting target members with
.
This invention relates to measuring vgauges and
particularly to an optical gauge adapted to deter- ?
relation -to the binocular eyepiece. 4
mine the thickness or other dimension's oi mem
In general the invention comprises a pair of '
bers inaccessible to caliper-like instruments.
feelers which may be brought into contact with
Forexample the wall „thickness of 'a piece of 5 opposite sides of a member to be gauged for thick
pipe is crdinarily gauged adjacent the end of the
ness. 'Each feeler carries a'target witha visible
pipe with a caliper micrometer or similar instru
W reference line ther?on spaced a known distance
ment and it must be assumed that the thickness
from the end of the feeler. The two targets dis
throughout the length of the pipe is uniform. It
posed directly opposite each other are viewed si
is sometimes necessary to determine the _thickness 10 'multaneously through properly 'sp'aced lenses and
of a member such as a pipe wall or large plate ~' a combination of re?ecting prisms so that both
at a point remote from its edge where calipers
are visible in superimposition through a single
cannot be employed. An instance of such .neces
eyepiece. If the spacing 'of the reference_ lines is
equal to the spacing of the objective lenses their
si-ty arises in the case of elongated tubular re
torts which are subjected to' high temperatures 1.5 images are precisely superimposed and as the dis
and other causes which effect a reduction in
tance from the reference lines to the ends of the
thickness of the metal of which they are con
feelers is known the space between the ends of
structed. It ís desirable from time .to time-to
'the feelers or' the thickness of the member which '
examine the thickness of the'retort wallíat points „ separates them can be obtained by simple mathe
several feet in from its open end. Instruments` 20 matical deduction. The necessity for such dea
constructed in the manner of calipers which com- .
'duction is however eliminated by the structures
prise connected arms with points for contact
herein _disclosed which make possible a direct
with opposite sides of the member to be gauged
reading on a scale, of the distance which sepa
are impractical for such use because of their size,
rates the feelers.
~
and the fact that any ?exibility in their con 25 Referring for example to Figure 1 of the draw#
struction results in inaccuracy.
~ 4
ing a, plate _?o is shown as illustrating a sec
It is the object of the present invention to' pro
tion through a piece of pipe or\ the wall of a
vide apparatus for determining thickness of me?n- ^ retort oreven a piece of ?at plate inwhich it is
bers in relatively inaccessible positions and to
provide such apparatus wherein reference points
i desired to gauge thickness at a point remote -from
30 its edge where ordinary calipers might be used. , A
are set up adjacent the member to be gauged on V pair of feelers ll (see also Figs. 3 and 4), are
opposite sides thereof and optically projected to '_
brought into' contact with opposite sides of the
plate in the area to be gauged. Each of thefeelers'
ther objects' an'd advantages 'of the invention are
ll' carries a target 12 in 'the form\ of a card.
made apparent in. the following speci?cation 35 A vertical reference line I 3 is provided on each
wherein it is described in detail with reference
_target „and'may be crossed by a horizontal line,›
to the accompanying drawing in which a 'pre
as shown, to aid in orienting the targets, although
ferred' form oi the invention is illustrated.
i the latter line is not employe-d in gauging the
' In the drawing:
'
distance between the ends of the feelers Il.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of an op 40
A system of lenses' and prisms as diagrammat-i
tical thickness gauge embodying the present in
ically shown in Fig."1 is employed to view-the `
vention, showing the manner of its use,
' .targets 12. This system is assembled in the same
Fig. 2 is a similar illustration of a portion of
manner as a binocular eyepiece usedin conjunc
the same gauge showing the results of a di?erent
tion with certain mícroscopes andv the like but it
- a common point for convenient comparison... Fur- .
adjustment of certain parts thereof,
45 is reversed so` that .the two eyepieces may be re
cF'ig; 3 is a view in front' elevationtoi a pair y
of target members which form a part of the ap
paratus,
-
_
'
.
Fig. 4 is a similar view of a modi?ed form of
- the target members shown in Fig. 3,-F
'
'
Fig. 5 is a plan view oi' an adjustable binocular
placed by telescopic lenses.
Thus, the target
viewing apparatus, as shown in Figure 1, com
prises a pair oi' telescopic objective lenses 14, a
pair of prisms !5 and ?s which re?ect the image
60 :from one lens M through a single eyepiece lens
eyepiece used with the target members shown in
l'l, and a second pair of prisms !8 and I!! which
similarly re?éct the image of the other objective
Fig. 4, `and
lens so that images of -the -two targets I! are
-
„ -
~
.
viewed-through the eyepíece l1 in superimposed
apparatus illustrating one means which may _be 65 relation to each other.
Fig. 6 is an isometric view of a- complete gauge
atentate
II
3
›
Assuming now that the spacing between the
centers oi' the obiectlve lenses ili is the same as
that between the vertical reference lines iii on
the targets, the projected images of the two ref
modates th'e'lenses and prisms is provided with a
vertically extending trunnion 23 upon which are
rotatably supported a pair of collars 26. Each of
the collars carries an elongated red 25 which
erence lines will follow .the paths indicated in
dotted lines in Figura 1 and they will be observed
supports one of the targets and feelers at its outer
end in position to be brought into cooperating
positions on opposite sides of an intermediate
throughthe single eyepiece il as directly super
imposecl. II, however, the spacing is varied either ~
plate to be gauged. A spring 23 may be employed
to urge the rods 25 toward each other, and the
ters of the objective lenses the images will follow 10 targets may be' made adjustable lengthwise of the
'rods or the rods themselves may be made to vary
different paths as shown by dotted lines in Figura
in length by means not shown. The supporting
2 and will be viewed separately through the eye
rods 25 may be of very light construction as they
piece.
function only as supports for the feelers and tar
According to one method of practicing the in
vention the objective lenses may be spaced apart 15 gets and have no hearing on titre accuracy of the
gauging operation which is aecomplished inde
a ?xed distance. The targets are then marked
pendently of any such. mechanical connections
with the reference lines ne to coincide when
as set forth above.
viewed through the eyepiece when the .ends oi'
I claim:
' the feelers ii are in contact with each other.
1. A thickness gauge comprising a pair of target
One target is then marked off with a visible scale' 20
members engageable with opposite sides of a
as indicated at 26 in Fig. 3 and the distance be
member to be gauged,'and means for viewing said
tween the ends of the feelers when they are
target members simultaneously_- in superimposed
brought into contact with a member to be gauged
relation including a pair of objective lenses
is observed through the eyepiece by the apparent
position of the reference line on one target with 25 aligned with the target members, a single eye
piece lens and prismatic refiectors for directing `
relation to the scale on the other target.
the images from the objective lenses to the eye
Through a modi?cation of the invention the
between the reference lines or between the cen
piece lens, said targets having reference lines
thereon positioned to be spaced apart in their
prism assembly which is incorporated in a suit 30 superimposed images e, distance corresponding to
the thickness of the members being gauged,
able case as illustrated in Fig. 5 may be made so
' targets may be marked each with a single vertical
reference line as shown in Fig. 4 and the lens and
means to adjust the spacing of the objective lenses
that the objective lenses are adjustable to and
to bring the images of the reference lines into
away from each other as from the full line to the
registry, and means to`indicate the extent of said
dotteci line positions indicated. A calibrated
gauge 2! connects the lenses to indicate the mag 35 adjustment.
2. A thickness gauge comprising a. pair of target
nitude of their adjustment., With this modifica
members engageable with opposite sides oi' a _
tion the reference lines are placed on the targets
member to be gauged, and means for viewing said
to coincide in the eyepiece i? when the feelers
target members simultaneously in superimposed
H are in contact with each other and when the
gauge Zi is set for a zero reading. If the íeelers 40 reiation I including a pair of objective lenses
aligned with said target members, a single eye
are spaced apart the objective lenses must be
piece _lens and prismatic re?ectors for directing
moved apart to make the reference lines coincide
the images from the objective lenses to the eye
and the movement of the lenses registered on the
piece lens, said targets having reference lines
scale 26 corresponds to the distance between the
feelers.„
`
45
One of the principal advantages of this inven
tion is that it -eliminates the necessity for any.
physical connection between feelers of the gauge
or between the targets from which _a reading is
taken. Thus the rigidity and accuracy _of con 50
struction of mechanical micrometers is unneces
sary and the thickness of a plate or wall may be
determined at a point several feet from its edge
as readily as at a. point close to its edge. As there
is no necessity for 'connection between the feelers
they may be supported by any means available
and it is contemplated that they be made of mag
netized iron so that they will secure themselves
by attractijon to iron or steel platcs or by mutual
attraction through members of non-magnetic 60
material. .
It may be desirable for some uses, however, to
_provide some support tor the feelers and targets
which will simplity their orientation in direct op
position to each other on opposite sides of the
member to be gauged, and in proper relation to
the lenses through which they are viewed. An
apparatus suitable for this purpose is shown in _
' Fig. 6 of thedrawing. The casing which accom
?thereon positioned to be spaced apart in their
superimposed images a distance corresponding to
the thickness of the member being gauged, means
to adjust the spacing of the objective lenses to
bring` 'the images of the reference lines into
registry, and a scale disposed between said ob
jective lenses whereby the extent of said adjust
ment is measured.
3. A thickness gauge comprising a pair of visible
target members including feelers of magnetized
iron engageable with opposite sides of a member
to be gauged, and means for viewing_ said target
members simultaneously in superimpose?d rela
tion including a pair of objective lenses aligned
with said target members. a single eyepiece lens
and prismatic re?ectors for directing the images
from the objective lenses to the eyepiece lens.
said targets having reference lines thereon posi
tione'd to be spaced apart in .their superimposed
images a distance corresponding to the thickness
of'the members being gauged, means to adjust
i the spacing of the objective lenses to bring the
images of the' reference lines into registry, and
means to indicate the extent of said adjustment.
WILLIAM R. HOLMAN. _
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