Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,410,958 UNITED STATES ~ PATENT OFFICE ' ' 2,410,958 ‘ ENGINES OPERATING COAXIAL SHAFTS James B. Brockhurst, RedvBank, N. J. _ ‘ Application August 2, 1943, Serial No. 496,984 10; Claims. > - (01. 123-197) I ' 1 2 same direction as the outer shaft, issupplemented This invention, which comprises a development of the improvement disclosed in my application Serial-No. 473,605, ?led January 26, 1943, is di by the 'rotative speed of said‘outer shaft._ reot'ed to a prime mover having co-axial driven shafts which derive- motion therefrom and are will hereinafter appear. In the drawing: ' Other features and advantages of my inventio - Figure'l is a front sectional view of a cylinder capable of rotation at relatively different speeds. with its piston and connecting rod as part of a The co-axial shafts, due to their respective nine cylinder, air cooled engine. speeds of rotation, may be utilized for a variety Fig. 2 is a side sectional view of the same, and of purposes, both mechanical and electrical, and Fig. 3 is a cross section of the piston showing its my present development is therefore not limited 10 peripheral ?utes. to any one particular instance of power applica Fig. 3A is a cross section of a modified piston tion, but rather to means whereby a single prime source of power is enabled to cause the rotation, having reversed ?utes. In said ?gures let I indicate a cylinder forming at'diiferent speeds, of respective co-axial power shafts. ' 15 part of a nine cylinder, air cooled engine,’ only parts of certain remaining cylinders being illus I The example of my invention represented in trated in Fig. 1. _ v this application is based upon a compound inter The piston for said cylinder is indicated at 2,.it nal combustion engine as developed from the dis having a lower skirt portion that is provided with closuregiven ‘in my said application Serial No. 473,695, and it embodies a cylinder having a pis 20 piston rings 3, said skirt portion being continued ton whose pistonrod in, the reciprocating action upwardly in rbell-likelformation 4, with an upper cylindricalportion 5 that carries the piston head of the pistoniserve‘s to rotate the crank shaft and hence'to rotate the outer one‘ of. ‘the co-axial 6,,and from/said piston head 6 there depends an shafts, the said piston also being given .a rotating outer concentric wall '4. which, is in movable oppo movement that, through the connecting rod and 25 sition to the inner wall of the cylinder. ‘Said wall a system of gears, imparts rotation to the inner one of the co-axial shafts, the R. P., M. of said inner shaft being supplemented by thev speed of the outershaft, when the shafts arerotated in the same direction, but the speed of said inner shaft being relatively less when said shafts are - ' 7 caused to rotate in opposite directions. ‘I is ‘provided inits outer surface with a series of inclined flutes or vanes 8, for a purpose to be re ferred to hereinafter. An annular gap 9 sepa rates the piston skirt. from wall ‘I, said gap so dis posed as to register with a fuel inlet it formed through the cylinder wallwhen the piston‘ has compressed a charge of , air in the cylinder to the ' ‘ Whilst in my said earlier application Serial No. ' ' pointewhere liquid fuel, injected as from a nozzle H through said inlet, will cause ignition and rotation of the piston, is intended to supplement 35 power expansion of the charge. I 473,605 the expansive power, applied through the the power exerted upon the crank shaft in the re It will be noted that a chamber [2 is formed be ciprocating action of the piston, the present im provement is directed to the utilization of the ex pansive power developed through the piston rota tween the piston portions 4, 5, 6 and ‘I, and that tion for the operation of a shaft that is en the entry of the air occurs through the single in take and exhaust valve [3, during the down 40 stroke. , The piston cylindrical portion 5 is shown as threaded interiorly and receives a screw plug I4, herein as the “inner shaft” in contradistinction that carries a universal joint l5 from which de-' pends the connecting rod !6. It should be pre to the usual crank shaft, which latter may be styled the “outer shaft.” 45 mised now that the piston is capable of both re ciprocating ‘and rotary movements, also the piston Said inner shaft, which may continue into or rod. The piston rod, at its lower end, is revolubly comprise a propeller shaft, when the engine is mountedrin a bearing member I‘! that itself is employed in the operation of aircraft, is capable revoluble 0n the crank-pin I8, also the lower end of rotation either in the same direction as that of the outer shaft, or in the opposite direction, ac 50 of the piston rod is provided with a bevel gear l9 sheathed by and is co-axial with the usual crank shaft. Said ensheathed shaft may be designated ‘ cording to the direction of inclination of the pis- . which is in mesh with a bevel gear 20 carried by ‘ a shaft 21 that is journalled in bearing member l'l, said shaft 21 carrying a pinion 22 which is revoluble on crank-pin l8 and is in mesh engage ?utes—_it being notable however that the rate of speed'of said inner shaft, when driven in the 55 gagement ‘with a gear 23 loosely mounted on ton ?utes; also, the R. P. M. of said inner shaft is governed by the degree of angularity of said 2,410,958 * 4 3 4. In an engine, the method of transmitting the power of a prime mover through a plurality of co-ordinated systems of operation having co crank-pin I8, and in mesh engagement with a gear 24 carried by a shaft 25 (the inner shaft) which is ensheathed by and rotatable within the crank shaft 26 (the outer shaft). In the example illustrated the crank shaft is shown as in splined engagement with the crank pin, though obviously it may be an integral part thereof. The two-part arrangement is suggested for production purposes. axial, telescoped shafts rotating independently of each other whereby the R. P. M of an inner shaft is varied by the R. P. M. of an outer shaft. 5. In an engine, a cylinder, a piston, a crank shaft and a second shaft revoluble within said crank shaft, means whereby expansive power The opposite crank arm 21 carries a crank shaft 10 operates directly to both project and rotate said piston, means whereby the projecting movement 28, and operable therein is an inner shaft 29, whose gear 30 is in mesh with a gear 3| that, like , of said piston serves to operate said crank shaft, and means whereby the rotating movement of said piston serves to operate said second shaft. 6. In an engine, the method of transmitting My improved engine is intended for use in a 15 the power of a single prime mover directly to variety of automative applications wherein a plu telescoped shafts, and causing said shafts to ro rality of shafts, actuated by a single ‘piston, are tate independently and in concert. adapted to perform separate and distinct func 23 is similarly operated through the rotation of piston 2. 7. In an engine, a cylinder, a hollow piston of tions in the same power plant assemblage. Thus, in an airplane the inner and outer shafts may 20 ?xed cubical capacity therein, a crank shaft and operate respective co-axial propellers. Also, one a second shaft revoluble within said crank shaft, means whereby expansive power, developed from of the shafts may operate a supercharger. ' within said piston operates directly to both pro For automotive road'vehicles respective shafts ject and rotate said piston, means whereby the may operate right and left drive wheels and func tion with the aid of suitable differential gearing. 25 projecting movement of said piston serves to op As will be apparent, the direction of rotation erate said crank shaft, and means whereby the of the piston is governed by the direction of angle rotating movement of said piston serves to oper given the ?utes 8 in the piston periphery, so that ate said second shaft. . 8. In an engine having an inner and an outer the inner shaft may be caused to rotate either positely. driving shaft rotated independently through in dependent movements of the engine pistons, ~ Variations within the spirit and scope of my means for rotating the inner shaft through ro in the same direction as the outer shaft, or op 30 invention are equally comprehended by the fore tating movements of the pistons and means for rotating the outer shaft through reciprocating going disclosure. 35 movements of said pistons, whereby the said in I claim: 1. In an engine, the method of transmitting ner and outer shafts are rotated in concert to the power of a prime mover to co-axial tele affect the R. P. M. of said inner shaft. scoped shafts and causing said shafts to rotate ' 9. In an engine having a plurality of independ independently in the same direction and means ently rotated telescoped shafts, means for rotat whereby the R. P. M. of the inner shaft is sup ing the inner shaft independently of the outer plemented by the R. P. M. of the outer shaft. shaft and means for rotating the outer shaft in 2. In an engine, the method of transmitting dependently of the inner shaft, whereby the said the power of a prime'mover to co-axial tele shafts rotate in concert to affect the R. P. M. of scoped shafts and‘causing said shafts to rotate the inner shaft. independently of each other whereby the R. P. M. 45 10. In an engine having a plurality of inde of the inner shaft is varied by the R. P. M. of pendently rotated telescoped shafts, means for the outer shaft. ' rotating the inner shaft at an established rate 3. In an engine, the method of transmitting of speed and means for rotating the outer shaft the power of a prime mover through a plurality at an established rate of speed, whereby the said of co-ordinated systems of operation having c0 shafts rotate in concert to affect the established axial‘ telescoped shafts rotating independently rate of speed of the inner shaft. and in concert in the same direction and means whereby the R. P. M. of an inner shaft is supple mented by the R. P. M. of an outer shaft. JAMES B. BROCKHURST.