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Nov. 12, 1946. .
2,410,959
H. S. BROWN
'
EARTH DRILL
Original Filed Sept.- 12, 1941
'7 Sheets-Sheet 1
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AWORNEYS.
Nov. 12, 1946.
H. s. BROWN
2,410,959
EARTH DRILL
original Filed sept. 12, 1941
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEYS.
Nov. l2, 1946.
H. s'. BROWN
E‘ARTH DRILL
Original Filed Sept. l2,
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ATTORNEYS.
Nov. l2, 1946.
H. S. BROWN
2,410,959
EARTH DRILL`
òriginal Filed sept.- 12, 1941
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ATTORNEYS.
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Ov. 12, 1946.
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EARTH DRILL
original Filed sept. 1'2, 1941
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Nov. l2, .1946.
H. S. BROWN
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EARTH DRILL
Original Filed Sept. 12, 1941
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INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEYS.
Palented Nov. 12, ieee
ariosto
UNITED STATES YPATENT oFFlcE ¿
2,410,959
EARTH DRILL
Hugh S. Brown, Wauwatosa, Wis.
1
Continuation of application Serial No. 410,623,
September 12, 1941. This application Decem
ber 13, 1943, Serial No. 514,080
10 Claims. (Cl. Z55-22)
The present inventor has devoted a great deal
of energy and thought to the improvement of
earth drills. He has ñled numerous appli@
tions, including Patent No. 2,255,241, relating
to a construction permitting portability and
permitting drilling at a 45° angle; and Patent
No. 2,329,388, relating to an improved auger .de
signed to have all the advantages of past .angers
While permitting reverse turning in the hole in
case a single operation of the drill is continued
until so much loosened dirt is above the drill
that it cannot be pulled out.
_
2
,
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
approximately on the line 5_5 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary View corresponding to
Fig. 5, but taken on the line 6_6 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken
approximately on the line 'I_'I of Fig. 4;
Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are corresponding views taken
approximately on the line 8_8, 9_9 and Ill-I0
of Fig. 3;
Fig. 11 vis a fragmentary sectional View taken
approximately on the line I I_I I of Fig. 9;
Fig. l2 `is a fragmentary sectional view taken
The present invention, while utilizing some
approximately on the line I2_l2 of Fig. 10;
aspects of the previous inventions, provides stili
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
further improvements. 'I'he ability to drill at a
approximately on the line I3_I3 of Fig. 3;
45° angle is retained, as is the ability to tilt 15
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary sectional View taken
the drill rig to a nearly horizontal position for
portability. Considerably greater over~all speed,
flexibility and ease of operation are provided by
inclusion of a plurality of novel features. Pneu~
approximately on the line M_M of Fig. 13 ;`
Fig. 15 is a diagrammatic representation of
the pneumatic hoisting and feeding system; and
Fig. 1.6 is a diagrammatic representation of a
matic means is provided for raising the auger 20 modified form of feed control.
from the hole with the loosened dirt thereon.
Although Athe invention has been shown in
The same pneumatic cylinder may, if desired,
detail in accordance with R.. S. 4888, it will be
be used for lifting a pole to be dropped into the
understood that additional forms of the inven
hole. Additional pneumatic `means operating
with more _force and at slower speed may be 25 tion, and additional ways of using some aspects
of the invention, will be discovered by those
used when required for driving the auger down
skilled
in the art, and the claims are to be in
during drilling, or for boosting the auger up
terpreted as broadly as permitted by the prior
wardly if the normal high-speed raising means
art.
»
does not have adequate force. The pneumatic
Since one of the important features of the
feed unit is so arranged that, although it is nor 30
invention is ready portability, it is fitting that
mally inoperative, it may be brought into oper
the entire apparatus be carried by atruck II,
ative relationship simply by manual movement
as illustrated in Fig. 1.
of the control valve and without any slamming
Of course, means can
-be provided for utilizing the truck motor as a
together of parts which would be destructive
35 source of power, but it has been found more satis
to the life of the equipment.
factory to use a separate .motor I2. According
The housing and rigging is considerably
to the present invention the motor I2 is prefer
simplified, the upper end of the spindle being
ably connected to the drilling apparatus through
guided by a simple slotted tube, the drill cas
a fluid drive unity I3, a manually controlled fric
ing pivoting about a horizontal axis which is
also the axis of the drive shaft, and the entire 40 tion clutch unit I4, and a transmission I5 which
need merely vbe slidable between theV forward
casing pivoting about a perpendicular horizontal
axis which is also the axis of the` universal joint
in the drive shaft, which permits driving the
drill in spite of angular movement of the hous
mg.
Additional advantages and objects of thel
present invention will be apparent from the
following description and from the drawings, in
and reverse drives. 'I'he provision of the fluid
drive unit i3 is considered an important> feature
45
of the invention, since it, together with the fluid
feed and hoisting features of the invention,
make the apparatus almost fool-proof. It is
impossible `to stall or overload the motor I2 by
improper manipulation .of the drill unit controls.
which:
lMounting of the drill head
50
Fig. l is a side elevation of the apparatus of
The
drill
head I8 is mounted for pivoting about
this invention mounted on a truck;
a horizontal axis in van intermediate housing I9,
Fig. 2 is an end view as seen from the left in
which in turn is mounted on pedestals 2| for
pivoting about .a horizontal axis at right angles
.to the first axis. The pivoting .of the drill head
Fig. 2;
I8 about the first-named axis permits drilling at
the diverse angles shown in Fig.. >2, a sweep of at
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical, sectional view
_least 90° being preferred; The pivoting of the
Vof the structure seen in Fig. 2, taken approxi
housing I9 about the second-named axis permits
mately on the line 4_4 thereof;
60 drilling lat least through a range of 30°, as >illus
Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical, sectional
view, taken approximately on the line 3_3 of
2,410,959
,
4
.
by a handle 41, Fig. 2, preferably acting through
3
trated in Fig. 1„and furthermore permits folding
a ratchet mechanism 48.
the entire drill rig to the nearly horizontal posi
Spindle drive
tion shown in dotted lines at A in Fig. 1 for trans
location
to
an.
The drilling auger 5I is carried by a square
porting the drill unit from one
Ul spindle 52, which is vertically slidable in sleeve
other.
53. The sleeve 53 may be a square sleeve closely
The casing I9 may be suspended from the'ped- ‘
estals 2I by means of stub shafts 22, which may
fitting the spindle 52, or it may more desirably be
be secured to either the casing I9 or the pedestal
slightly oversize with respect to .the spindle 52
2|, and journaled in the other. 'The pivotal -axis
and provided with replaceable bushings 54 which
of the stub shafts 22 preferably coincides with 10 snugly fit the spindle 52. Dirt and sand getting
the pivotal axis of the universal joint 23, the posi
on the spindle 52 cause a great deal of wear, and
tion of which is determined by shaft 24 carried
it is highly desirable to be able to replace the
by extension 26 of the drill head I3. By having
bushings 54 readily. It will be observed from Fig.
the pivotal axis of the shaft 22, which is also
3 .that they are both removable Without dis
the pivotal axis of the housing I9, coincide with
mantling of the drill head I8. They are prefer
the pivotal axis of lthe universal joints 23, there
ably made of bronze. For ease of operation of the
will be substantially no change in the position of
spindle and for reducing wear on the spindle, they
the drive shaft 21 as the housing I9 pivots, With
may be secured in place by bolts screwing into the
this arrangement it is possible to pivot the drill
sleeve 53. The use of the bronze bushing per
rig to its collapsed position, indicated at A in
mits forming the sleeve 53 from steel by casting.
Fig. 1, without uncoupling the universal joint 23,
Of course, the sleeve can be square, or it can be
cylindrical, relying on the securing bolts for the
bushings fast to the
sleeve for transmitting the driving force to the
or any part of the driving mechanism.
The drive shaft 21 is preferably of the conven
‘ bushings 54 to make the
tional .telescoping type, and is preferably provided
with a second telescoping unit 2S merely for the 25
purpose of avoid-ing any trouble with original
misalinement of parts or from slight discrep
ancies between the positions of the axis of shafts
22 and the position of the axis of the universal
spindle.
The sleeve 53 is preferably mounted in the
head I8 by means of roller bearing units 56. These
units may be of conventional form and should, of
of course, provide for end .thrust as Well as rota
joints 23. A worm gear segment 29 is rigidly se 30 tion.
cured to housing I9, and is driven by a Worm 3I
The sleeve 53 has connected thereto a bevel
gear 58 which meshes with a bevel pinion 59
mounted on the truck frame, which in turn is
driven by a manuallever 32 which preferably A fast on shaft 24. The spindle 52 is thus driven
operates through a ratchet 33. Counterbalancing
means may be provided for the drill rig, if neces
sary, but the structure herein contemplated is
believed to be light enough so that for ordinary
heights counterweighting will not be necessary.
Spaced bearings
It will be observed from Fig. 3 lthat the drill
by the motor I2 through hydraulic drive unit
I3, friction clutch unit I4, transmission I5, drive
shaft 21 with its universal joint, drive shaft 24,
pinion 59, gear 58, sleeve 53, and bushings 54.
The assembly of spindle 52, bushings 54, sleeve
53, gear 58, and bearings 56 may be easily in
40 serted in the drill head I8 either by removing
head I8 projects from the housing I9, and that
the entire weight of the drill rig exerts a torque
about any fulcrum point for the drill vhead within the housing I9. According to Ithe present in
vention this torque is rendered harmless by pro
^ <
the end shell 6I of the drill head, which may be
removed by removing bolts B2, Fig. 13, or by low
ering the assembly into the drill head, the assem
bly being then held in place therein by retain
ing plate B3 and bolt 64, seen in Fig. 3.
viding substantially spaced bearings 36 and 31 of
Spindle guide
external cylindrical contour on the drill head
With a long drill spindle 52 it is important
to guide the upper end of the shaft so that as the
spindle rotates the free end will not gyrate. This
is particularly important for drilling at an in
clination as illustrated in Fig. 2, where the weight
of the long spindle would cause high initial flex
ing. According to the present invention this guid
ing of the upper end of the spindle is accom
extension 26, and corresponding bearings 38 and
39 of internal cylindrical contour on the housing
I9, disposed to smoothly engage the bearings 36
and 38. The bearing 31 is smaller in diameter
than the bearing 3B, and therefore may easily be
telescoped into the housing I9 until the bearing
36 seats against the bearing flange 4I. The drill
head extension 2B is then held in this position
plished by an extremely simple, inexpensive and
by a retaining ring 42, which may be secured to
light weight structure, namely, a slotted tube.
the extension 26 by bolts and which has a bearing
This slotted tube may be welded to a slotted col
engagement with the end of bearing 39.
lar 61, which in turn is secured to the drill head
It will be observed that the weight of the drill 60 I8 by the bolts 64. The slot 65 in the tube 66 is
rig is borne entirely by the substantial cylindrical
best seen in any of Figs. 8 to 10 in connection
bearings 35 and 38, and the reaction is borne en
with special reference to yoke B9. The yoke 69 is
tirely by the cylindrical bearings 31` and 39, which
provided for raising and lowering the spindle 52,
are also fairly substantial although not as large
and is therefore provided with ears 1I extending
in areas as the bearings 36 and 38. The bearings
through the 'slot 65 for engagement with a chain
are spaced apart far enough longitudinally of the
12, to which it is secured by one of the elon- I
shaft 24 so that the torque of the drill rig about
the bearings 36 and 38 may be taken up entirely
by the bearings 31 and 39 without having .to rely
gated pins serving to connect two links of the
chain, slightly longer than the other such pins.
on any end bearings.
This assures smooth ac
tion of the drill head I8 in the housing I9. The
drill head I8 is actuated about its pivotal axis
by a worm segment 44, which is rigidly secured
to the drill head I8 or its extension 26, and is in
turn actuated by a Worm 46 which is operated
70 'The ears 1I must extend through the slots 65 as
the spindle is raised and lowered, and hence the
slot 65 must be at least as long as the stroke
Yóf the spindle. The yoke 69 is preferably posi
tioned longitudinally of the spindle 52 by means
of roller bearing units 14, seen best in Fig. 3.
andere
6
. in, assembly. the 'one-piece yoke 5.9, together
with the bearing unit 1i and a thrustv plate 16,
back to the point of the chain first described at
sprocket 92, thus forming an endlesschain. 1 i
if desired, may be telescoped over the upper
._ .From the foregoing it is seen that as the piston
reduced end of the spindle 52 and securedv in
place by a split retaining plate 11, the two halves
of. which may be secured together by bolts 18.
82 and rack bar >83 are raised, they rotate the
pinion 86 and sprocket 89, whichl in turn drives
The split retaining plate 11 >is clamped by the .
bolt 18 in an annular groove i9, preferably bev
eled on the top. side to force the plate against
the bottom. lt is thus-seen that the spindle
rotates freely, andwith a minimum of friction
within the yoke 68„ even though considerable up
ward or downward force is applied to the, yoke
10
for raising or lowering the spindle 52 andauger
5|..
15
Raising mechanism
The auger and spindle will drop into the par
tially dug hole by gravity, and in soft soil may>
feed themselves by gravity even during the drill 20
in_g operation. It is necessary, however, to pro
vide power mechanism for raising the spindle,
the, auger, and the dirt which has been dug and
passed through'the auger and rests onthe
top thereof. An ideal source of power for this
operation is a pneumatic cylinder. This permits
great ease of control, involves. no clutches to. wear
out, and makes. possible a very smooth operation,
even at fairly high speeds. However, since the
drill` of this invention might be designed to drill 30
holes of, say, 30 feet depth, a pneumatic cylinder
30 feet longV for raising thel spindle the 30 feet
necessary to lift the auger from the bottom of
the rhole would be undesirable. According to the
present invention a simple arrangement is pro
vided whereby the cylinder can be only a fraction
the chain 12 so as to raise the yoke, 69 and with
it `the spindle and auger. It will be observed from
Fig. _7 thatl the pitch radius of pinion 80 is only
about a third of that of sprocket 89, and. hence
the chain ‘i2 Will be driven about three( times
the length of _movement of the’rack bar 83 and
three times the stroke ofthe piston 82 and cylin
der 8|. The exact dimensions of the parts will,
of course, be such that the spindle can be raised
from its lowermost position to its uppermost _po
sition with the length of stroke of piston 82 that
is available.
l
. Not only does this arrangement permit the use
.of a cylinderBI, which is only one-third the
length of the spindle stroke, but it also produces
a fasterk movement of the spindle, the spindle
being raised at approximately three timesthe
speed of the piston 82.
Power feed
i, The force` of >gravity'is not always enough to
feed the auger with sufficient force to cause it
to bite into the earth as rapidly as desirable.
When additional feeding'forcey is necessary it is
possible to> app-1y some’feeding force with two
direction cylinder 8|. In digging into harder
shale, however, this still is not enough.’ Further
more„the controls could be such that cylinder 8|
Would’ exert no ’feedingëforca the feeding ordi
narily depending entirely upon gravity,` thus sav
ing compressed air.
,
n
`
`.
l
` According to the present invention a feed cylin
ofthe length of the lift required.
der is provided which is also- rigidly mounted ‘on
ln the illustrated form, the hoisting cylinder
slotted tubes 60, as seen best in Fig; 5. The dig
8| is carried rigidly by the slotted tube 06 and
base casting 61, and is provided with a, piston 40 gingportionfof the downward stroke of the spin
dle is quite sho-rt, since it is desirable to raise the
8-2 (the number being- applied to the piston rod
dirt Iafter a few inches have been dug. Accord
when the piston is concealed), having about one
ingly, the 'feed lcylinder lill may also be short',
third` the spindle stroke for which the apparatus
and it may nevertheless be connected to the chain
is designed. Carried by the piston rod 82, and
to drive 'the chain in direct ‘drive or in 1 to 1
actuated thereby in opposite directions, is a rack _
ratio, ’ Of course, the piston |02, or the piston
bar 83, which, as see-n best in Fig. ’1, runs be
tween an idler guide pulley 8d and a pinion 86
rod to which the'num’ber is also> app-lied, ofthe
8_4. y Suitable retaining
sprocket 96. is fast on a sha-ft |03, which is jour
naled in the feed head. The feed head |04 is
cylinder |0| could be provided with some sort of
which meshes with the teeth of the rack. The
ratchetting dog engagingthe chain. It is pre
pinion 8.5. is fast on shaft 81, which is jour
naled, preferably by ball bearings, in brackets 50 ferred, however, that the means engagingthe
chain be kep-t constantly in engagementA there
8,8 rigidly secured to an intermediate portion
with so as to Iavoid the Wear from pounding parts
of the slotted tube 80 or flange |08 thereon.v The
together. In the illustrated form of invention
outer portion of the bracket 88' may be secured to
this is yaccomplished by the use of sprocket 96,
the inner portion, with a connecting part between
the two portions comprising a shaft for Vthe pulley 55 which is constantly in mesh with chain 12. The
or
end thrust means
shouldxbe provided for the shaft 81, although
therewill not ordinarily be any severe end thrust
applied to the shaft.
`V
' Sprocket 88 is carried by the shaft 81 and runs
60
raised and lowered by piston |02, and is guided
by `plates |06 which coact with a guideway formed
in> flanged bracket |01 secured to slotted tubes 66,
or more accurately, to flange |08 welded thereto
freely thereonv except when locked thereto by a
and Vtobase casting 6,1.
„
sliding clutch 0|, which Will'normally be left in
Shaft |03 vcarries fast on its ends remote from
engagement at all times. As seen> best in Fig. 4,
sprocket 86. a> brake drum |09. This brake
the. chain 12 extends partially around sprocket 65 thè
drum
is normally free to rotate, and hence the
89, being guided therearound by an idler sprocket
sprocket 96 is normally free to rotate, and the
9,2 and`> extending from sprocket 8S over and
actuation of the chain 12, by hoisting cylinder 8|
around top idler sprocket 83. From the top
or by gravity acting on the spindle 62, is unaf
sprocket 9,3 the chain 12 extends alongside of
fected by the sprocket 96’. However, when it is
the slot E5 in tube 86 to. and around bottom 70 desired to apply an extra feeding force'to the
idlerï sprocket 0d, being secured tothe yoke 69
chain, air is supplied toa diaphragm type of
between the top and bottom sprockets in the
actuator ||| which actuates-a rod ||2, seen best
manner previously described.> From, the, sprocket
in -Fig.y l1, to operate brake cam> level` ||3, and
SAthe chain extends in> contact with a feed
apply the» brake to drum |09. The brake may be
’sprocketäià` which is normallyl free to rotate, and 75 any conventional expansion type o-f brake, and,
2,410,959
8
et 86, shaft 81, and winch drum |2|. Since the
of course, an external brake could be used. This
same operation of clutch 9|, which engages the
winch to the shaft, disengages the sprocket 89
from the shaft, the sprocket 89 will not be
driven.
Any suitable means may be provided for hold
ing sprocket 89 (or drum |2|) stationary when
clutch 9| is disengaged therefrom. After the
prevents further rotation `of shaft |03 with the
result Ithat as feed head |04 is raised by piston
|02 the now rigid sprocket 96 holds the chain
rigidly connected to the feed head |04, so that
as the feed head moves the chain is driven. To
prevent the chain from possibly slipping off the
sprocket a slide block ||4ïis positioned near the
pole has been raised the cylinder 8| may be con
far side of the chain, being carried by a bracket
from the nearby rigid structure. Air can be ad 10 trolled to lower the pole into the hole. .
The cable preferably passes around a sheave
mitted to the actuator ||| simultaneously with
|21 at the top of tube 66, so as to get the bene
fit
of the maximum height available.
diate cylinder |0|`.
The
means for holding the sprocket 89 sta
At the end of the feeding stroke air is released
from the actuator |||, with the result that the 15 tionary may comprise a dog carried by the rigid
structure and engageable with chain 12 at any
brake is released by any suitable spring, not
convenient point.
shown, and the sprocket 96 is free to rotate. This
Although the shaft 81 has been illustrated as
permits immediate raising of the auger and
supported by two spaced parts of bracket 88,
spindle by operation of hoisting cylinder 8|. At
but projecting therefrom, this should be recog
the same time the feed cylinder |0| may be
or slightly before its admission to the interme
20
operated through its return stroke so as to re
turn the feed head to its starting position.
Chain tightener
It is, of course, desirable that there be substan
tially no slack in the chain 12, since it is some
times actuated in one direction and sometimes in
the other. A very simple but satisfactory chain
25
nized as somewhat diagrammatic. In any event
a bracket could be secured to the tube 66 or ñange
|08 for supporting the shaft 81 at the end there
of opposite the end on which pinion 86 is mounted.
Control of drill
The rotational driving of the spindle can ordi
narily be controlled entirely by the throttle.
When desired, however, as if necessary to shift
tightening arrangement is shown in Figs. 10 and
gears, the friction clutch I4 may be disengaged.
12. The bottom sprocket S4 slides between slotted 30 »Of course, it will not ordinarily be necessary to
plates | |'6, fitting smoothly therewith at all points
shift gears. The chief occasion for reversing
so as to be free to rotate.v The plates ||6 may be
secured to the ñanges |08 on tube 66, or may
comprise a part of casting 61 to which the tube
the rotation of the auger is in the event that
the auger is drilled too deeply into the ground
on one bite, so that the loose dirt above the
66 is secured. The vertical position of sprocket 35 auger jams and prevents hoisting the auger. In
94 is determined by shaft '||1,`which in turn
this connection it may be noted that the auger
may be urged downwardly by screws ||8 until
is preferably that shown in my United States
the proper tension is applied to the chain 12. It
Patent No. 2,329,388„issued September 14, 1943.
is only necessary that the slot | |9 in which shaft
One form of control over the various cylinders
|`|1 operates be long enough to provide a stroke 40 is illustrated in Fig. 15. The air reservoir, indi
for the shaft ||1, slightly longer than half the
cated diagrammatically at |3|, may be supplied
length of a link in chain 12, since any greater
with compressed air by compressor |32, indicated
variations may be accommodated by the removal
diagrammatically in Fig. 1, and preferably driven
of a link. The shaft ||1 may be restrained
by motor l2. From the air reservoir |3| sup
against endvvise movement by reduced extension
ply conduit |33 and |34 carry compressed air to
of the` screws ||8 extending into corresponding
the two separate cylinder systems.
apertures in the shaf-t ||1.
Winch
One of the most common reasons for drilling a
hole is the ground is to place va pole therein.
For this purpose it is convenient to have some
Control of primary cylinder
The primary or hoisting cylinder 8| is con
trolled by a two-positioned four-way valve |36,
operated by handle |31. Normally this valve is
in the position shown, and air is fed to the cyl
means for raising the pole and lowering it into
índer 8| near its bottom by conduit |38.
the hole. According to the present invention this
The valve |36 also connects conduit |39 lead
means is furnished at negligible additional eX
ing from near the top of the cylinder to a vent
pense by providing a winch drum on shaft 81
|40. In this manner the piston |4| is held at
carried by the bracket 88. The winch drum is
the top of the cylinder. For lowering the piston
normally free to rotate on'shaft 81 but is locked
the handle |31 is pulled down about 90°. The first
with respect to said shaft, when desired, by man
effect of this is to feed compressed air from
ual operation of the clutch 9|. Any suitable
the conduit |33 to conduit |39 and the upper
means may be provided for operating the clutch
end of cylinder 8|. This effect is obtained be
9| Afrom the ground, such as the bell crank lever
fore other effects by the positioning of the re1
|22, the upper end of which forms a forked yoke
ative positions of the ñXed ports of valve |36 and
|23 engaging an annular groove in the clutch
the passages in its control member. Diagram
member 9|, link |24 and Fig. 5 operating han 65 matically this is illustrated by enlargements |43
dle |26, which may be locked to hold the clutch
at the ends of the passage |44. It will be noted
in either engaged position or in neutral position.
that the slot |46 does not have such enlarge
A cable will ordinarily be wound on drum |2|
ments. Supplying air to the conduit |39 will not
and hooked to a lower part of the equipment so
ordinarily have any effect, because the differen
70
as to be accessible'. When it is desirable to raise
tial
sizes of the upper and lower faces of the
a pole, the cable will be drawn out and fastened
piston head |4| will result in a force sufficient
around the pole, after which the clutch 9| will
to hold the piston up.
be shifted ,to the winch-operating position.
As the handle |31 is turned slightly further,
Thereafter air will be ladmitted to hoisting cyl
inder 8|, which will raise rack bar 8,3. turn sprock 75 however, the passage |46 will begin to connect
2,410,959
the conduit |38‘withthe‘vent |41), thus releasing
air-from the cylinder 8|"bélow ‘the pistonhead
|4|.¿ VSpeed of loweringthepiston head 14| will
be determined >by’ the exact positioning ofsvalve
|31 and the consequent speed of release of air
from below the piston. .It may be limited by
pipe `size or a separate'adjustable Valve to a pre
determined maximum speed. The lowering of the
piston head |53 to feed the auger as it drills, or‘to
boost the feeding force applied bycylinder 8|. It
is highly desirable to feed the auger 5| by venting
air from one side of the piston while the other
is under pressure, because this gives a smoother
action and more delicate contro1 than supplying ì
air to one side while the other is left open to the
atmosphere. It will be observed that cylinder 8|
piston in this manner will cause a lowering of the
also
is operated by a controlled venting except,
auger 5|' into the hole, and, if desired', willY ap 10
when it proves inadequate and control ispassed
ply a feedingV force to the auger as the motor.
over to cylinder 19|,
Y
y .
is speeded up to turn the auger for drilling. The
Upon
raising
the
handle
|63
air
will
vbe ex
feeding force> may be increased by drawing more
hausted from actuator || I by connecting con
air from below piston head IM, as by an in
duit |59 with conduit |65, which is normally con
jector.
nected
with vent |66 by valve |61. Either simul
To raise the auger 5| it is, of course, necessary
taneously or thereafter air will be suppliedby
to raise the piston head |4|. This is accom
valve |54 from conduit |34 to conduit 15| to the
plished by shifting handle |31 to the position
space above the piston head |53, thus returning
shown in Fig. l5, or approximately to this posi
tion. The first eifect is to connect conduit |33 20 the piston to the position shown, the actuator |=| l
being collapsed so that the brake drum `|69 is no
with conduit |38 for supplying air below the
longer held and the sprocket 96 may rotate freely
piston head IM. When there is no load on the
as the piston |32 is dropped.
'
Y
drill this may be enough to raise the drill, but
Although
the
cylinder
8|
will
be
adequate
for
ordinarily there will be no such movement until
raising the auger under most circumstances, _there
the valve v| 36 is turned :far enough to connect
will be some circumstances when it is loaded more
conduit |39 with vent |40. Again, the move
heavily than usual, or when rocks or the like seem g
ment of the piston head |4| will be controlled by
to wedge it in place so that the cylinder- 8|' is
the rate of escape of air from the space above
unable to move it. Under these circumstances ‘it
the piston head Iël, this in turn being control
may be desirable to apply a boosting force with
lable by the exact manipulation-of thehandle |31
or by a separate valve with a set adjustment.
It is desirable that both the cylinder 48| and the
cylinder IUI be of the cushion type, the air con
duits being arranged to open into the cylinder
slightly spaced from the end thereof so as to be
30 the cylinder |U|.
According to the present in
vention'this can be accomplished.
-
"
In Fig. 15 the valve |62 is provided to enable the
operator to raise the piston |53, while the sprocket
96 is still free to rotate. Thus,’by closing valve
|62 and shifting handle |63 to its lower position,
closed by ythe piston head, leaving cushioning
air will be released from above piston head |53
pockets at the intermediate ends of the cylinders.
without supplying air to actuator l | I, this supply
being shut off, by valve |62. After the piston |62
Auxiliary cylinder control
has been raised, a handle |69 is raised, shifting
The piston |92 of the auxiliary cylinder |0| is 40 valves |56 and |61. The valve |51 is ,preferably
normally in the position shown, air being supplied
arranged yto be effective, ñrst, to connect conduit
to both ends of the cylinder through the conduits
|65 to supplyconduit |311, and at this same time
15| and |52. -Both gravity and the fact that .the
handle |63 is released, thus supplying air to the
upper face of the pistonl head |53 is larger than
actuator ||3 to lock' sprocket 96, and then supply
the lower face cooperate to keep the piston in this
ing air above the piston head |53. Then the valve
position. Air is supplied to conduit |5| through
|56 becomes effective upon the further movement
valve|54 connecting with conduit`l34, and from
of handle |69 to release air from below piston
the same conduit to conduit |52 by valve |56. In
head |53 so that the air above the piston head
order to raise the piston |02 it is merely necessary
to shift valve |54 about 90°', so that the conduit
15| is connected with vent |51 instead of with
applies a boosting force tothe chain 12 in a direc
tion to aid in raising the auger 5|. It will not
supply conduit | 34. Of course, the resultant rais
ing force applied to piston |92 can be controlled
ond time, for once it is started the piston 8| will
usually be sufìcient. If a second boost is neces
sary, however, it is merely necessary to release
handle |69 and pull handle |63 down again 'to
by the amount of air that is exhausted from
above the piston by the valve |54.
ordinarily be necessary to boost the auger a sec
As previously mentioned, the raising of the
start the process over. When no more boosting
piston |92 will have no eifect unless sprocket 96
is necessary the valve |62 is opened and the parts
are thus restored to the'normal position so that
pulling handle |63 down will again operate to
supply feeding pressure to the auger.
is restrained from rotation by actuating brake
cam lever | |3. This is actuated by supplying the
air to diaphragm type actuator IH. The air issupplied to this actuator by Valve |58, which con
nects actuator conduit |59 with conduit |6i,
normally connected through open valve. |62 with
supply conduit |34. The valves |54 and |58 lare
preferably jointly operated, as indicated by the
joint handle |63. .The valve |58 may be arranged
to connect actuator ||| with the supply slightly
before conduit |5| is connected with vent |51', so
Alternative booster corLtrol
Fig. 16 shows an alternative method of con
trolling auxiliary cylinder y||l|y it beingfunder
stood that cylinder 8| is controlled in the same
manner as in Fig. 15. According to the construc
tion of Fig. 16, air is normally supplied to-both
the top and :bottom of cylinder ||l| by conduits
that the brake drinn |09 will be clamped by the 70 |1| connected to valve |12, and conduit |13 con
nected to valve |15. Valve |12 is normally in
brake therein before the piston |92 starts vto
the position shown in Fig. 16, and »connects con..
move. Thus it is seen that lowering the handle
duit |1| with conduit |16, which is connected
|63 will first supply the air to actuator ||| and
through valve |11 with supply conduit |33. Valve
will then permit the air to be bled asgradually
‘|11 also normally connects actuator ||| to vent
as may vbe desired from cylinder |9| above «the
¿118, the connection being through conduit |19 and
2,410,959
1
12
may be desired'by merely operating the handle
valve |11, conduit |8|, to conduit |83 and through
|88 upwardly for each'boost until the auger has
valve |14 to the vent.
been fully raised so that no more boosting is nec
With this construction the single valve |11 con
trols the operation of both actuator ||| and cyl
inder ||l| by drawing the handle |84 downwardly.
The ñrst effect is to disconnect conduit |34 from
conduit |16 and connect it to conduit |19 for
supplying air to actuator |||. With a slight ad
ditional movement of handle |84 conduit |16 is
connected to conduit |8| which is still connected
to vent |18, so that air from above the piston
head |53 is exhausted through the vent |18, al
lowing the air pressure below piston head |53 to
raise the piston and apply a controlled yfeeding
essary. The handle |81 may be shifted back to
the position shown, whereupon air is supplied
above the piston |53 and the differential of pres
sure on the two faces of the piston, plus gravity,
will cause the piston to return to the position
shown, sprocket 96 being free to turn by virtue of
the fact that the actuator ||| is connected to
the vent |18.
It will be understood that the cylinder I0| may
also be used for boosting when the cylinder 8|
- proves inadequate for the operation of the winch.
In this instance repeated boosting is quite` likely
force to the auger, the sprocket 96 now being 15 to be desirable. Under some conditions, in fact,
locked by the actuation of brake lever | I3 through
it is possible that use of the ‘boosting cylinder |0|
for feeding will rarely be necessary while its use
the diaphragm of actuator | | |.
Releasing the handle |84 allows spring |86 to
for boosting in the opposite direction will be de
raise handle |84. This ñrst connects actuator || |
sired quite often. Under these conditions the
with vent |18, and then connects the upper end 20 handle |81 of the selector valve |12 may be left
of cylinder |9| with supply conduit |34, thus re
in the upper position so that the equipment will
turning the parts to their normal position.
be all ready for a boosting in the lifting direc
1n order to convert the system for boosting cyl
tion.
inder »8| in raising the auger, it is merely neces
It should be observed that in the Fig. 16 struc
25
sary to shift handle |81 of valve 12 upwardly
ture, as in Fig, l5, the useful movements of the
about 90°. This connects conduit |1| with con
piston are always controlled by venting air. The
duit |83 which is connected through valve |14
smoothness of the resulting control results from
with vent |18. The air above piston |53 thus
the fact that any tendency of the piston to jump
being exhausted and conduit |13 still being con
when the load is released is checked by the pres
nected with conduit |34, the piston |53 is raised. 30 sure of air which has not yet been released.
During this traverse of piston |53 sprocket 96 is
This application is a continuation of appli
free to rotate, since actuator | | | is still connected
through the valve |84 and valve |14 with the
cant’s copending application, Serial No. 410,623,
ñled September 12, 1941, for which the present
application may later be substituted.
vent |18. To apply the boosting force for raising
the auger it is now merely necessary to raise han
dle |88 of valve |14. This will first connect sup
I claim as my invention:
l. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
spindle, -means for rotating the drill spindle, and
means for moving the drill spindle longitudinally
ply conduit |34 with conduit |B3, thus supplying
air simultaneously to actuator'l I I and the upper
end of cylinder |0|. Although therewill be a
including a chain forming an endless loop, a
diñerential pressure on piston |53, tending to 40 sprocket rotatably mounted and driving the chain
move it downwardly at once, it probably will not
by its rotation, a pinion rigid with the sprocket
have sufficient force to move the piston |53 ma
and of smaller diameter, a rack driving the pinion
terially before the actuator ||| operates to lock
and through it driving the spindle a distance
sprocket 96. As a matter of fact, the actuator
greater than the movement of the rack, a fluid
| || will probably operate before the full pressure
operated expansion cylinder for moving the rack
is built up in cylinder |9| above the piston |153.
in a direction to raise the spindle, a second cylin
If necessary to this end, the conduits to the ac
der, and means for connecting the second cylinder
tuator || | may be designed to carry the air more
to the chain to drive the spindle downwardly with
quickly than the conduit to cylinder |0|.
a movement slower compared to cylinder move
Upon slightly »further upward movement of han
dle |88, conduit |13 will be connected to vent |18,
thus 'exhausting air from below piston |53, which
has previously been raised, as described. The
speed at which the air is exhausted will deter
mine the boosting force applied through piston ,=
head |53 through the locked sprocket 96, to the
chain 12, to aid cylinder 8| in raising the auger.
Upon release of handle |88 the valve |14 will
lirst connect actuator ||| with the vent |18 to
release the sproket 96, and also connect the up (EO
per end of cylinder |0| with the vent |18, so that
ment than its upward movement.
there will be no air pressure on either side of
piston |53~` _Almost immediately the valve |14,
being drawn down by spring |89, will connect
supply conduit ‘|34A with the lower end of cylin
der Vlill, thus raising the piston |53 so that by
(523
merely raising the handle |88 again the auger
may be given another upward boost.
With this arrangement it is seen that normally
all of the feeding operation of cylinder I0! is
controlled by the single valve |14. When desired
to boost the auger upwardly it is merely neces
sary, ñrst, to shift the valve |12, which is in the
nature of a selector valve, and thereafter the
system is adapted «for boosting as frequently as 75
2. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
spindle, means for rotating the drill spindle, and
means for moving the drill spindle longitudinally
including a chain forming an endless loop, a
sprocket rotatably mounted and driving the chain
by its rotation, a pinion rigid with the sprocket
and of smaller diameter, a rack driving the pinion
and through it driving the spindle a distance
greater than the movement of the rack, a fluid
operated expansion cylinder for moving the rack
in a direction to raise the spindle, a second cyl
inder, means for connecting the second cylinder
to the chain to drive the spindle downwardly
with a movement slower compared to cylinder
movement than its upward movement, and means
for controlling each cylinder by controllably vent
ing air from one side of the piston therein while
the other side is under pressure.
3. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
spindle, means for rotating the drill spindle, and
ymeans for moving the drill spindle longitudinally
including a chain forming an endless loop, a
sprocket rotatably mounted and driving the chain
by its rotation, a pinion rigid with the sprocket
i3
2,410,959
and of smaller diameter, a rack driving the pinion
and through it driving the spindle a distance
greater than the movement of the rack, a fluid
14
trolled means for moving the carriage, while the
sprocket is locked against rotation, said valve
means operative upon a return stroke ñrst to re
operated expansion cylinder for moving the rack
in a direction to raise the spindle, a second cyl Ul lease the locking means and then to shift the car
riage back, and additional valve means operative
' inder, and means for connecting the second cyl
inder to the chain to drive the spindle down
wardly with a movement slower compared to cyl
inder movement than its upward movement comn
prising a second sprocket constantly in mesh with
the chain but normally rotatably idle, and means
for locking the sprocket and shifting it by oper
ation of the second cylinder.
4. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
to produce locking of the sprocket for the return
movement only of the carriage moving means.
8. Earth drilling apparatus including a frame,
a drill member carried by the frame for axial l
movement with respect to the frame, a chain con
nected with the drill member for moving it, and
means for driving the chain including a feed
head translatable with respect to the frame, a
spindle, lmeans for rotating the drill spindle, and ,
means for moving the drill spindle longitudinally
sprocket engaging the chain rotatably carried by
the feed head, means for selectively locking the
sprocket and releasing it for rotation with re
including a chain forming an endless loop, a first
spect to the feed head, and means for translating
expansion cylinder and means to raise the spindle
the leed head, while the sprocket is locked against
thereby, a second cylinder, and means for con
necting the second cylinder to the chain to drive 20 rotation, to actuate the chain and the drill mem
ber, and additional means for moving the drill
the spindle downwardly with a movement slower
member while the sprocket is free to rotate.
compared to second cylinder movement than the
> 9. An earth drill including a frame, a drill
speed of its upward movement compared to the
spindle carried by the frame for movement with
movement of the first cylinder.
5. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill ,
spindle, means for rotating the drill spindle, and
means for moving the drill spindle longitudinally
including a chain forming an endless loop, a ñrst
expansion cylinder and means to raise the spindle
thereby,
a second cylinder, and means for con- e
necting the second cylinder to the chain to drive
the spindle downwardly with a movement slower
compared to second cylinder movement than the
vspeed of its upward movement compared to
the movement of the ñrst cylinder comprising a o
sprocket constantly in mesh with the chain but
normally rotatable idly, and means for locking .
respect to the frame longitudinally of the spindle,
means for moving the spindle longitudinally
through its full withdrawal stroke including a
piston-type expansion motor having a shorter
stroke, and means for multiplying the range of4
movement connecting the motor with the spindle
to move it a full stroke with one stroke of the
motor, and means for moving the spindle less
than its full stroke comprising an auxiliary pis
ton-type expansion motor and means for selec
tively connecting it to the spindle to apply sub
stantially the full force of the auxiliary motor
toward moving- the spindle through a short stroke
in the feeding direction.
the sprocket and shifting it by operation of the
10. An earth drill including a frame, a drill
second cylinder.
spindle
carried by the frame for movement with
6. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
40 respect to the frame longitudinally of the spindle,
member, a chain associated with the drill mem
means for moving the spindle longitudinally
ber for moving it, and means for driving the chain
through its full withdrawal stroke including a
including a shiftable carriage, a sprocket engag
chain connected with the spindle, a piston-type
ing the chain rotatably carried by the carriage
expansion motor having a shorter stroke, and
and at times free to rotate, means for locking the
,~ means for multiplying the range of movement
sprocket with respect to the carriage, fluid-con
trolled means for locking the sprocket, fluid-oon
connecting the motor with the spindle to move
it a full stroke with one stroke of the motor, and
trolled means for moving the carriage, while the
means for moving the spindle less than its full
sprocket is locked against rotation, and valve
stroke comp-rising an auxiliary piston-type eX
means for controlling the ñuid and operative upon
a single stroke iirst to actuate the locking means 50 pansion motor and means for selectively con
necting it to the spindle to apply substantially the
and then to actuate the shifting means.
full force of the auxiliary motor toward moving
7. Earth drilling apparatus including a drill
the spindle through a short stroke in the feeding
member, a chain associated with the drill member
direction including a sprocket constantly in mesh
for moving it, and means for driving the chain
withthe chain but normally rotatable idly and
including a shiftable carriage, a sprocket engag
means including the auxiliary motor for locking
ing the chain rotatably carried by the carriage
the
sprocket and shifting it longitudinally of the
and at times free to rotate, means for locking the
spindle.
sprocket with respect to the carriage, fluid-con
trolled means for locking the sprocket, fluid-con
HUGH S. BROWN.
60
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