NOV. 12, 1946., ç, HUE-[TEN ¿4&09974 VIBRATOR CIRCUIT Filed may 7, 1945 W1l/w@f flamme HMJÍÍW@ WM, .f @@¿m 2,410,974 Patented Nov. 12, 1946 ¢UNITED STATES PATENT `OFFICE ' f 2,410,974 VIBRATOR CIRCUIT Clarence Huetten, Indianapolis, Ind., assigner to P. R. Mallory & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Ind., a corporation of Delaware Application May 7, 1943, Serial No. `485,976 13 Claims. (Cl. lTil-_97) 1 i , This invention relates to vibratory interrupter circuits. ' Y. - An object vof the invention is to improve vi brator circuits. Other objects of the invention will be apparent from the description' and claims. In the drawing: , Figure 1 is a diagram 4of a vibrator circuit em ‘ bodying features of the present invention; side contacts 2i and 22 cooperating with the reed on opposite sides. 'I'his vibrator may, for exam ple, be of the type shown and described in Slater Patent No. 2,190,685 or Brown Patent No. 2,197, 607. .A transformer 23 is associated with vibrator I0 and a transformer 24 with vibrator II. Each' transformer comprises a primary winding hav ing a. center tap, both the center taps being con 10 nected to the same terminal of battery I2. The ends of the primary of transformer 23 are con ance of a vibrator. ' ' _ nected respectively to contacts I‘I and I8 of vi Vibrator circuits are often used to convert brator I Ii and the ends of the primary 0f trans `> electric current from _ a low voltage source such as a battery to high4 voltage alternating current 15 former 24 to contacts 2I and 22 of vibrator II. One terminal of the'secondary winding of each which may, .if desired, be rectiiied to produce transformer is connected to common output ter high voltage direct current for radio sets, elec minal'ISa. 'I'he other terminal of transformer tronic apparatus, and variousy applications. . 23 secondary is connected tooutput terminal I3 Heretofore, the vibrator-circuits have generally of transformer 24 secondary to terminal >been used t0 provide only relatively small high 20, and’that Ilb.' Figure 2 illustrates another circuit; and' Figure 3 is a graph illustrating the perform voltage currents. _ j x It is vdesirable in some cases, however, to obtain Driver contact I6 of vibrator I0 is connected to one end of the windings of both vibrator electro magnets I5 and 20, the other ends of said magnet heavier currents and some eiIorts have been made to produce “heavy duty” vibrator circuits to sup windings being connected through conductor 9 to ply this need. In the past such arrangements 25 the terminal of battery I2 to which the center have generally been based upon the use of a split taps of the primary windings are connected. 'I'he reed arrangement or mechanical coupling of elec other terminal oi' battery I2 is connected to reeds tric contacts driven by an electromagnet. Such I4 and I9. A resistance 25 is shunted across assemblies are diflicult to manufacture and main contacts I4. I6 as an arc suppressor. tainin adjustment and have not proven entirely 30 It is obvious that vibrator magnet windings I5 satisfactory. and 20 can be connected in series, if desired.V The present invention contemplates two or In the operation of the circuit, when the bat more mechanically independent vibrator units tei-y is first connected current from the battery connected together in an electric circuit whereby passes through reed i 4 and normally-closed driv operation of one of the units will control opera 35 er contact I8 to electromagnets l5 and 20 and tion of the remainder. returns to the battery through lead 9, thereby Referring to the drawing, Figure 1 illustrates energizing the electromagnets. This initiates vi one embodiment of the invention utilizing two bration of the reeds drawing the reeds to the left vibrators for producing a, two-phase alternating as shown in Figure 1. Reed I4 closes with con current output in a three wire output circuit. 40 tact I1 to connect battery current through the The circuit comprises a driving vibrator I0 and left hand half of transformer 23 primary wind a driven vibrator II for converting low voltage ing. The swing of reed I4 to the left opens driver direct current from battery I2 into two-phase contact I6 thereby (ie-energizing the electromag high voltage alternating current in three wire nets and permitting the reeds to swing back when _ output circuit I3, I3a, I3b. Vibrator I0 com their energy has been spent. prises a vibratcry reed I4> driven by electromag On its return reed III closes with contact I8 to net I5 and having a, cooperating driver contact connect the battery to the opposite end of the I6 cooperating with it as well as two opposite side primary transformer winding thereby reversing contacts I1 and I8. The reed structure may be the current in the transformer. 'After spending similar to that shown and described in Musser 50 its energy reed I4 swings again to the left and Patent No. 2,207,300, or any other suitable struc the cycle is repeated, the continued repetition ture. generating an alternating voltage across the sec Vibrator II comprises a vibratory reed I9 driv ondary winding.v . en by electromagnet 20 which is connected in During the operation of vibrator I0 the electro parallel with magnet 'I5 oi.' vibrator `I0 and has 55 magnet 20 of vibrator II is energized in synchro andere ~ 3 nism with electromagnet l5 of vibrator im How-` ever, reed l@ is found to operate 90° out of phase with. reed lll so as to close contact 2i one fourth . run at 105 cycles per second under these condi- ' cycle before reed lß has closed contact l‘l and similarly for contact 22 with respect to contact it. This renders the output of transformer 2d 90° out of phase withthat of transformer 2S and provides the two phase output from the circuit. The 90° phase difference between the vibrators may be explained as follows: The driving vibrator being self-actuated, main tions but with a 90° phase shift. Figure aillustrates a modified circuit wherein a plurality of driven vibrators 3l, 32, 33, etc., are controlled by a single driving vibrator 30. Inthis Vcircuit driver contact 3d of vibrator 3@ controls only electromagnet ¿lû of this vibrator. The elec tromagnets all, ft2, £33, etc., of vibrators 3l, 32, 33, etc., are all connected in parallel to side contact tains a reed motion in a fixed relationship with the coil voltage. However the driven yvibrator 35 of vibrator 30 which is closed periodically dur ing the vibration of the reed. Vibrators 3l, 32 and 33 will operate in synchronism. The figure shows one circuit arrangement in which they may be utilized. _In this circuit a step-up trans having a resonant frequency greatern than the coil voltage frequency has a reed motion which » leads this coil voltage just as a current in an LC circuit will lead the applied voltage when the resonant frequency or the circuit is greater than that'of the applied voltage. Since non-sinusoidal and discontinuous waves are involved, a mathe 4 when self-actuated can be satisfactorily driven by a driving vibrator operating at a natural period of 105 cycles per second. The driven vibrator will former ¿le has a center-tapped primary ¿l5 and a center-tapped secondary llt, The center of pri 20 mary d5 is connected to a terminal of battery i2 and the two ends of this winding are connected respectively to opposite side contacts on vibrators Si, 32, and 33 in parallel. The ends of secondary In order to obtain satisfactory operation the ¿it are connected respectively to a second set of natural period of the vibrators must be taken into consideration. If driven vibrator li was to be 25 opposite side contacts on the vibrators while the center tap is connected to the high voltage output driven at various frequencies by energizing its terminal (il. Parallel operation of the threevi magnet 2t with pulsating current of varied fre brators is thereby effected to obtain high current quericies, the amplitude of the reed would in matical and quantitative analysis is for practical purposes impossible. capacity. crease as the frequency is increased up to a cer - While specific embodiments of the invention tain point, after which it would rapidly drop ofi 30 have been described, it is intended to cover the as illustrated in the curve of Figure 3 wherein invention broadly within the spirit and scope of reed amplitude is plotted versus exciting fre the appended claims. quency. The asymmetrical shape of the curve is What is claimed is: due to the presence of non-linear compliances, l. A vibrator system comprising a driving .vi magnetic forces and other factors in the struc 35 brator, a driven vibrator, and a source of electric y ture of the vibrator. current, said driving vibrator comprising a vibra tory reed and an electromagnet for driving said natural frequency, but this frequency will vary » reed, contact means operated by said reed to con somewhat with variations in voltage, tempera 40 trol the energization of said electromagnet from said current source, whereby said electromagnet ture, and other factors. Moreover, in the quan In operation of the circuits of the present in vention the driving vibrator will operate at its tity production of vibrators certain variations in frequency will be encountered with different units of the same design. Therefore, the fre quency of the driving vibrator lil will be subject to some variation. Where the curve of Figure 3 . is periodically energized at the frequency of reed vibration to maintain said reed in vibration, said driven vibrator comprising a vibratory reed and ' an electromagnet for driving said reed,_said con represents the characteristics of the driven vibra- v tor il, the use of a driving vibrator lil having a tact means of said driving vibrator also control ling the energization of said driven vibrator elec tromagnet, the natural frequencies of said driv ing and driven vibrators each varying over a frequency in range A or range D is impracticable due to the excessive input currents required in 50 range of values, the maximum natural frequency the electromagnet winding 20 in order to obtain sufficient reed amplitude in the driven vibrator. Operation in frequency range C produces un stable or unsteady operation due to the extreme variation in amplitude of the driven vibrator reed 55 with slight variations in frequency which may of said driving vibrator being less than the mini mum natural frequency of said driven vibrator but greater than the frequency at which the driven vibrator has an amplitude of response just sumcient to eiîect periodic contact closure. 2. A vibrator system comprising a driving vi brator, a driven vibrator having a higher natural frequency than said driving vibrator, a source ‘of electric current and a first and second trans 60 former, said driving vibrator comprising a reed, driving or driven vibrator. an electromagnet for driving said reed and con It is proposed, therefore, to operate in range B. occur thus resulting in what may be termed “motor boating” eñect in the operation of the vi brator due to slight shifts in the frequency of the tacts co-operating with said reed for periodically In other words, the highest natural frequency of energizing said electromagnet in synchronism the driving vibrator under varying conditions of with the vibrations of said reed and for periodi voltage, temperature and vibrator adjustment must be less than the lowest natural frequency 65 cally reversing the connection of said current source to the primary of said first transformer which the driven vibrator will have under any for generating an alternating voltage across said conditions. The .frequency of the driving vibra.s tor should, however, be greater than the fre- - transformer’s secondary, said - driven vibrator comprising a reed, an electromagnet for’driving quency at which the driven vibrator amplitude is so low as to give erratic operation of the vibrator 70 said reed energized periodically by said driving vibrator contacts in synchronism with vibrations contacts, The amplitude of the driven vibrator of said driving vibrator reed, and contacts co must exceed that which is just sufficient to e?'ect operating with said reed for periodically reversing the connection of said current source to the pri By Vway of example, a driven vibrator having a> natural frequency of 112 to 116 cycles per second 75 mary of said second transformer for generating periodici/contact closure. an alternating voltage across said transformer’s secondary. . 3. The system of claim 2 wherein said driven vibrator operates 90 degrees out of phase with said driving vibrator and one terminal of each transformer secondary winding is connected to a common output terminal, the other terminals being connected to separate output terminals, to provide a two-phase output circuit. 4. A vibrator system which comprises in com bination a driving and a driven vibrator each including a vibratory reed and a driver electro magnet. and contact means operable by the reed . of said driving vibrator to periodically and simul- f Vtaneously energize both electromagnets from a source of current substantially at the frequency of vibration of said reed and thereby maintaining both reeds in vibration, a transformer for each of said vibrators, a set of interrupter contacts for _ each of said vibrators operable by the reed there of to alternately pass current from said source in opposite directions through the primary winding of the corresponding transformer, said driving vi brator having a' lower natural frequency than said driven vibrator whereby said sets of interrupter contacts will be operated at identical frequencies of said driving vibrator to periodically and sub stantially simultaneously energize said electro 15 but with a phase difference of about 90 degrees, and a two-phase three-terminal output circuit magnets from a source of current thereby to having two of its terminals respectively connected maintain said reeds in vibration, said driving to one end or the secondary winding of said trans vibrator having a lower natural _frequency than formers and having its third terminal connected that of said driven vibrator whereby said reeds Will vibrate at identical frequencies but in out 20 to the other end of the secondary windings of said transformers. . oi-phase relation. 9. A vibratory system which comprises in com 5. A vibrator system which comprises in com bination a drivingl vibrator and a plurality of bination a driving and a driven vibrator each driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed including a vibratory reed and a driver electro f magnet, and contact means operable by the reed 25 and a driver electromagnet, driver contact means operable by the reed of said driving- vibrator1 to of said driving vibrator to periodically and simul periodically and simultaneously energize said elec taneously energize both electromagnets from a tromagnets from a source of current thereby to source of current substantially at the frequency maintain said reed in vibration, interrupter con of vibration of said reed and thereby maintain means for each of said driven vibrators syn ing both reeds in vibration, said driving vibrator 30 tact chronously operable loy the reeds thereof, and con having a lower natural frequency than said driven ductors for connecting said interrupter contact vibrator whereby said reeds will vibrate at iden tical frequencies but with a phase difference of y about 90 degrees. means in parallel thereby to control currents of increased intensity in a single circuit. Y lll. lA. vibrator system which comprises in com 6. A vibrator system which comprises in com 35 bination a driving vibrator and a plurality of bination a driving and a driven vibrator the natu driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed ral frequencies of which may vary over a range . and a driver electromagnet, contact means oper of values, each including a vibratory reed and able by the reed of said driving vibrato1` to pe a driver electromagnet, and driver contact means riodically and simultaneously energize the electro under the control of the reed of said driving 40 magnets of said driven vibrators from a source vibrator to periodically and simultaneously ener of current thereby to maintain said reeds in vi gize both electromagnets from a source of current bration, the natural frequency of said driving vi substantially at the frequency of vibration of said brator being lower than that of said driven vi reed thereby maintaining both. reeds in continu brators whereby the reeds of said driven vibrators ous vibration, said driving vibrator having a will vibrate synchronously with each other but in lower maximum natural frequency than the min out-of-phase relation with respect to the reed of imum natural frequency of said driven vibrator whereby said reeds will vibrate at identical fre i said driving vibrator, interrupter contact means for each of said drivenv vibrators, and connections quencies and the vibrations of the reed of the for electrically connecting said interrupter con driven vibrator will lead those of the ‘reed of the 50 tact means in parallel thereby to permit control driving vibrator by about 90 degrees. 7. A vibrator system which comprises in com bination a driving and a driven vibrator each including a vibratory reed and a driver electro ling substantial amounts of current in a single circuit. . l1. A vibrator system which comprises in com magnet, driver contact means operable by the 55 bination a driving vibrator and a, plurality of driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed reed of said driving vibrator to periodically and and a driver electromagnet, contact means oper simultaneously energize both electromagnets from able by the reed of said driving vibratorto pe a source of current substantially at the frequency riodically and simultaneously energize the elec of vibration of said reed and thereby maintaining tromagnets of said driven vibrators from a source both reeds in vibration, said driving vibrator 60 of current thereby to maintain their reeds in vi having a lower natural frequency vthan said bration, interrupter and rectifier contacts for each driven vibrator whereby said reeds will vibrate at of said driven vibrators synchronously operable identical frequencies but with a phase difference by the reeds thereof and respectively connected in of about 90 degrees, a transformer for each of parallel to constitute contact groups, and a trans said vibrators, interrupter contact means for each- 65 former in common for said driven vibrators having of said vibrators to control the current flowing its primary circuit energized from said source un through the primary winding of the correspond der the control of said group of interrupter con ing transformer, and connections between the tacts and having its secondary circuit controlled secondary windings of said transformers to With by said group of rectifier contacts. draw two-phase alternating current from the 70 12. A vibrator system which comprises in com system. bination a plurality of controlled vibrators of the 8. A vibratory system which comprises in com ‘ self-rectifying type; each including a vibratory bination a, driving and a driven vibrator each in reed, interrupter and rectifier contacts for said cluding a vibratory reed and a driver electromag reed, and a driver electromagnet; the interruptor n'et, driver contact means operable by the reed 75 Aand rectifier contacts of said vibrators being re eerdere spectively connected in parallel to constitute con tact groups; e step-up transformer in common for seid groups having its primary winding electrical» ly associated with 'e source of low-voltage direct current and with said group oi’ interrupter con tects und having its secondary winding electrically associated with said group of rectifier contacts end ~ en output circuit; end mesns including e. control ling Vibrator-y lnterrupter for periodically ener gifting seid driver electromagnets end «s ing seid reeds in synchronous vibration thereby producing meh-voltage direct current of substan tial. intensity in said output circuit. 13. The system of claim l2 wherein the con trolling vibretory interrupterhes e naturel fre quency ‘_ower than that of the controlled self rectifyixig vibrators.