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NQV.l l2, 1946.
comun-En c'LosuRE
Filed Dec. 30. 1941
iufm/l’. Mum
PatentedNov. 12, 1946 i
_ 2,411,012
Roger N. Wallach, Brlarclii’f Manor, N. Y., assign
or, by mesne assignments, to American Viscose
Corporation, Wn, Del., a corporation oi
Application December 30, i941, Serial No. 424,849V
10 Claims. y (Cl. 215--40)
This invention relates in general to container
closures, and in particular to a closure for con
tainers adapted to hold liquids and to correlated
improvements designed to enhance the proper
lties and extend the utility of such closures.
Closures for liquid containers, such as ‘cork
caps and compression caps, have heretofore vbeen
provided on the inside with a gasket formed of a
layer of cork, which material being resilient and ,
compressible. forms a liquid tight seal. Cork as io
a gasket material has another important prop
erty in that it is normally insoluble and does
erence should be made to the accompanying draw
ing in 'which y
Figure 1 is a cross-section view of one embodi
ment of the gasket of the invention,V ’
Figure 2 is a. side elevation in section of- a.
container closure of the screw cap type being
one embodiment of the gasket of the invention,
Figure'3 is a side elevation in section of an
other embodiment of the container closure of the
invention in which'the closure is a compression
Figure 4 is a side elevation in section of a third
not react with water, alcoholic beverages, 4fruit
embodiment of the closure of the invention.
As will be noted from the accompanying draw
to the scarcity of cork, however, many attempts 15 ing the invention is not limited to any particu
lar type of closure. The closures in which the
have been made to provide a resilient, compres
novel gasket of the present invention may be
sible gasket of other materials as a substitute for
cork, but the substitutes heretofore proposed have , employed comprise screw caps formed of metal,
glass, resins, gelatin and the like, and compres
been lacking in one or more of the essential char
2@ sion caps formed of metal, fiber-board and other
acteristics required in such gaskets.
resilient materials, as well as screw caps of the
It is a general object of the vpresent invention
type used on wide mouth bottles such as that
to provide a. gasket to replace cork in bottle
shown in Figure 4. The closures of the present
invention are adapted to be used on liquid con
Itis another object of the invention to provide
a resilient compressible gasket for Yliquid con 26 tainers of all types including bottles and cans
such as cans for beer and other alcoholic bev
tainer closures which gasket will be inert, in
juices or many other liquid materials.
soluble and non-contaminating when in contact V
erages, or for aqueous liquids of all types includ
ing fruit juices, syrups, olive oil, salad dressing,
with liquids held in the containers.
A speciiic object -oi' the invention is to provide 30 tomato juice and the like.
Referring to Figure 1, in its simplest embodi-l `
a bottle closure having a resilient, compressible,
th closure of the present inventioncom
inert gasket which is adapted-to form a liquid
prises `a gasket or cushion disposed on the inside
tight seal for the bottle.
‘ between the cap and the mouth of the bottle. This
Other objects of the invention will in part be
gasketor-cushion is formed of layer I0 formed
obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
Íßii of ñbrous material formed in whole or in part
According to the present invention, there ls
of ñbersvwhich are of a type which will swell
provided a container closure having a resilient, ' in the liquid to be held in the container to which
compressible gasket on the inside, adapted to
the closure is applied. The fibrous layer Il) may
forming a liquid tight seal, which gasket com
be a felt, paper or fabric formed in whole or in
prises a layer of nbr-ous material, some fibers 40 part of such swellable übers, but in the now pre- '
of which are adapted to swell in the liquid which
ierred embodiment, the layer I0 comprises a felt
is held in the container, and a thin ñlm of water
formed in major proportion of swellable iibers
proof but vapor permeable material extending
and in minor lproportion of potentially adhesive
over the surface of the layer which is next to
fibers, the potentially adhesive fibers being ren
the liquid, saidfllm being permeable to the vapors 45 dered adhesive at socme point in the manufacture
of the liquid held in the container, whereby
of 'the felt in order to bind the ñbers into the
the vapors which penetrate the ñlm cause the
felt. Felts of this type may be formed of a mix
ñbers to swell thus increasing the> pressure of
ture of soluble ñbers and thermoplastic. syntheticthe gasket and thus forming a liquid tight seal.
resin fibers according to the copending applica
-’I'he invention accordingly comprises an article 50 tion of Carleton S. Francis, Jr.. Serial No. 300,876
having features, .characteristics and limits as
filed October 23, 1939, in which application there
is disclosed a process of mixing together nor
hereinafter described, and the scope of the appli
cation of which will- be indicated in the claims.
mally non-adhesive 'fibers (the swellable fibers
For a more complete understanding 'of theofthe present invention) with thermoplastic syn
nature and objects of the present invention.' ref 55 thetic resin ñbers, and heating the mixture of
fibers to a temperature
tened with the appropriate organic'solvent and
cause the ñbers to adhere to each other.
heated to form a continuous surface illrxn.`
.As an alternative, the 111m -II may -be formed
at which the resin
become tacky and thereafter cooling the felt to
In the formation of the fibrous layer I0 used
in the gasket of the present invention, the swell
\ by spraying one surface of the layer III with a
solution of a illm forming. water-proof, vapor
able ñbers are obviously selected with regard to
the nature of the liquid to be held in the con
ganic solvent of a synthetic resin, or an organic
permeable material such as a solution in an` or
solvent soluble cellulose derivative, and there
after evaporating the solvent to leave a substan
the swellable fibers may comprise any hydro 10 tially continuous surface nlm.
In a third embodiment, the ñlm II may be
philic :fibrous materials as a class, such for ex
formed by taking a self-supporting continuous
ample as ñbers formed of regenerated cellulose or
foil formed of a water-proof, vapor permeable ma
cellulose~hydrate, water swelling low esterifled
terial such as a resin or cellulose derivative, and
cellulose> esters, water soluble and alkali soluble
laminating such foil to the ñbrous layer I0 by
cellulose ethers including cellulose hydroxy alkyl .
tainer. Forexample, if the liquid is water or an
_aqueous solution, including alcoholic beverages,
ethers, cellulose carboxy alkyl ,ethers, c_elluloseV
means of heat and- pressure with or without the
ether xa'nthate. cellulose xantho fatty acids, cel
use of a solvent or by the use of a suitable adhe- `
It is to be understood that the illm II may
and the like. If the liquid held in the container is 20 extend over a part or all of the under surface of
the fibrous layer I0, but in the now preferred em
an organic liquid, i. e. non-aqueous, the swell
bodiment, the film I I extends over the entire sur
able ñbers used in the gasket of the present in
lulose thiosulfonyl waterswelling synthetic resins,
and fibers vi'ormed‘of alginic acid, gelatin, casein
face ofthe layer which is exposed to the liquid.
vention may comprise any hydrophobic fibrous
but it need not extend over that portion of the
materials as a class, such for example as ñbers
formed of organic solvent-soluble cellulose esters, 25 layer I0 which is merely in contact with the glass
or metal parts of the container opening.
cellulose ethers including benzyl cellulose, natural
Referring to Figure 2, there is shown one em
and synthetic resin ilbers,- übers formed of rub
bodiment of the closure in which the gasket des-_
ber, synthetic rubber or rubber substitutes, as
ignated generally as I2, is positioned on the in
well as fibers formed of a mixture of two or more
side of a screw cap I3. When such a cap is
screwed on a container such as the bottle Il, the
of the hydrophobic- substances just mentioned.
In a now preferred embodiment of the present
invention, the ilbrous'layer I0 is' formed’of a
gasket effectively forms a liquid tight seal between
lmixture of hydrophilic ñbers and hydrophobic'
ñbers so that the closure former therewith is "
` adapted for universal use on containers 'holding
either aqueous or non-aqueous liquids, since the
the cap I 3 and the mouth of the bottle.
Referring to Figure 3, there is shown another
embodiment of the container closure in which
the closure is a compression cap, i. e. a cap having
a ñared skirt such as the caps used on bottles of
hydrophilic fibers will swell when the-'closure is
vginger ale and other vsoft drinks. In this embodi
used on aqueous liquids and the hydrophobic
ment the vgasket vI3 is disposed between the com
-ilbers will swell when used on containers for or 40 pression cap I5 and the top of the bottle Il'.
ganic liquids. Further, in this embodiment where
In the embodiment of thecap shown in Figure 3,
the ilbrous layer III is formed of a mixture of
the ñlm II of the gasket I3 need not extend over
fibers, at least one of the types of ilbers is ren
` that portion of the fibrous layer III which is solely
. dered adhesive at some point in the lmanufac
in contact with the glass top of the bottle. 'I'hat
ture of the fibrous layer so that the flbers in the
is, the nlm II extends merely over that portion
layer are bound together and fixed in position so
of the fibrous layer I0 whichvwould be in direct
that the swelling of the ñbers does not result in
contact with the liquid when the bottle is inverted.
the loss of the form of the ñbrous layer. '
In that embodiment shown in Figure 4 there is
Referring to Figure 1, the gasket of the inven
shown a metal screw cap' I6 of the type used on
'I'he gasket I3' in this em
tion also comprises on the underside, which is
' wide mouth bottles.
of suitable material laminated to the fibrous layer
I0. In one embodiment of the present invention,
bodiment is merely an annular ring disposed in
side the cap between the cap and the mouth of
the bottle I 4’. In other words, gasket I3’ is merely
a ring so that the central portion of the under
side of the metal cap is not covered by the gasket.
In this embodiment the water-proof, vapor per
the film is formed by the substantially complete
meable ñlm II' of the gasket preferably extends
coalescence of some of the ñbers of which the
layer I0 is composed. Such a ñlm may be formed
by the use of a fibrous layer I0 which compris'es
not only‘across the lower surface of the fibrous
layer I0, but also over the exposed edge of the
layer II) and also over a portion of the under side.
of the metal cap so that the layer I0 is completely
> adjacent to liquid, the ñlm II formed of a water
impervious but vapor pervious material. The .
layer. II may be a coating applied to the ilbrous
layer I0 or it may be a self-supporting illm or foil
fibers capable of being dissolved or softened by
enclosed against direct .contactvwith the liquid
heat and pressure, and then applying a suitable sol
vent to cause the fibers to form a plastic material
and i‘low into a substantially continuous iìlm. For
example, if part or all of the ñbers of the layer
Il are formed'of alkali soluble cellulose ether,
held in the container.
It is to be understood however that various
embodiments of the gasket and closure may be
made in accordance with-the principles of the
l present invention. The invention contemplates
such fibers may be moistened with dilute alkali
that the layer III may be adhesively united to the
of sumcient concentration to render the fibers
partly soluble, and the über layer is then pressed
under side of the cap either by the use of a
and heated to coagulate the dissolved cellulose 70 separate nlm of adhesive or as a result of the
ether in the form of a continuous film. If the
rendering of some of the fibrous material adhe
felt is heated on the under side only, the film
sive while the layer is held under pressure against
will form on that side preferentially. On the
the inside oi’ the cap, or as a result yof the adhesive
other hand. when layer I0 comprises organic sol
properties of the ñlm I I applied'to the upper sur
uble, thermoplastic fibers; the fibers may be mois 75 face of the layer III. It is also to be understood
a liner in the form cf a sealing gasket the body
that where the fibers ,comprising _the layer I0
are inert and insoluble, although swellable, in the
of which comprises a felted layer of regenerated`
liquid held in the container, the film I I need not
cover the endsv of the layer I0.
'The gasket of the present invention functions
in the container.
cellulose fibers which will swell in the liquid held
2. A liquid-container closure having therein
a sealing gasket comprising a, mixture of artificial
fibers,- said fibers comprising fibers which will
swell in the liquid held in the container and
other ñbers which are inert to said liquid, saidv
other fibers adhering to swellable fibers to bind»
in a manner different from that of any gasket for
containers heretofore provided in that the layer
I0 comprises fibers which are swellable in the
liquid held in the container and the film I I, which
protects the layer I0 from actual contact with the
them and fix them in position in a resilient, com
liquid, is liquid-proof but is permeable to the
pressible fibrous structure which does not suffer
vapors of the liquid held in the container. Thus
loss of form as a result of swelling of the swellable
when the closure is applied, the vapors of the
liquid in the containers will pass through the film
3. A liquid-container closure having therein a
II and swell the fibers in the layer I0 thus 15
liner in the form of a sealing> gasket the body of
increasing the pressure afforded by the gasket
which comprises a felted layer of regenerated
and thereby providing a liquid tight seal. The
cellulose fibers which ' will swell in the liquid
permeability of the film I I to the particular liquid
held in the container, the exposed surface of the
may be readily adjusted and varied as desired
fibrous material being covered with a layer of
by varying the thickness of the'film II, by vary
"liquid-,proof material which is permeable y_to the
ing the composition of the film I I, or by purposely
vapor of said liquid.
making the film II suñ‘iciently discontinuous to
4. A liquid-container closure having therein a
enable the liquid to slowly seep through the
sealing gasket comprising a mixture of artificial
Byvway of illustrating but not by way of limit 25 fibers, said Ȗbers comprising fibers which will
swell in the liquid held in the container and other
ing the present invention, thereA will be given the
fibers which are inert tc said liquid, said other
following speciñc example.
` _
fibers adhering to swellable fibers to bind` them
A felt is formed of a mixture of 50% viscose
and fix them in position in a resilient, compres
rayon fibers and 50% of fibers formed of a co
polymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride, >and 30 sible fibrous structure which does not suffer loss
of form as a result of swelling of the swellable _
fibers, and a film united to the exposed sur- ,_
the felt subjected to pressure and a temperature
~ of 250° F_, whereupon the vinyl resin fibers become
adhesive and adhere to the other fibers.
layer of fibers thus formed is then laminated on
one side to a thin film formed of a copolymer of
Vinyl acetate and vinyl halide also by the use of
heat and pressure, the thickness of the film beingl
just sufiicient to prevent the passage of liquid
but to permit the passage of substantial quantities
of water vapor‘or alcohol vapor.
The layer lso
produced is then cut into disks of suitable dimen
sions and inserted in the inside of a compression
cap, using a drop of a vinyl resin adhesive to
secure the uncoated side of the fibrous layer to
the inside of the cap. When such _a cap is applied
face cf said gasket, said film being liquid-proof
but permeable to the vapor of the liquid heldin
the container.
`5. A liquid container closure having therein a
sealing gasket comprising a resilient compressible
felt-like product formed from a mixture of pon
tentially adhesive fibers and normally non
adhesive fibers, the fibers being bonded to each \
other due to the adhesive action of the potentially
adhesive fibers, at least one of said classes of fibers
being swellable by' the liquid held‘in the container.
6. A liquid container closure in accordance
with claim 5, in which at least one of said classes » .
of vfibers is hydrophilic.
to a bottle of ginger ale or alcoholic beverage,
7. A liquid container closure in accordance with
the water vapor in the container willv pass slowly
claim 5, in which at least one of said classes of
through the vinyl resin film and cause the
fibers'is hydrophobic.
rayon fibers to swell, thus increasing the pressure
of the gasket and affording a resilient liquid tight 50 8. A liquid container closure in accordance
with claim 5 having on an exposed surface a
Since certain changes in carrying out the above . film permeable to the vapor of said liquid. ,_
9. A liquid container closure in accordance‘with
process, -and certain modifications in the article
claim 5 having on an exposed surface a film
. which embody the invention may be made with
integral with and comprising a continuous
out departing from its scope, it is intended that
coalescence of said potentially adhesive fibers.
all matter contained in the above description or
10. A liquid container closure in accordance
shown in the accompanying drawing shall be with claim 5 having united to an exposed surface
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
a preformed film permeable to the vapor of
Having described my invention, what I claim as 60 said liquid.
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A liquid-container closure having thereinl
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