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Nov. 12, 1946.
v. v. BLASUTTA
2,411,020
FLUID CQMPRESSING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 27, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet l
28
21)
33
33
'
_
INVENTOR
Vi 010;Y V. Blusu?u
ATTORNEY
Nov. 12, 1946.
v. v. BLASUTTA
2,411,020
FLUI‘D COMPRESSING APPARATUS
Filed 001;. 27,}943
Fla.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2 .
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viacYfor V. Blusu?u
'
A'ITORNEY
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Patented Nov. 12, 719246
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2,411,020
FLUID COMPRESSING APPARATUS
Victor V. Blasutta, Golum'bus, Ohio, assignor to
The Denison Engineering Company, Columbus,
Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application October 27, 1943, Serial No. 507,862
7 Claims.
1
This invention relates to pumping, compressing
and similar mechanical equipment in which cyl-.
inders containing movable pistons are employed.
In some equipment of-this general type, cyl
(Cl. 309-4) -
2
chine shown in Fig. 1, the plane of the section
‘being indicated by the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is anenlarged detail sectional view of a
portion of a piston in a cylinder showing the
sealing ring as it appears when no pressures are
inders and pistons are employed to create high
applied to the opposite ends; and
di?erentials in pressure, ‘for example, in certain
Fig. 4 is a similar view showing the sealing ring
hydraulic equipment, a piston is moved by a liquid
as it appears when pressure di?erentials exist on
under pressure to compress air for testing and
opposite ends thereof.
,
other purposes. In such instances, the liquid,
Although the present invention is applicable
10
usually oil, seeps past the piston and becomes
to any type of pump or engine employing a pis
entrained in the compressed air causing faulty
ton, the same has been illustrated as applied to
operation of some of the associated equipment.
an air compressor.
'
An object of this invention resides in the pro
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
vision of a piston so constructed as to prevent the
15 the numeral 20 designates the air compressing
seepage of ?uid from one end thereof to the
cylinder of a spark plug testing machine 2| which
other.
includes the compressing cylinder 20 in which
Another object of the invention resides in the
piston v22 is disposed for longitudinal reciprocat
provision of a piston in which compressible seal
ing movement. The lower end of the cylinder 20
ing rings may be employed, the construction of
has a conduit 23 communicating therewith, the
the piston providing for maintaining pressure dif
conduit extending from a suitable source of hy
ferentials on opposite ends of each of the sealing
draulic ?uid under pressure. Normally, the pis
rings during the movement of the piston and to
ton 22 occupies the lower end of the cylinder 20
"utilize the differential in pressure to force the
and the upper portion thereof is ?lled with air.
rings into tight engagement with the adjacent 25 When hydraulic ?uid is forced into the cylinder
walls of the cylinder and piston.
20 through the conduit 23, the piston is caused
A further object resides in the provision of a
to move upwardly and compress air in the upper
piston having spaced ring-receiving grooves and a
end of the cylinder 20. This compressed air is
passage extending from one end of the piston to
conducted by a pipe 24 to a chamber 25 where
the outside surface of the piston between the 30 it is employed to raise the pressure in the cham
ber 25 in which the electrodes of a spark plug or
grooves, check valve means being arranged in
plugs are positioned for test purposes. The pres
the passage to permit ?ow in one direction only ,
sure is built up in this manner to simulate ac
through the passage.
tual working conditions in the testing operation.
_ It is also an object of the invention to provide
a piston having a plurality of spaced ring-receiv 35 To insure an accurate test, the electrodes must
be clean and free from any foreign matter,
ing grooves for the reception of sealing and wip
therefore, to prevent the entrance of dirt, mois
ing rings and valved passage ‘means. extending
ture or other undesirable substances, the air inlet
from one end of the piston to the outer surface
tube 26 is provided with a‘?lter 21 and a drier
thereof between adjacent rings to permit ?uid
which has escaped to the space between the rings, 40 28, these members being of any well known and
satisfactory type. After the entering air has
to return to the proper section of the chamber be
passed through the ?lter 21 and drier 28, it ?ows
tween strokes of the piston and thus decrease the
through a check valve 3| disposed in the inlet
possibility of the ?uid escaping to the wrong end
tube 26 adjacent the cylinder 20. The valve 3|
of the piston.
»
Further objects and advantages of the present 45 may be of any conventional construction and is
employed to prevent the air from escaping back
invention will be apparent from the following
through the tube 26 during the compression stroke
description, reference being had to the accom
of the piston 22. As the compressed air ?ows
panying drawings wherein a preferred form of
from the cylinder 20 to the testing chamber 25,
embodiment of the invention is clearly shown.
60 it is further cleaned by passing through another
In the drawings:
?lter 32 disposed in the pipe 24. This ?lter is
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a spark plug
of such type that it will remove hydraulic ?uid
testing machine embodying the present inven
tion;
as well as other materials from the air to pre
vent fouling of the spark plugs being tested.
Fig. 2 is a detail vertical sectional view taken
through the air compressing cylinder of the ma 55 To reduce the possibiltiy of hydraulic ?uid be
3
2,411,020":
4
coming mixed with the air, the piston 22 has
been constructed in accordance with the present
invention. In this instance, the piston has been
lect between the rings. It is essential for the
proper operations 01' the sealing rings that pres
sure di?'erentials exist on opposite sides thereof.
made of a plastic composition and has been
It is, therefore, necessary to relieve the ?uid
formed to include a plurality 01' longitudinally 5 which has entered the space between the rings,
spaced circumferential grooves 38. These grooves
otherwise the pressure will build up until it sub
are formed for the reception of resilient sealing
stantially equals the pressure on the bottom of
rings 34, preferably ‘of a rubber composition,
the piston. Due to the presence or the passages
which have a substantially circular cross section.
31 and 38 and the fact that the ?uid which has
The grooves 33 are of a width su?lcient to pro 10 seeped past the rings is under pressure this ?uid
vide a limited degree 01' clearance above or below
will ?ow out of the spaces between the rings when
the rings when the piston is operatively positioned ' the ?uid pressure below the piston is reduced to
in the cylinder whereby proper sealing action
permit the piston to return to its normal position,
will result when pressure differentials exist on
opposite ends of the rings 34.
_
l5 ?cient to force valve 42 away from its seat against
thepressureoi’the?uidinthepassagesbelngsuf
As shown in Fig. 3, the rings 34 are slightly
compressed by the cylinder and piston walls when
the force exerted by the light spring 43.
In the form 01' the invention illustrated, the
piston is provided with four rings. The two in
the piston and rings are under no pressure. When
fluid under pressure is applied to one end of the
termediate rings serve as wipers to remove ex
piston, however, some or the ?uid ?ows between 20 cess oil from the cylinder walls and return it to
the adjacent piston and cylinder walls and into
the groove 33 where it acts upon the end ofv the:
ring 34 and forces it into ?rm engagement with“
one side wall of the groove 33. Due to this forcible
engagement, the sides of the ring 34 will be ex 25
panded into ?uid tight engagement with the cyl
inder and piston wall, as shown in Fig. 4 to pre
the body of the hydraulic ?uid beneath the pis
ton. It is obvious that more rings could be em
ployed if desired or that the wiping rings-could
be omitted without seriously a?'ecting the op
eration of the device.
,
While the form of embodiment of the present
invention as herein disclosed constitutes a pre
vent ?uid from passing the piston. Due to faulty
ferred Iorm,~it is to be understood that other
construction, prolonged periods of operation, wear
forms might be adopted, all coming within the
and other causes, leakage sometimes develops 30 scope of the claims which follow.
and ?uid escapes to the space between adjacent
I claim:
'
rings. The pressure of this ?uid builds up until
,1. Fluid compressing apparatus comprising, in
it is equal on opposite ends of the rings at which
combination, a cylinder; a piston movable in said
time the rings will not seal properly. ‘ 'Ihe con
cylinder, said piston having three annular grooves
struction about to be described has been adopted 35 in the outer side wall thereof; sealing means in
to vent the space between the rings and avoid
the outermost grooves engaging the interior- wall
the‘ accumulation of ?uid therein.
of the cylinder; wiping means in the intermediate
Between adjacent grooves 33, the exterior wall
groove engaging the interior wall of the cylinder;
of the piston is relieved as at 35 to provide an
said piston forming passages extending to the
nular spaces 36 between the piston and cylinder 40 side wall between adjacent grooves and forming a
walls. Laterally extending branch passages 3‘!
common passage connected with the ?rst men
connect the spaces 36 with a trunk passage 38
tioned passages and leading to one end of the
which extends into the piston 22 from the lower
cylinder; and valve means in the common passage.
end. Below the lowermost branch passage 31, the
2. Fluid compressing apparatus comprising, in
trunk passage 3' is provided with a valve seat 4! 45 combination, a cylinder; a piston movable in said
with which a ball valve 42 is normally adapted to
cylinder, said piston having a plurality of an
engage, a compression spring 43 being employed
nular grooves in the outer side wall thereof; seal
to urge the ball 42 toward the seat 4|. The
ing means in the outermost grooves and engaging
spring 43 is disposed within the counterbored
the inner wall of said cylinder; wiping means in
portion 44 of a plug 45 which is threaded into the 50 an intermediate groove for engaging the inner
lower end or the passage 38. An opening 48
wall of said cylinder; said piston having pas
extends through the lower end of the plug 45 to
sages extending to the side wall between adjacent
permit communication between the space in the
grooves and a common passage connected with
cylinder 20 below the piston and the passage 38.
the ?rst-mentioned passages and leading to one
Accidental removal of the plug 45 is precluded 55 end of the cylinder; and valvemeans in the com
by a set screw 41 which is threaded into the side
mon passage between the end of the piston and' '
of the piston as at 48. This set screw 4'! serves
the point of connection of the ?rst passage there
to press a relatively soft slug 5| against the
with.
threads of the plug 45 and thus prevent rotation
3. A piston comprising, in combination, a cylin
thereof as well as injury to its threads. The set 60 drical body having one end for compressing a ?uid
screw" is prevented from backing out of the ‘
piston and scoring the cylinder wall by a plug 52
formed from the same plastic material as the
piston and inserted in the outer end of the hole
for the set screw.
When the hydraulic ?uid under pressure is in
troduced into the cylinder 20 beneath the piston
22, the ?uid will engage the lowermost ring 34
and compress the same into sealing engagement
with the walls of the cylinder and piston. The
pressure of the ?uid on the bottom of the piston
22 causes it to move upward and compress the
air in the cylinder above the piston. During
these compressing operations, the hydraulic ?uid
has‘a tendency to seep past the ?rst ring and col
and the other end for engagement by a motivating
force, said body having longitudinally spaced an
nular grooves formed in the outer side wall there- '
of; compressible sealing rings disposed in said
05 grooves: said body having passage means extend
ing from the outer side wall between said rings to
.the end formed for engagement by the motivating
force ; and valve means in said passage for pre
venting ?uid ?ow into said passage from said
10 last-mentioned end of said piston.
4. A piston comprising, in combination, a cylin
drical body having one end for compressing a ?uid
and the other end for engagement by a motivating
force, said body having longitudinally spaced an
75 nular grooves formed in the outer side wall there
2,411,020
6
of ; endless rubber-like rings having circular cross
sections disposed in said grooves, said body hav
ing passage means extending from the outer side
wall between said rings to the end formed for
engagement by the motivating force; and valve
means in said passage for preventing ?uid ?ow
into said passage from said last-mentioned end of
eii'ect the compression of another ?uid at the op
' posite end comprising a body having a plurality of
grooves in the outer side wall thereof; compres
sible sealing rings disposed in said grooves; pas
sage means extending into said piston from the
end'exposed to the ?uid pressure and terminating
at the outer side wall between said rings; and,
check valve means in said passage means, said
valve means permitting ?uid ?ow only in the
5. Piston means in a cylinder formed for the
reception ofv a substantially non-compressible 10 direction from between said rings to the end of the
cylinder receiving the ?uid pressure.
?uid under pressure at one end to effect the com
7. A piston in a cylinder formed to receive a
pression of another ?uid at the opposite end com
motivating ?uid in one end to compress a ?uid in
prising a body having a plurality of grooves in the
said piston.
~
-
the otherend comprising a body having spaced
outer side wall thereof; compressible sealing rings
disposed in said grooves; a passage extending 15 grooves in the outer side wall thereof; compres
sible sealing rings disposed in said grooves; a
into said body from the end exposed to the non.
passage in said body extending from the end ex
compressible ?uid;_ a branch passage extending
posed to said motivating ?uid to the space be
‘from said ?rst-mentioned passage to the outer
tween said grooves; and valve means for pre
side wall between said grooves; and, a check valve
in said ?rst passage to permit ?uid ?ow only 20 venting the ?ow of motivating ?uid into said pas
sage from the end of the cylinder receiving the
from between said grooves to the end of the cyl
inder receiving said non-compressible ?uid.- g‘
‘ same.
6. Piston means in ‘a cylinder formed for the
reception 01’ a ?uid under pressure at one end to
VICTOR V. BLASU'I'I‘A.
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