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Nov. l2, 1946.
2,41 1,042
Filed Sept. 16, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Nov. l2, 1946.
2,41 1,042
Filed Sept. 16, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Nov. 12, 1946.
2,41 1 ,042
Filed Sept. 16, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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"Patented Nov. 12, 1946
William N. King, Nicholas A. Romanchuk, and
Wilbert H. Ward, Anoka., Minn., assignors to
Federal Cartridge Corporation, Minneapolis,
Minn., a corporation of Minnesota
Application September 16, 1944, Serial No. 554,508
10 Claims. (Cl. 91--13)
This invention relates to an automatic, large
prises a relatively long narrow horizontal frame
capacity apparatus for finishing impregnated pa
per articles and is especially adapted for the
ñnishing of shotgun shells, mortar shells and
generally designated l0 which may conveniently
be of wood or metal comprising a number of
the like. As usually constructed such shells are
-fabricated from a parailin impregnated paper
tube having a suitably shaped brass or other
metal cup or base pressed thereon. Shells of
this‘ character have limited waterproofness and
a relatively poor finish. In the copending ap 1n
bents lI-20 of varying sizes, depending upon
the apparatus supported at the several stations
in the treating machine. The bents are held
together by horizontal stringers 2i and 22 about
mid-way between the top and the bottom and
top plates 23 and 24 and 25 and 26.
The article-treating machine includes a con
plication of William N. King, Ser. No. 550,667,
_ veyor chain generally designated 30 which is
filed August 22, 1944, there are disclosed methods
and simple manual apparatus for better ñnish
ing and waterproofing paper shells.
It is an object of the present invention to
provide an apparatus for accomplishing this op
eration of iinishing impregnated paper articles
of manufacture, and particularly to provide a
guided by a series `of sprockets 3I---43 and
3 l '-43' through a series of treating stations and
sections including a loading station 45, a solvent
dewaxing section 46, a solventl evaporation sec
tion 41, a lacquering section 48, a wiper section
49, and a plurality of drying sections 5il---5i and
finally a discharge station 52.4 These stations
large capacity apparatus of such capabilities.
and sections are described in greater detail here
It is a further object of the invention to provide 20 inafter.
an apparatus for the finishing of paramn wax
'I'he conveyor mechanism comprises a pair of
impregnated paper shotgun shells, mortar shells
spaced chain links 30a and 30b that are joined
and the like in one automatic continuous opera
together by parallel hanger bars 30e, as shown
in Figures 8 and 9. The construction of the
Other and further objects are those inherent 25 hanger bars is such as readily to carry the articles
in the apparatus herein illustrated, described
undergoing treatment. The apparatus of -the
and claimed.
present invention is especially adapted for the
The invention is illustrated in the drawings
treatment of shotgun shells, mortar shells, and
wherein the same parts have the same numbers,
the like, and the invention will therefore be de
30 scribed with reference to this adaptation. For
and wherein
Figures la and 1b, taken together, are a side
the carrying of shotgun shells. mortar shells and
elevational view, partly in section, of the appara
the like, the opposite chain links 30a and 30h
tus of the present invention, and Figures 2a andvare joined together by a hanger bar 30e which
2b, taken together, are a plan view with the top
is provided with a plurality of holes 30d of suit
cover portions removed. The apparatus is long 35 able gauge for handling the particular- shells
as compared to its width and height and two
undergoing treatment. Thus, for 12 gauge shells
sheets of drawings are therefore employed to
the holes 30d are such as to permit the body of
illustrate these side and top views. The draw
the shells readily to pass through the holes 30d,
ings should be set end to end, with the sheet
but they are sufficiently small so that the rim
containing Figures 1a and 2a thereon to the right;` 40 of the shell S, Figure 9, rests on the upper sur
of the sheet containing Figures 1b and 2b.
face of the plate 30e andr allows the shell to
Figures 3, 4, 5, 6 and 'l are sectional views
hang downwardly therefrom. 'I'he shell cup
which is usually of brass is terminated at 53,
of Figures la and 1b, respectively. Figure 3
Figure 9, the lower part of the shell being the
shows the loading station; Figure 4 shows in its
standard paraffin impregnated paper portion 54.
upper part the solvent dewaxing section and in
It will be noted that the hanger plates 30e are
its lower part the discharge station; Figure 5
spaced downwardly from the chain links 30a
shows the lacuuering section; Figure 6 shows the
and 30h by means of a spacing collar 30g, the
wiping section; and Figure 'I shows the drying
hanger plates 30e being fastened permanently
50 to the chain links by means of rivets 30e which
Figures 8 and 9 are enlarged detaired plan and
pass through the side ears 30j of the chain links,
side views, respectively, of one of the shell
thence through the spacing collars 30g' and the
carrying links of the conveyor chain used inthe
hanger plate 30e and nnally are riveted to .the
bottom. Every chain link in the conveyor is
Referring to the drawings the apparatus com- 55 provided with a hanger plate 30e and therefore
the composite chain presents a relatively solid
surface having a large number of properly gauged
extends only to the level of line 16', the remain~
ing portion of the side wall below that line being
holes therein into which an operator feeding the
not jacketed and hence not cooled. The bottom
of the solvent dewaxing section forms a pan,"as
chains 30a and 30h are represented by the single
lines in Figures 2a and 2b, but it will be under
indicated at 16 in which there is placed a solvent
capable of dissolving the impregnating medium of
machine may readily place the shells.
stood that the conveyor is composed of a series
the shotgun shells. The_solvent is chosen so as
of units like that shown in Figure 8.
to dissolve the impregnating material. Parañln
At the loading station 45 there is provided a
is most frequently used as the paper impregnating
table surface formed by the plates 23 and 24 10 medium in` shotgun shells and suitable solvents for
which serve on their spaced inner edges to support
paraflin- capable of being used in the present ap
angle iron rails 55 and 56, as illustrated in Figure
paratusare carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene,
3. The links of the chain 36a slide along the
tetrachlorethylene, benzene, hexane, and the
horizontal surface of the rail 55 whereas those
like. In order to boil and evaporate the solvent in
of the chain 30h slide' along the rail 56. As the 15 the pan 16, there is provided a heater coil 18
chains carrying the hanger plates 36e come up
which has- an inlet pipe 19 and an outlet pipe 80,
around sprocket 3I---3I', Figure la, the operator
which may, if desired, be suitably controlled by a
drops shells S into the holes, preferably ñlling
thermostatic valve not illustrated. An electric
every hole in the conveyor mechanism.
heater with automatic temperature control may
It might be noted that in most instances each 20 also be used if desired. A sufllcient heater surface
set of sprocket wheels for guiding the conveyor
is provided so that the solvent is boiled and the
chain is carried on and keyed to a shaft extend
solvent vapors rise into contact with the shells S
ing across the machine, and the sprocket wheels
which are suspended along the path of travel 51
of each set thus tend to keep one side of the chain
a short distance above the level of the Iboiling sol
- from traveling faster than the other side and 25 vent in the pan 16.
thus prevent the hanger plates 30 from being
The solvent rising into contact with the rela
pulled askew. There are a few instances where
tively cool shells entering the 'solvent dewaxing
in the sprocket wheels are not mounted upon a
section condenses upon the surface of the shells
single shaft, for example sprockets 38-38’,
and dissolves the Wax in the surface layers of the
39-39’ where it is desired to allow free space be 30 paper of the shell. 'I’he solvent flows back into
low the sprockets >for the dripping of the lacquer
the pan 16 carrying the wax with it where the
from the shells.
solvent is again evaporated and again flows into
From the loading station 45 the chain conveyor
contact with the shells passing through the sol
passes over the sprocket wheels 32-32' and thence
vent dewaxing section. The condensation of sol»
downwardly along the slope 56 and under the 35 vent and accompanying dewaxing function con
sprocket wheels 33-33’ and along the ho-rizontal
tinues until the shell has been heated by the hot
traverse 51, under the sprocket wheels 34-34’,
solvent vapors to a temperature equal to the ternthence upwardly at 58 and over sprockets 35-35'
perature of the vapors, whereupon condensation
and along the upper horizontal traverse 59 to
substantially ceases. The rate of travel through
sprockets 36-36’.
40 the solvent dewaxing section is usually suillcient
The »solvent dewaxing section 46 and the solvent
however that theshells continue to condense sol»
drying section 41 are preferably made as a uni
vent thereon during the entire period within this
tary tank that is supported upon bents I3, I4 and
I5. The side Walls of both sections terminate
-.The relatively closely spaced hanger plates 30o
at the upper line 62. 'I'he solvent dewaxing sec
tion has a bottom at 63 and end walls 64 and 65.
form a surface which serves to stop a considerable
amount of vapors from rising much above the
level of the hanger plates 30e but any vapors
which do rise above this point are promptly con
The end wall 65 is blended into the insulated wall
66 and thence continues as bottom 61 of the sol
vent evaporation section which has a little slope
densed‘by the cold water-jacketed Walls 10, 1I
as indicated, downwardly from wall 68 to the d_rain 50 and 12. In this Way the solvent is conserved
tube. The drain tube 69 permits condensed sol
andv contamination of air about the machine is
vent which collects on the cold walls of the sol-`
vent evaporation section to drain back into the
pan of the solvent dewaxing section. The side
Walls of both sections are water jacketed as indi
cated, Figure 4, wherein the water jackets are
designated 10 and 1 I. The water jacket 10 which
vextends along the wall of the solvent evaporation
. minimized. If desired, an exhaust fan having in
lets in the region 8l and 82 may Ibe providedAfter having been dewaxed in section 46 the
conveyor chain carries the shells upwardly and
along the horizontal traverse 59 through the
residual solvent evaporation section. In this sec»
tion the shells which have been heated by the hot
and solvent dewaxing sections, is carried around
solvent vapors cause any .residual solvent on the '
the end at 12. A cold water inlet pipe 14, FigureA 60 shell to be evaporated and the solvent is promptly
i 2a, is provided intothe side wall 10 at a low level
condensed by the cold water-jacketed side walls
and the water flows thence through the water
10 and 1I of this section. The condensed solvent
jacket 10 along the solvent evaporation section
collects on the inclined bottom 61 of this section
and the solvent dewaxing section through the
and is drained via pipe 69 into the solvent pan
water- jacket 12 around the end of the solvent de 65 16 in section 46.
waxing section, thence through the Water jacket
After passing through the solvent evaporation
1I along the opposite wall of the solvent dewaxing
section the conveyor passes downwardly as indi
and solvent evaporation sections to an outlet pipe
cated at 84 and under the sprockets 31-31' andl
15, Figure 2a, located near the top of the water
thence up the gradual slope 85, over sprockets
jacket 1I in the solvent evaporation section. In 70 38-38’ and along the nearly horizontal slope 86
this manner the side walls of the solvent dewax
ing and solvent evaporation sections are main
tained very cool for the purpose of condensing
any rising solvent vapors.
and over sprockets 39-39’ onto the guide rails
81-88. As the conveyor passes down so as to go
under sprockets 31-31' the shells are brought to ‘
a suiiîciently low point so that the bath of lacquer
In the solvent dewaxing section the Water jacket 75 L in pan' 90 coats the shells to a level slightly
higher than the lower margin of the brass portion
of the shell, thus covering the entire paper side
wall and end portions of the shell, as well as the
lower margin of the brass. '
The lacquering section is shown in sectional
view in Figure 5, the lacquer pan being illustrated
at 90. The depth of lacquer L in the pan 90 is
maintained by a stand pipe 9| in the side well 92.
The stand pipe 9| is screw threaded at 93 into
the nipple 94 and the bottom of the nipple 94
is closed by a cap 95 which is gasketed at 95. Ii.'
desired, a valve may be placed .on the `bottom of
pulleys on the belt drive |22, any desired conveyor
speed „may be achieved.
From the drive sprockets 40-40' the conveyor
chain passe-s downwardly along the guide plate
|25Vwhich extends downwardly along the slope
|25 and thence horizontally at |21 through the `
drying section 5|. The drying section Ill is heat
lacquer L and by substituting stand pipes with
ed by steam pipes or other heating means |28
which is controlled by a valve |29. The guide
plate |25 Iis as wide >as the entire conveyor` chain
and hanger plates and supports the conveyor
chain and the shells in the plates 30e by permit
ting the shells to slide along with their heads in
contact with the guide plate |25. The shells are
thus held in the holes in hanger plates 30e from
holes at different levels, any desired level may
be maintained in the lacquer pan 90 so as to ac
which they would otherwise drop. The guide
plate |25 extends throughout the drying section
commodate different shells. The lacquer may be
5| and thence through an opening |30 in wall
the‘nipple 94. The stand pipe 9| is provided with
a hole 91 which ’ determines the level of the
introduced into the well by means of a pipe 98
I3I, under the wiper section 49 and lacquering
provided with a control valve 99 and the excess 20 section 48 and is -terminated at lip |35 underthe
lacquer drained off by removal of cap 95.
` On the down slope 84 of the conveyor chain,
Figure 1a, some shells occasionally have a tend
ency to lift up a slight amount from the hanger '
plates 30e, and to insure each shell being iirmly 4
in place in the hanger plate and thus insure
lacquering to a uniform level, there is provided
solvent drying section, see`Figure la. _At this
point there is provided another section of heavy
pipe |36 suspended on the hanger |31 to insure
the shells S being knocked out of the hanger
plates 30e at'this point, if they shouldl tend to
stick. The shells fall into the discharge trough
|38 at the discharge station 52, the trough .being
a short length of heavy pipe |0| which is sus
slanted as illustrated in Figure 4 so that the shells
pended on a hanger bar |02. The pipe |0| is
slide downwardly to inspection and packing de
adjusted so that it is slightly out of contact with 30 partments located at a level below the apparatus
a shell head that is properly seated in the hanger
here illustrated.
plates 30e, but if any shell works up it is promptly
pushed back by the pipe |0I.
The entire apparatus of the present invention
is enclosed along its side walls and is provided
As the conveyor chain passes under the sprocket
with a cover |40 which is preferably made in easily
31-31' and over sprockets 38-38' and sprockets 35 handled sections and heldin place by cleats |4I, v
‘S9-39', the shells are lifted out of the lacquer
as indicated in Figures 4-7. The cover |40 ex
bath and the excess lacquer drips_downwardly to
tends from the loading station, thence clown and
the bottom of the shell and onto the drain slope
across the solvent dewaxing section, entirely
|04, whence the drained lacquer returns to the
along the apparatus to the drying section, but
main body of lacquer L in the pan 90. After the 40 is interrupted at |43, Figure 1b, so as to allow a
shells have thus drained small drops oflacquer
space |44 through which a controlled amount
form at the lower edge, and to remove them the
of air may be admitted into the drying appa
Wiper 49 is provided. Thus when the conveyor
ratus. A small adjustable cover at |45 is iltted
has begun its traverse along the rails 81--88 the
so as to vary the size of opening |43, so as more
shells initially pass in contact with the wiper 45 readily to adjust the in-flow of air at this point.
Recirculation of dryingl air through the dry
roller |05 which rotates on shaft |05 in a small
pan |01 containing a lacquer solvent LS'. 'I'he
ing sections 50 and 5| is provided by :a blower
roller |05 is preferably made of brush bristles
mechanism |50 having an inlet pipe |5| extend
closely set together and is adjusted so that the
ing across the apparatus as indicated at |52. The
bottom edges of the shells rotate into contact 50 pipe |52 is open to section 50 _and serves to With
with it, thus causing the roller to rotate continu
draw the drying air from drying section 50, as
ously in the lacquer solvent. In this way fresh
indicated by arrow |53. The wall |54 at the
lacquer solvent is continuously brought up by the
wiper section is carried up to a position very
bristles into contact with the oncoming shells.
close to the bottom of the shells S at this point
The action of brush |05 is to remove the droplets 55 so as to wall off as much as possible the ñow of
vapors from the lacquering and wiper sections
of lacquer which collect on the bottom of the
into the drying section. The suction optionally
applied at 8| or 82 may also be relied upon tor
From the wiper section 49 the shells pass into
balance the negative pressure at |54 and thus
the ñrst part 50 of the drying section Where they
are heated by the heating coils ||0 which are 60 prevent too much solvent vapor from being drawn
into the drying section. The outlet from* blower
preferably steam- heated, the amount of heat
|50 is by way oi' pipe |55 which delivers to port
being controlled by valve |I|. Electrical heaters
|51 into the drying section 5I where the air dis
or infra-red ray lamps may also be used. The
tributes by way of yarrows |58 and |59. The air
shells are gradually-heated in this section so as
not .to cause blistering. At | I2 the conveyor chain 65 is under pressure in the drying section 5| and
hence some air escapes, as shown by arrow |60 ,
leaves the rails 81--88 and passes onto the large
through the outlet hole '|30 in wall |3| through
drive sprocket wheels 40 and 40' that are mounted
on shaft | I4 which is in turn journaled upon the `
which the dried shells also pass on their way to
the delivery station. The air moving along the
angle iron framework I I5. The shaft ||4 extends
through the side Wall of the apparatus and is 70 path of arrow |59 in the drying section 5| con
provided with a drive sprocket |I1 that is driven
tinues up around baille |62 as shown by the ar
through chain | I8 by the pinion |20 on the reduc
row |63 and there joins incoming air which has
tion gear box |2|. 'I'he reduction gear is pro
entered through port I 44 as indicated by arrow
|54 and is drawn horizontally through drying
pelled by'a belt drive |22 from the motor |23.
By changing the ratio of the large and small 75 section 50 along the path of arrow |55, and
, 7`
thence into the inlet |52 of the blower as'shown
by arrow |53.
liquid solvent, said vessel being provided with
side walls having cooling means thereon, said
side walls extending upwardly around said pan,
A negative pressure exists at
opening v|44 and by controlling the vent plate
|45 at this point, a controlled amount of freshair can be introduced.
If desired, a lacquer` va
por exhaust fan may be provided' and the inlet
thereto connected to the space under the wiper
section as indicated by the port |66 so as to draw
off and exhaust to atmosphere the vapors at
this point and prevent them from spreading 10
throughout the under side ofthe apparatus. The
long traverse of the dried shells under the lac
quering section to the discharge station permits
adequate cooling and hardening of the lacquered
shells prior to discharge.
The apparatus of the present invention makes
possible the application of lacquers, paints or
waxes to impregnated articles, 'such as shotgun
shells, under controlled conditions and insures
high output of uniformly treated articles.
As many apparently4 widely different embodi
ments of this invention may be made without de
heater means in the pan-like bottom of said ves
sel, a flexible conveyor having shotgun shell sus
pending hangers thereon and means for guiding
said conveyor chain along a substantially hori
zontal path located so that shotgun shells sus
pended by the hangers are slightly above the
solvent liquid level of the pan.
6. The apparatusV of claim 5 further charac
terized in that a trough-like residual solvent
' evaporating chamber is joined to the end of the
trough-like vessel, at the end towards which the
conveyor chain moves, said chamber also being
provided with means for cooling the walls there
of, the bottom of said chamber being at a level
above and drained to the pan of said trough-like
vessel, and means for supporting the chain for
20> guiding it through said chamber.
7. An apparatus for lacquering tubular shells
comprising means for suspending said shells and
parting from the spirit and scope thereof, it is
.for conveying the thus suspended shells, means f
to be understood that we do not limit ourselves
for applying a dryable lacquer .to the shells as
to the specific embodiments herein except as de 25 they are conveyed, and means for brushing the
ñned by the appended claims.
downwardly extending ends of the shells as they
' What we claim is:
are conveyed to remove drops of dryable lacquer
forming thereon, said means comprising a brush
paraffin wax impregnated paper components of
carrying a solvent for the dryable lacquer.
shotgun shells and the like comprising an elon V30
8. An apparatus for the automatic finishing
gated enclosure, a conveyor mounted for travel
,of impregnated articles which comprises a car
l. An apparatus for surface finishing the
from a loading station at one end of said en
closure, thence along the top of said enclosure
rier for said articles movable along a path of
travel, a. loading station at one point'ìin the path
and back along the bottom of said enclosure and
of travel of said carrier, a first enclosure around
return to said loading station, means for solvent
a further portion of the path of travel of said
vapor dewaxing the/shells and for evaporation of
carrier after it leaves the loading station, said
residual solvent froîn the shells, means for coat
enclosure containing a solvent for the impreg
ing the shells with a dryable liquid coating ma
nating material in said articles undergoing treat
terial arranged along the top of said enclosure,
ment and means for vaporizing said solvent, said
and r?íeans in said enclosure for' heating the 40 enclosure
forming a zone for coniining hot va
shells to dry the liquid coating thereon and for
means for guiding the carrier
then discharging the shells from the conveyor.
and the articles thereon through said zone for
- ,2. The apparatus of claim l wherein the means
removal of said impregnating material from the
für heating the shells to dry the 1iqu1d coating
surface of the articles by condensation of the
includes a multiple part tunnel in said enclosure,
thereon, means for cooling a portion of
heating means therein, air recirculating means
said enclosure in said vapor zone and further
along the path of travel of said carrier for con
densing vapors from the residue of solvent on
other tunnel pant and said tunnel being provid
ed with an opening for introducing a controlled 50 said articles, a second enclosure further along
the path of travel of said carrier, a tank in said
amount of fresh air into the recirculated air
second enclosure for containing a dryable water
stream at one place while a corresponding A
proof finish, means for guiding the articles on
amount of air is exhausted during recirculation.
said carrier into the finish in said tank for ap
3. The apparatus of claim l further charac
terized in thatthe loading station, the means for 55 plying said finish to the surface of the articles,
means for heating a portion of said second en
solvent vapor dewaxing and evaporation of re
closure for drying the waterproof ñnish -applied
sidual solvent thereon, the means for coating the
to said articles and a discharge station further
shells are all located along the upper part of the
along the path of travel ofsaid carrier for dis
elongated enclosure and the means for heating
the shells is located partially in the upper part 60 charging the articles therefrom.
9. An apparatus for the automatic surface iin
and partially in the lower part of said enclosure.`>
¿ishingA of wax impregnated paper articles such
4. The apparatus of claim 1 further character
as the tubular paper portions of shotgun shells
ized in that th‘e conveyor includes a pair of spaced
an elongated vessel having a depres
link chains mounted for movement in parallel,
oppositely located links of said chain being con 65 sion along a portion thereof for containing a
solvent and a drain sheet extending outwardly
nected together with plates having holes therein
from one end of said depression, connected to the
for hanging shells downwardly therethrough at
vat so as to drain thereinto, heating means for
the loading station, the shells being thus sus
including means for withdrawing air from one
tunnel part and for introducing said air into the
pended while passing through the means for
solvent vapor dewaxing and4 evaporation of sol 70
vent, and while passing -through the means for
coating the shells with a dryable liquid.
said vat, upwardly extending walls around the
vat and drain sheet, cooling means for said walls,
a conveyor having means thereon for holding the
articles being treated, means for guiding" the
conveyor past ¿a loading station and then down
5. In an apparatus for surface finishing shot
wardly into the vessel and over the depression
gun shells and the like, a trough-like vessel hav
through hot solvent vapors arising from solvent
ing a pan bottom for containing an evaporable 76 in said depression, then over lthe drain sheet and
then out from between said walls, a. lacquer vat
and means for guiding the conveyor downwardly
to a position to bring the articles being treated,
while still hot from the solvent vapors, into lac
quer in said vat and then out of said lacquer
for drainage and drying.
articles being treated* and conveying them thus
suspended through said enclosure, means for ap
plying a dryable lacquer to the articles as they
are conveyed, means for brushing the downward
ly extending ends of the articles as they are con- -
veyed to remove drops of dryable lacquer form
10. A lacquering apparatus comprising an en
ing thereon, said means for brushing comprising
closure containing a solvent and forming a'zone
a brush carrying a solvent for the dryable lac
for conñning hot vapors of said solvent, said en
closure including a deep trough having a bottom 10
pan and upwardly extending walls, means for
cooling said walls, means for suspending the
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