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Nov. 12, 1946.
2,41 L052
Filed Sept. 21, 1945
8 Sheets-Sheet l
Stet-ling A. Oakleg,
b JV
S “Attorney
Nov. 12, 1946.
2,41 1,052
Filed Sept. ‘21, 1945
8 Sheets-Sheet 2
Inv ehto 1
St, er I i ng
A. Oakleg,
by My 6? ,JM/M
H is
Nov. 12, 1946.
2,41 1,052
Filed Sept. 21, 1943
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
.\ \ \ .,w
$be~r~ling A. Oaklega“
His Attornerg.
NOV. 12, 1946.
Filed Sept. 21, 1943
8 Sheets-Sheet 4
Sterling A. Oakleg
His Attorney.
Nov.'12, 1946.
Filed Sept. 21, 1943
8 Sheets-Sheet 5
Stew-ling A. Oakle'g.
Nov. 12, 1946.
' 2,41 1,052
“Filed Sept. 21'; 1945
8 Sheets-Sheet 6
Stevling A. Oakleg,
‘His A‘bbor'ne?.
‘ NW; 12, 1946-
Y T'Filed Sept. 21, 1945
a Sheets-Sheet 7
~' ,
In ven’oor- ;
?sher I ing A. OakleH ,
/ b5 yélmymwlw
His Attorneg.
Nov.- 12, 1946.
Filed Sept; 21,1943 ‘
a Sheets-Sheet a
. :.| . _.7
Stew-ling‘ A. Oakleg.
H is Abbor-neg .
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
1 Sterling A. Oakley, Lincolnwood, Ill., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Ex-Cell-O Corporation,
a corporation of Michigan
Application September 21, 1943, Serial No. 503,215
"2 Claims. I ion. 51-55)
This invention relates to grinding apparatus,
more particularly to apparatus for grinding tools
that are formed of extremely hard materials such
as tungsten carbide, and ‘it has for its ‘object
the provision of improved apparatus of this char- '
pneumatic motor is connected to the tool holder
‘for operating it to the working position wherein
the tool is applied to the grinding surface. Suit
able biasing means, such as a spring, also is
connected to the holder in order to return it to
its non-working position. An improved control
including valve means is provided for controlling
In the grinding of tools formed of such hard
’ metals su?icient pressure must be applied to the
tool on the grinding wheel in prder to grind _
the admission of ?uid to and the exhaust of ?uid
from the ?uid motor to control the operation of
effectively, but not so much pressure that the tool 10 the tool holder to and from the working position,
tip will be overheated and thermally cracked;
the control {means including ?uid ?ow regulating
and that the tool be moved across the wheel to .
means, whereby the tool pressure to the wheel
initially is gradually built up, and after grinding
avoid localized overheating to distribute wear
on the wheel, and to obtain a good ?nished prod- '
uce—one entirely free from grinding marks; '
moreover, it is necessary to grind such tools at
is gradually released in the afore-mentioned man
much closer angles than is the normal practice
‘the tool exactly the required full grinding pres
. Also, the ?uid is controlled so as to apply to
with high-speed tool steels if they are to operate
at maximum ei?ciency and also to insure maxi- _‘
In addition; the control includes a suitable time
mum life between grinds.
20 element mechanism which initiates the opera
This invention contemplates tothe provision of
tion of the ?uid motor to move the tool holder
improved grinding apparatus wherein these re
' to the working position and which holds it in the
quirements are obtained in a simple, reliable and
working position for alpredetermined time in
ef?cient manner.
In accordance with this invention in one form " 25~ For a more complete understanding of this
thereof, the grinding apparatus comprises a sup
invention, reference should be had to the accom
port upon which a grinding wheel is mounted for
panying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a front eleva
rotary motion. Also, mounted on the support is
tion of grinding apparatus embodying this in
a suitable motor for driving the wheel. A ratio
vention, parts being broken away so as to‘illus
motor is provided to oscillate the support while 30 trate certain details of construction; Fig. 2 is a
the grinding wheel is, being rotated so that the
grinding wheel is given a combined rotary and
oscillatory motion with reference to the tool
whereby the tool. is moved relatively across the
top plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1,
parts being shown in section so as to illustrate
certain details of construction; Fig. 3 is a frag
mentary rear elevation view with parts broken
In addition to this, improved means are pro—
away and parts shown in section so as to illustrate
, certain details of construction, the view being
vided for holding the tool, which is quite ?exible
made to a larger scale than Figs. 1 and 2; Fig. 4
wheel as it is being ground.
' 35
so that the tool can be adjusted universally with
is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing certain
reference to the wheel whereby it is held in
elements thereof in different operative positions;
exactly the proper position for grinding. "
40 Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view taken through
Furthermore, improved means are provided for
the apparatus of Fig. 1, parts being shown in
controlling the application of the tool to and
section so as toillustrate certain details of con
from the grinding surface of the wheel. ‘The
struction, the view being drawn to a larger scale
control is such that the tool surface is ?rst ap
than Fig. 1; Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view
plied to the wheel and then the pressure of ap 45 taken through a portion of the mechanism shown
in Fig.5; Fig. 7 is a perspective diagrammatic
plication of the tool to the wheel is gradually
built up to the full grinding pressure. This is
view illustrating ?uid motors for controlling the
done in order to eliminate both mechanical and
operation of the tool holders to and from their
working position with reference to the grinding
thermal shocks to the tool. Also when the tool
. has been ground, the pressure is gradually re 50 wheel, and certain control mechanism therefor;
lieved. This permits the ground surface of the
Fig. 8 is a front elevation illustrating a portion
tool “to coast," so to speak, upon the grinding
of the tool holder used in this apparatus; Fig. 9
surface of the wheel, whereby it is polished or
is a view looking at Fig. 8‘ from the side, as in
burnished to remove all irregularities.‘ More
dicated by the line 9-9 of Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a
specifically, in one form of the invention a 55 sectional view taken through the line l?-iil of
Fig. 8 and looking in the direction of the arrows:
Fig. 11 is an elevation, mainly in section, illus
trating' a fluid control valve mechanism used in
this apparatus; Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic repre
sentation showing an electrical control ‘system
which is used in the apparatus; Fig. 13 is a front
elevation illustrating a modified form of this in
vention, par-ts being broken away so as to illus
trate certain details ofconstruction; Fig. 14 is a
that slides in a, channel 31 extending diametri
cally across the disk 33. The member 38 has a
small section 38 along its length which slides in
a reduced slot 38 between the channel 31 and
the outer surface of the disk. The plate 35 is
secured directly to the reduced section 33 by
means of screws 48 '(Fig. 1).
It will be observed ,
that by reason of this arrangement the screws
48 function to clamp the crank pin 34 to the
perspective view illustrating the top ofthe ap 10 disk 33, and also that when they are loosened
paratus shown in Fig. 13; Fig. 15 is a view similar
the plate_35 together with the crank pin 34 can
to Fig. 14 but illustrating certain auxiliary equip
be adjusted across the diameter of the disk,
ment used with this apparatus; Fig. 16 is a sec
whereby the radius of rotation of the pin 34 may
“ , tional view through a portion of‘ the apparatus
be changed.
shown in Figs. 14 and 15, the view being drawn 15 Crank pin. 34 is mechanically connected with
to a larger scale than Figs. 14 and 15; Fig. 17 is
the support I8 by a, pair of universal Joint mem
an elevation, partly in section, illustrating the
bers including a fork 4| rotatably mounted on
construction of the grinding wheel used in the
apparatus of Figs. v14 and 15; and Fig. 18 is a
fragmentary plan view of the portion of the
apparatus shown in Fig. 16.
Referring more particularly to the apparatus
shown in Figs. -1-12 inclusive, this invention has
been shown in one form as applied to grinding
apparatus comprising a base l0 and an upper
housing section II mounted upon the base.
Mounted within the upper section I I is a. grind
ing wheel I2. This wheel l2, as shown, comprises
a-disk-like base‘ I3 (Fig. 5). Mounted upon the
a member 42 that rotates on the crank pin.- 34,
and a, fork 43 pivoted to a member 44 which ro
tates upon a rod 45. It will be observed that
the two fork members 4| and 43 are pivoted- to
move with reference to the members 42 and 44
respectively on axes at right angles to the axes
of rotation of the members 42 and 44 with ref
erence to the crank pin 34 and the. rod 45 re
spectively. The nexus of the two fork members
4| and 43 are‘rigidly secured together by means
of a rod‘46, and the rod 45 is rigidly secured
to the support I8. It will be observed 'in view
disk is a shallow, cup-shaped, circular member 30 of the foregoing construction that when the mo
I4 formed of a suitable material, such as plastic,
tor 29 operates the crank disk 33, the frame l3
"and mounted upon the top wall of this member
will be given an oscillatory motion, the limits of
is a layer of a suitable abrasive grinding mate
the motion depending upon the radial position
rial |5 such as a. resonoid bond‘ diamond.
material willbe bonded to the member I4 in any 36
suitable way; and the member I4 is secured to ‘ .
the disk l3 in any suitable way as by screw fas
tening means I6.
The disk I3 is mounted upon and integrally
secured to a vertically positioned driving shaft II 40
which is journaled in a suitable relatively mas
sive ‘support I8 iby means of bearings I9.
The support I8 in its turn is mounted upon
and secured to a shaft 20 which is iournaled in
a section 2| of the top II. The support I8 is
supported in this fashion so that it may be oscil
lated for a purpose which will be described in
greater detail hereinafter.
of the crank pin 34.
Such an oscillatory motion
is indicated by the dotted lines of Fig. 6, which
indicate the extreme positions of the rod 45, and
the limits of oscillation of the grinding‘ wheel,
as it is oscillated by the frame I8, for a, given
crank pin setting.
In other words, the two motors 22 and 29 func
tion to give the grinding wheel a combined rotary
and oscillatory motion which is used to move the
grinding tool 41 relatively across the grinding sur
face l5 as the tool is being ground.
The grinding wheel I4 rotates within a basin
41a which is utilized to collect a grinding cool
ant, as will be pointed out hereinafter. The ba
sin 41a is formed ‘by walls formed integrally with
Also, mounted upon the support I8 is a driv
the upper section II as clearly shown, the bot
ing motor 22 which preferably will be any suit 60 tom wall thereof tapering’ downwardly to a drain
able electric motor; as shown,‘v the motor 22 is
opening 41b. This bottom wall is provided with secured directly to a frame 23 by'means of bolts
a reentrant section 41c surrounding. the section
, 24, and this frame in turn is secured to the bot
of the support H3 in which the shaft I1 is jour
tom surface of the support I8 by means Of bolts
naled, this reentrant, section being sufficiently
25. . This motor _22 drives a pulley 26 which 55 large to provide for the maximum oscillatory
a through a belt 21 drives a pulley 28 secured to
motion required by the frame I8. This reen
the lower end of the grinding wheel shaft l1.
trant section is covered by a top wall 41d which
,' It will .be observed in view of the foregoing,
is secured to the frame I8.
that the motor and~grinding wheel are mounted
The speci?c grinding tool 41 illustrated com
upon the oscillating support l8 so that both oscil
prises a cutting memberv 48 formed of an ex
late with it, and also that the motor 22 has a
tremely hard material, such as tungsten carbide,
driving connection with the grinding wheel
and which is mounted upon a base 48.
through the belt 21.
The apparatus illustrated is adapted to sup
Oscillatory motion is imparted to the support
port a pair of these tools 41, as shown in full
I8, while the grinding wheel is being rotated 'by 65 and dotted lines in-Figs. 1 and 2, whereby the
the motor 22, by means of a, ratio motor 281, this
pair may'he ground simultaneously.
' motor is mounted upon a bracket 30 by means
Suitable means are provided for holding and
of bolts 3|, and the bracket is rigidly secured to
for controlling the motion of the tools 41 between‘
the ‘upper frame member II by means of bolts
working and non-working positions with refer
32. The ratio motor 28 drives a disk-like crank 70 ence to the grinding wheel, the left-hand tool 41
member 33 (Figs. 1,‘ 5 and 6) which rotates a
of Fig. 1 being shown in its non-working posi
crank pin 34. The crank pin 34 is mounted upon
tion, and the right-hand tool 41 of Fig. 1 being
a slide member 35 which moves on the front
shown in its working position with reference to
face of the disk member across a, diameter there
the wheel, the non-working position of the lat
of, and which is Secured to an anchor plate 3.6 75 ter tool being shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1.
The tool holders for the two‘tools are, identical
be observed that by reason of this arrangement‘,
the tension springs function to bias the tool
vin construction, comprising cylindrical pin-like
members 58 which are rigidly mounted in brack
ets 5|, which in turn are rigidly secured to oper
- holders to their non-working positions. ‘
Each (of the ?uid motors 61 and 68 comprises
- crating shafts 52 extending across‘ the top mem
‘a cylinder 13 in which operates a piston 14. . One .
ber II in parallel relationtwith each other and
having their two opposite ends journaled to ro-‘
tate in the frame ||.. The base 48 of each tool
end of each of the cylinders is pivotally mounted
upon ‘a pin 15 that is supported in a ?ange 16
extending outwardly from, the column 18. The
' 41 is gripped by a pair of‘ cooperating jaw mem
piston rod 11 of each piston extends‘ from‘ the
bers 53 and 54 ‘which are showmmore clearly in 10- other end of the cylinder 1: and it is 'rigidly se
Figs. 8,9 and 10. The jaw member 53 is mount
cured to the ‘nexus .of asecon'd U-shapedmem
ed upon a base‘ 55 which'in turn is rigidly secured
her". The outer extremities of the two ‘legs
to a split collar 56 which is mounted upon therod . of the two U-shaped members 18 are pivoted to
68 and clamped thereto bym‘eans of'a release
the extremities of the two U-shaped members
ablescrew 51 in a well-known manner. The jaw 15‘ 12 and 1211 respectively bymeans of pins 19.
member 54 has a base 58- which rides upon the
It will be observed, therefore, that when either
base ‘55 of jaw member 53,‘ the base 55 having
of the pistons 14 is moved outwardly‘in its cylin
roughly a. T-shape "shown in Fig. 10, andlthe
der 13 away from the pivoted end of the cylin
member 58 having sections clamping the head of
derit will operate the shaft 92 associated. there-,
the T as there shown. Thebase 55 of jaw mem 20 with through the medium of the two forks 18,
ber 53 further is provided with’ an extension 59
and 12 or 12a, to force‘the associated tool into its
parallel tolthe jaw 53 and‘in which is threaded
working position‘ with relation to the grinding
an adjusting screw 60'. This screw at its ‘inner
wheel-against the force of the associated biasing ‘
end has an enlarged head which ?ts into a recess .
springs 65 and“.
provided for it in the jaw- 54.‘ By- reason of this 5
Suitable adlustabl stops 13a are mounted inv
opposite sides of the top H for engaging the
arrangement, it will be understood that the Jaw
54 can be adjusted relatively to the jaw 53,
. whereby the tool‘ibase 49 can be clamped rigidly
to the rod 50 or released therefrom. Attached to
_ forks 12 and 12a respectively so as to limit the
movement of the tools by the ?uid motors. These
are adjusted to determine the degree of? grind
the outer end of the screw 69 is a crank arm 6| 30 ing permitted.
which is used to adjust the position of the jaw 54.
Suitable means are provided for controlling the
It will be understood that by means of the split'
flow of v?uid into the cylinder and the exhaust of
‘collar 56 the two jaws 53 and 54 as a unit can be
the ?uid therefrom in order to. control the ap
adjusted upon the rod 50 to adjust the angular
plication of the tool to and from the surface of the
position of the tool 41 relative to this rod. In 35 grinding wheel, the ?uid control systems for each
addition to this, the base 55 carrying the two
of the motors 61 and 68 being identical. ‘The con
jaws 53 and 54 is adjustable in the direction of
trol means is shown, more clearly in Figs. 7 and
the axis of the screw 68, and for this purpose the
‘11. A single source. of ?uid supply 80, such as
base 55 is secured to the split collar 56 by means
compressed air, is provided for both ?uid :motors
of a bolt 62 which extends ‘through an elongat 4o 61 and .68.- The ?uid pressure for the motors is
ed slot 63 provided for it in the collar member
controlled by means of pressure regulators 8| and 56, and which may be threaded into any one of
8 la and ?uid control valves 82 and 824:, the pres- '
a plurality of spaced apart tapped holes 64 pro
_, sure regulators 8| and 8|a being of any suitable _
vided for it in the base 55, it being understood ' well-known type which will hold a constant ad~
that when the bolt is loosened the axial position 45 Justed pressure on its outlet side and which pres
of the jaws'can be changed. Furthermore, the 4
sure may.-be manually adjustable by a‘ ‘control.
jaws can beadjusted to any position within the
confines of the slot 63. In addition to all of this,
member 83, 83a accessible at the front of the ma- ' chine. The pressure on the outlet side is meas- ‘
the bolt may be received in any one of the three
ured by pressure gages 84 and 84a. The ?uid-de
tapped holes 64.. In view'of all of the foregoing, 50 livered by the pressure regulators'8l and 8 la is fed '
it will be observed that the tool holder is ad‘
through pipes 85 and 86a, T-junctions 86 and 66a,
Justable universally so that the cutting surface
and pipes 81 and 81a to the two valve structures
member 48 can be brought into any desired an- .
82 and 82a respectively; and from these valves,
gular relation with reference to the plane of the
the ?uid is fed through pipes 88 and 88a respec
grinding Surface l5.
_ Suitable means are provided for holding the‘
‘55 tively to the innerends of the two motor.cylin
tools in their non-working positions and for op
erating them to ‘their ‘working positions,“ this
ders 13 respectively.‘ ‘
Thus, it willbe observed that adjustable pres
sures are fed by the two pipes 81 and 81a to the
means comprising a pair of tension springs 65 _ valve mechanisms 82 and82a. These mechanisms
and 66 for the two tools respectively
which func so are identical, and the mechanism 82 only is shown
tion to bias .the two tools to their non-working _ in Fig. 11. The ?uid fed by the pipe 81 enters
positions, and a pair of pneumatic motors 61 and
through an opening 89 into a. valve chamber 98.
68 respectively for operating the tools to their
The flow of ?uid into the chamber 90 is controlled .
working positions against the forces of'the bias-'
ing' springs.
I ‘
As shown more clearly in‘Figs. 2 and 3, the
by a valve 9| which coacts with a seat 92 of a
65 passageway 94 communicating .with the inlet '
L - opening 89. ' The valve chamber '90 is connected
inner adjacent ends of the springs 65 and‘ 66 are 1
anchored to a pin 69 which in turn is mounted
to pins 1| and 1| a. These pins in turn are each
connected to one leg of U-shaped members 12
and 12a respectively which members are rigidly.
with the inner end of the associated ?uid motor
cylinder 61 through the pipe 83 which is con
nected with an opening 95 of the valve. Itwill
70 be observed that if‘ the valve 9| .be opened the ?uid
‘ may ?ow through the passageway 94 and thence
through the valve chamber 98 and the opening 95
' to the inner end of the cylinder in order to operate
the piston therein outwardly and thereby move
secured to the two respective shafts 52. It
76 the tool into working engagement with the grind-1
‘ upon a column 10 which is a part of the upper
section II and positioned to the rear of the basin
'I'heouter ends of the springs are secured
2,411,002 '
ing wheel. The tool will be held against the grinds , regularities are taken on’. In order to control the
ing wheel as long as the ?uid pressure is supplied. ' build up of the grinding pressure, adjustable
In order to release the tool, the air is exhausted" , needle valves I09 are provided for controlling the
pressure built up in the feed pipes 81 and 81a to
from the cylinder, and for this purpose the valve
the two valves 82 and 82a respectively. These
is provided with an exhaust passageway 88 com
valves will be set in order to cause the pressure
municating with an exhaust opening 91. The
passageway 98 is controlled‘ by a valve 98 which ‘ to build up at the desired rate. The rate of re
duction of the grinding pressure at the'end of the , >
coacts with a valve seat 89. Therefore, when the
valve 9| is returned to its closed position and the
grinding operation is controlled by means of ex
valve 98 opened, the ?uid in the cylinder can ex
10 haust needle valves IIO which control the rate of _
haust freely out of the opening 91, thereby per
mitting the tension spring 80, to return the tool
exhaust from the exhaust pipe I I I. ‘
, It will be understood, therefore, that when
these valves are properly set and the valve mech
' r
anisms 82 and 82a are operated to permit air to
The two valves 9| and 98 are‘ operated by levers I
I00‘ and MI which are mechanically intercom 15 ?ow to the pneumatic cylinders Gland 68 that
to its non-working position.
the air pressure will gradually build up and over
‘ nected by means of a rod I02 whereby they are
come the spring pressure and cause the tool
operated in unison-one being moved to its open
position while the other is being moved to its
holder to carry the tool against the grinding
closed position.
wheel. When the tool contacts, it, of course, can- a '
The valve operating rod I02 is controlled by 20 not move farther and then the air pressure builds
up to the full grinding pressure at a gradual rate
means of an electromagnetic operating device I03
as determined by the settings of the needle valves
having an armature I04 and a winding I05. When
I09. At the conclusion of the grinding operation
the magnet is deenergized the valves occupy their
when the electromagnets I03 are deenergized to
position shown in Fig. 11, that is, the inlet valve
» 9| is closed and the exhaust valve 98 is open. 25 open the exhaust valves 98 the air exhausts at a
'gradual rate as determined by the settings of the
However, when the magnet is energized, the arma-r
ture I04 is moved upwardly, as viewed in Fig. 11,
and as a result thereof the link I02 is moved to
valves II 0 so as’ to permit the tools to coast in
the manner described. Thus, when the exhaust
valves 98 are opened, the air from the cylinders
open the inlet valve 9| and to close the exhaust
valve 98. ,
' v30 81 and 68 bleeds the ‘pressure down slowly to per
The energization of each. of the electromagnets 1' mit the burnishing action, and eventually to such
I03 is controlled by a suitable time element mech
a low value that the springs 65 and 86 can return
anism I08 (Figs. 1 and 12) . Each of these mech
the tool to its non-working position.
anisms includes a suitable control switch I01 and
Also-the valves I09‘ and H0 control the speeds
a suitable electric motor I08 operating on a‘ time 35 with which the tool is moved to and from the
cycle. Any suitable well-knowntiming device of
this nature may be used, it- being ,understood that
grinding wheel.
It should be noted here that the springs 85 and
86 not only function to move the tools to their
when the timer is set for a certain time interval
that the switch I01 ‘will .be closed and the motor
non-working positions, but they also act as shock .
I08 energized to open it a predetermined interval 40 absorbers to smooth out any irregularities or vi
of time thereafter. The timers are provided ‘with
bration in the movement of the tools to and from.
the usual standard handset dial knobs I 08a hav
the grinding wheel. v'I‘his steady motion’is highly
ing pointers which are set against suitable time
desirable in that it eliminates chatter and thus
gives a smooth grinding operation.
scale dials I08b. The switch I0'I controls the elec
tromagnet I03; thus, when the timer is set to 45 Also the combination of the air operated motors
measure a predetermined interval of time the elec
and spring return for the tools yield during the
tromagnet I03 will be reenergized to admit air to
grinding” operations so that the tool holders will
the tool operating cylinder and it will function to
accommodate themselves to_ slight variations in
hold the tool in contact with the grinding wheel
alignment of the grinding wheel and thus pro
through the interval of time set by the timer.
50 long the wheel life by permitting it to wear away
It is desirable to control the rate at which the
contact or grinding pressure is built up between
at a more. uniform rate.
It will be 'cbserved from Fig. 1 that the timing
the tool and wheel, and also the rate at which this
devices I06 and the two sets of needle valves I09
pressure is reduced at the end of the grindingv
and I I0 are accessible at the front of .the machine
period. As mentioned above, it is desirable to 55 whereby they may be conveniently set and ad
gradually increase the rate at which the grinding
pressure is built up in order to eliminate me
A suitable coolant is continuously supplied to
chanical shock to the tool, and also to avoid ther
[the grinding wheel during the grinding operation.
mal shock thereto. With very hard tools, such as
In the speci?c example illustrated, the coolant
‘ devices formed of tungsten carbide, the relatively 60 is water. The water is forced from three settling
light initial grinding pressure will ?rst eliminate
tanks II2, “2a and H3 by means of a motor
sharp or jagged edges ‘before the main grinding
operation takes place. If the tools were applied
with full grinding pressure initially the tool would
be subjected to severe mechanical shock and pos
- sible damage when these edges engage the grind
driven pump I_ I 4 through a pipe I I5 to a discharge
spout H6. The discharge spout H8 discharges
the water directly into the center of the grinding
65 wheel and from there it is forced outwardly in_
-ir_1g surface. Also if the full grinding, pressures
were suddenly applied, the tool tip quite likely
would become overheated and thermally cracked
or otherwise thermally, weakened. It is desirable 70
to gradually reduce the grinding pressure at the
end of the grinding interval after the electromag
nets I03 are deenergized in order to permit the
tool to coast upon the Wheel and thereby give it
a burnishing or polishing action so that all ir
all directions over the surface of the wheel by
centrifugal force, the water being forced to ?ow
outwardly over the grinding surface I5. The
water which is ?ung out ‘from the wheel is col
lected in the basin 41a and discharges from the
, opening 41b into a drain pipe Ill which dis
charges into the settling tank II3. From there,
the water passesthrough an over?ow II8 into
the middle tank I I2a and from there through an
7,5, over?ow I I9 into the tank I I2. In this way there
is a continuous‘ circulation of coolant onto the '
grlndingwheel. The settling tanks, of course,,.
. function to collect and drain off the sludge. The
rate of ?ow of the water to the grinding wheel
is controlled by means of a valve I20.
clamp the tool to the base.
- 5
The driving motor 22 for the grinding wheel
J2, the ratio motor 29 which oscillates the frame
I8, and the motor driven pump II4, as well as
between thejaws. when it is desired‘ to clamp
the tool, its dovetail‘section is ?tted to the base
I30 and the jaw I32 tightened so as to rigidly
The tool base I30 is attached to a supporting,
member I33 which, as shown more clearly in Fig.
16, is secured to the lower end of a piston. cylinder
I34 to the upper end 01' which a piston I35 is-se- ,
cured. The pistonand piston cylinder operate
the electromagnets I03 and, the timers I06, all
are electrically supplied from a suitable electrical 10 in a motor cylinder I36. At the lower end-'oiithe '
cylinder I36, a suitable packing I31 is provided
source I 2|. A master switch I22 controls the con
fore?ecting' a ?uid-tight sliding joint between
nection and disconnection of these elements to
the two cylinders; and at this end there, is also,
and from the supply source, In addition, a re
provided an expansible and contractible-shield
versing switch I23 is provided for the motor 22
so that the grinding wheel may. be reversed for 15 I38 attached to the lower ends or the two c'ylin'—~
ders and which expands and contracts as they‘
grinding either left or right 'hand tools.
move relatively to each other. This shield keeps
In the operation of this form of the invention,
the tool base49 will be clamped between the jaws ' dirt. and other foreign materials from contacting _'
theexposed surface of the inner cylinder I34. 53 and 54 and these jaws will be attached to the
rod 50 in their proper position. Then the master 20 The inner cylinder I34 is~ biased upwardly by
means 'of an elongated tension spring I39 which ,_
switch I22 may be shut, which operation‘ will
at its lower end is anchored to the ‘support I33
start the motors 22 and 29 and also will start
and at its upper end is anchored to the upper
the electrically driven coolant pump. Then the
pressure regulators 83 and 83a will be set to the , ‘cylinderhead I36a of the cylinder I36, as shown.
desired pressure which will be read upon the gages 25 This spring functions,‘ as do the springs 65 and
66 ofthe ?rst form of this invention, to hold the
84, 84a, and then the clocks I06 will be set to the
' tool in its upper non-working position. The tool
desired time intervals by means‘ of pointers I08a.
is forced to its working position by means of ?uid
Once these are set, the electromagnets I03 will
pressure which is admitted to the upper end of
be energized so as to admit‘ ?uid pressure to the
operating motors 61 and 68 and the tools willv 30 the cylinder I36. For this purpose, the cylinder
be 'forced into engagement with the grinding , head is provided with a ?uid passageway I40
.which communicates with a passageway MI in
_ wheel and will be held against the wheel for the
the side wall cylinder I36, and which passageway
intervals of time set by the timers. When the
in turn communicates with a ?uid passageway
time intervals have elapsed the electromagnets
will be deenergized and the tools will be returned 35 I42. The ?uid flow in the passageway I42 is con
trolled by means of ?uid pressure regulation and
by the springs to their non-working positions. , Of
valve means in precisely the same way that ?uid
course, prior to the starting of the grinding oper
?ow in the pipes 88 and 88a of the ?rst form is
ation the needle valves I09 and I I0 will have been
adjusted so as to control the speeds of application ‘
of the tools to the grinding wheel and their return 40 i . The cylinder I36 :and the associated mechanism
are supported bye hollow elbow I43, which is
movement to their non-working positions, and the
mounted upon the upper frame I25 and secured
rates at which the grinding pressure is built up,
and reduced, as fully described above.
thereto by bolts I44. The elbow I43 is axially
adjustable withreference to the frame I25 to a
It will be understood,‘ of course, that the control
extent, and for this purpose it is provided
mechanisms for the two tools are entirely inde
with elongated slots I45 through which the bolts
pendent in the sense that one may be operated
I44 arerdirected. » This is for the purpose of pro
independently of the other, and each may be set
an adjustment between the position of the
independently of theother for its own time period,
tool and the grinding wheel.
and also for the speeds with which the tool is
Suitable means are provided for positioning the
moved to and from the grinding wheel, and for -50 tools I29 initially so that-just the proper amount
the pressure rates.
will be removed in the grinding operation.‘ For
'In the second'form of- the invention shown in
this purpose, a screw I46 is threaded into the
Figs. 13~18 inclusive, there is provided a di?'erent
member I33, and issecured thereto by means of
tool holding mechanism. Otherwise, the appara
a nut I". Also threaded on this screw are a
tus of this form is substantially the same as the
pair of nuts I48. which are set to determine the
?rst form. Thus, it comprises a base I24 and a , upperor non-working position of the tool holder.
top section I25 within which the grinding wheel
The upper of these nuts bears against an abut
I26 is mounted to‘ operate. The grinding wheel
ment I49 ?xed to the cylinder I36 when the tool
is rotated and oscillated by mechanism which is
is in its upper non-working position. Threaded
identically the same as in the ?rst form; Here, 60 upon the ‘screw I46 above the abutment is an
however, the wheel has a somewhat different con
adjustable nut I50 which limits the downward
struction, the wheel being provided with a metal
stroke of the piston I35. In addition, the~setting
lic supporting base I21 upon which is mounted
means includes pivotally-mounted gage plates
a relatively high cylindrical grinding member _ I5I. When the tools are to be set into the ap-.
I29, which in this speci?c example illustrated, is
paratus the gage plates are moved inwardly, as
formed of a suitable vitreous cutting abrasive
is the left-hand one shown in Fig. 15, and with
the nuts ‘I48 against the abutment I49,the tool
The forming or shaping tools to be ground are
I29 is inserted between its jaws so that its lower '
indicated by the numerals I29 and they are sup
end rests on the gage plate I5I. ' Then the jaws
ported by means of suitable holders comprising, 70 are tightened. This sets the tool initially and the
a base I30 on which jaw members I3I and I32
amount that will be ground will be determined
are mounted. The two jar's form a dovetail
by the extent of movement downwardly per
socket, as shown more clearly in Figs. 1a and 15,
mitted by the nut I50. When the proper amount
and the tool is ‘provided with a complementary
has been ground off the nut I50 will engage the
dovetail section which is arranged to be clamped
upper side of the abutment I49 which will limit
any further downward movement of the tool. It _
will be understood, of course, that after the tools
have been set initially the gage platesrlil will
be removed from the path of movement of the
* "
s. In grinding apparatus, a grinding wheel,‘ a '
tool‘ holder,
eans mounting said holder for Y
movement toward and away from said wheel ‘
l5l of Fig. 15 is shown in its removed posi
Coolant is supplied
basefor holding said tool.
, tool before grindingdzakes place. The right-hand
on said support.‘ and clamping means on said
to the center
of the grind- '
ing wheel by means of a spout I52.
along an axis substantially perpendicular to the
plane of the grinding surface 0! said wheel, vmeans
for moving said tool holder between non-working
and working positions with relation to said grind
Insubstantially all other‘ respects the machine 10 .ing wheel, stop means for determining said non
' is identically the same as the ?rst form; and as ~
shown in Fig. 13 it is provided with timers 153 to
control the length of the grinding operations,
with pressure regulators having controls, i 54, with ~
pressure’, gages I55 which indicate the amount of 16
working position', a gage plate movable to a posi
tion between said tool holder when it is in its
non-working position and said grinding wheel
for determining the initial position of the tool
surface to be ground, and movable away from > ’
pressure applied, and with sets of valves I58 and ‘
said position to order to permit said tool holder
ISI-which determine the speeds of application of
the tool to the grinding wheel and the return
to be moved to its working position with relation '
to said grinding wheehand stop means for con
trolling the extent of movement of said holder
While I have shown particular embodiments of 20 toward said wheel to determine the ‘degree oi’
thereof from the wheel. ,
my invention, it 'will' be understood, of course,
that I do not wish to be limited thereto since
many modi?cations may be made, and I, there
grinding permitted.
. '
- 4. In a tool grinding machine forgrindin‘g'a
metallic tool,'a tool holder for the tool, a grind
fore, contemplate by the appended claims to
ing wheel, means for rotating said grinding wheel
cover any such modi?cations as ,fall within the 25 having a grinding surface, mounting means sup
true spirit and scope of my invention.‘
porting said tool holder for movement from a "
non-working position remote from, said grinding
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
wheel to a ‘working position with reference to
Letters Patent of the United States is:
said wheel, said holder when in said working
1. In a tool grinding machine‘ for grinding a
metallic tool, a toolholder for the tool, a grinding 30 positionv holding the -,tool in abutting grinding
relation with the wheel, a spring connected to
wheel having agrinding surface, means for rotat
said tool holder biasing it to said non-working
ing said'grinding wheel,vmounting means for sup; ‘
position,- an aeriform ?uid motor having a cyl
porting said tool holder for movement from‘a
inder and a piston therein, means connecting said
non-working position remote from said wheel. to
a working position with reference to said wheel, 35 piston to said tool holder, a control valve for con
trolling the admission of aeriform ?uid under
said holder when in saidworking position holding
pressure to one end of said cylinder and the aeri
the tool in abutting grinding contact with said
form ?uid when admitted to said one end forcing
grinding surface, an aeriform ?uid 'motor con
nected to, said tool holder for operating it to and 40 said piston toward the other end of the cylinder
in order to force said‘ tool holder to its working
holding it in said working position, means for
position with reference to said grinding wheel
conducting aeriform ?uid under pressure to said
motor to operate it to move said tool holder to '
said working position and for holding it therein,
against the force ofsaid spring, and to hold the I
tool in abutting relation with said grinding sur
face, meansfor regulating the ?ow of aeriform
pressure regulating means controlling said ?uid
under pressureso that said motor gradually builds 45 ?uid to said one end to control the rate of build
up 01' the full grinding vcontact pressure between
up the pressure, forcing. said tool against said
grinding surface to a full grinding valve thereby ' thejtool and the wheel so as to obviate mechani
cal and thermal shocks to said tool, said, valve
also controlling the exhaust of the ?uid from
?uid to said motor, means for returning said tool 50 said one end in order to‘ permit said spring to
_ - return said holder to said non-working position,
»_ obviating mechanical and thermal shocks to said
tool, means for shutting-on’ the supply of said
holder to said non-working position, and pressure
release means controlling the exhaust of the ?uid
from said motor to gradually release the pressure
and means for regulating the rate of exhaust oi’
?uid from said one end in order to control. the
- rate at which said pressure is reduced to give said
between said tool and said wheel so as to give
55 tool a ?nal polishing treatment,
said wheel a ?nal polishing treatment;
5, In a grinding machine, a disk-like grinding
2. In grinding apparatus, a grinding wheel and '
means for rotating said wheel, a tool
a tool holder for holding a tool against said wheel
holder, means mounting said holder for movement
comprising a rod, 2, ‘support on said rod univers
from a non-working position remote from said
ally adjustable to any angularposition circum 60 wheel
to a working position with relation to 'said
ferentially around said rod, a base on said sup
in which position the tool is in abutting
port, said base having a plurality of apertures
vgrinding relation with one side of said wheel,
spaced apart along an axis thereof, a pin-like
means biasing said tool holder to said non-work
member carried by said support selectively insert
ing position, an air motor having an element
able in said apertures to adjust the position of (35 movable by air under pressure and connected to
said holder for operating it to said working posi
direction along said axis, said base further being
tion to hold the tool against said one Side of-said
rotatably adjustable on said pin-like member,
wheel, air control means controlling the admis
said base with reference to said support in a
means for securing said base to said pin-like
member, said support further having an aper
sion of air under pressure to said motor to oper
70 ate said element so that it forces said tool against
ture therein elongated in a direction at right _ said one side with .a gradually increasing force
angles to said rod through which said pin-like
until the full grinding pressure is attained and
member is directed for insertion in said apertures
for controlling the exhaust of the air from said
whereby said pin-like member and attached base
motor in order to cause-said grinding pressure to
can'be adjusted toward and away from said rod 75 gradually recede and thereby permit said biasing
means to move said tool holder to said non-work
ing position, and time element mechanism con
spring, and means for controlling the admission
of air under pressure to said pneumatic motor.
7. In a tool grinding machine, a grinding ele
ment, a, tool holder, a shaft supporting said tool
means to admit said air under pressure to said 5 holder and for moving it from a non-working
air motor to operate said tool to said working
position remote from said grinding element to a
position and to hold it against said side of said
working position wherein it holds said tool in
wheel for grinding. and at the end of said interval
engagement with said grinding element, means
controlling said air control means to exhaust the
connecting said tool holder with said shaft
air from said motor and thereby permit the return 10 whereby it moves with the shaft, a lever attached
of said tool holder to said non-working position
to said shaft, a tension spring having one end
by said biasing means.
connected to said lever, a ?xed anchor for the
6. In a tool grinding machine, a grinding ele
other end of said spring tensioning the spring so
ment, a tool holder, a shaft supporting said tool
that it biases the tool holder to said non-work
holder and attached thereto for moving it from 15 ing position, a pneumatic motor having 9, cyl
a non-working position remote from said grind
inder one end of which is pivoted at a point adja
ing element to a working position wherein it
cent said anchor, and a piston in said cylinder
holds said tool in grinding engagement with said
having a rod extending from the other end there
grinding element, a lever attached to said shaft, a
of and connected with said lever, and means for
spring connected to said lever to bias the shaft
admitting air under pressure to said one end of
and tool holder to said non-working position, a
said cylinder to force the piston outwardly to
pneumatic motor also connected to said lever and
operate said lever to force said tool holder to its
arranged when air under pressure is admitted
working position against the force of said spring.
thereto to operate to move said tool holder to
trolling said air control means to measure a time
interval and when set controlling said air control
said working position against the force of said 25
s'rnnnma ‘A. OAKLEY.
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