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Nmh 129 1946'
A. G. SILVESTER
2,411,065
SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. '7, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Inventor‘:
‘
Austin G. Silvester 9
b3 7% a M
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His AttoT-‘n'eg.
Nqv. 12, 1946.. '
A. G. SILVESTER
2,411,065
SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM
Filed Aug.‘ 7, 1944
3
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
45 45
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Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,411,065
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,411,065
SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM
Austin G. Silvester, Muroc, Calif., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application August 7, 1944, Serial No. 548,441
5 Claims. (Cl. 137-140)
1
2
The present invention relates to speed govem
the combustion gases over that required to drive
the compressor rotor may be used in any suitable
manner. For example, it may be used .to drive a‘
load such as an electric generator. All the energy
of the gases-may be extracted from them in tur
ing mechanisms wherein a ?yball governor regu
lates the position of a control valve which in turn
controls the speed of a prime mover. The inven
tion is well adapted for use in gas turbine power
plants and it is this application 0! my invention
which I have elected to illustrate and describe.
_ It is to be understood, however‘, that this is only
by way of example and that the invention may be .
bine- wheel "I, the useful load being then driven
. from the turbine shaft, or the exhaust gases may
be used in a separate turbine or other device for
generating power. The arrangement illustrated
utilized wherever found applicable.
is diagrammatic and is intended to be representa- -
One object of the invention is to provide a goV-_
erning mechanism which is very compact in
structure and which may be attached to and de-
tive of any gas turbine power plant and in con-.
nection with which a governing mechanism may
berequired.
‘
1
'
In the present instance, a governing mecha
. tached from a prime mover as a unit.
Another object of the invention is to provide a 15 nismiindicated generally by the reference char
governing mechanism which is simple in struc
acter H, is utilized to control a by-pass ‘valve
which by-passes fuel from» the discharge side of
ture, capable of being manufactured at lowcost, »
and in which the parts'are readily accessible for
the pump back to the inlet side. It comprises a
inspection, readjustment or replacement.
speed governor which regulates a suitable valve,
Another object of the invention is to provide a 20 the valve regulating ?ow from pipe line II to
governing mechanism which is made in parts, _
pipe line 13-. -In actual practice, the governing
each part of which may be individually assembled
mechanism is bolted ‘directly to a part of the
and tested before the mechanism as a whole is ' , ‘power plant casing- and is driven by the power
assembled.
,
V
.
I
Further objects of the invention and its ad
vantages will appear from .the following speci?
cation.
'
.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view
of a power plant with the improved speed govem
plant at a speed proportional to that of the
power plant. In the present instance, the gov
erning mechanism is in the nature of an over
speed or emergency governing means, it ‘coming
into action only to prevent the speed of the prime
mover from exceeding a predetermined high -
ing mechanism shown associated therewith; Fig. 30 value. The load on they prime mover may be reg
2 is a diagrammatic view of the speed governing
mechanism with the Parts separated so that their
functioning is readily apparent; Fig. 3 is a longi
~ tudinal sectional view of the governing mecha
ulated by other means, not shown.
"
>
It is to be understood that the governor may
also be used for speed control of the prime mover
at‘ other speeds than overspeed.
nism, the section being taken on line 3-4, Fig. 4, 36 Fig. 2 shows‘diagrammatically, and with parts
separated, the moving parts of the speed govern
and certain parts being broken away; Fig. 4 is a
ing mechanism. It will be described ?rst since
sectional view taken generally on line 4-4, Fig.
3, certain parts not in the section being indicated
an understanding of the functioning of the mech
anism will assist in understanding the speci?c
to more clearly illustrate the structure, and Fig. 5 '
40 mechanical construction shown in Figs. 3, 4 and
is a sectional view taken on line 5-5, Fig. 4. '
Referring to Fig. 1, there is shown diagram
5. l4 indicates a speed governor which may be
matically a gas turbine power plant comprising a
of the ?yball type, the spindle I501 which is
compressor I having an inlet 2 and a discharge
arranged so that its end engages the end‘of an
adjustable screw Iiia which threads through an
conduit 3. Discharge conduit 3 is connected by a
pipe line 4 to a. combustion chamber 5. Fuel, such 45 opening in the'end of ‘a lever arm [8 ?xed on a
shaft H. The end of screw lie is held against
as 'oil, is supplied to the combustion chamber 5
the end of spindle l5 by a spring 18“. Also ?xed
through a pipe line 6 which is connected to the
on shaft I‘! is a lever arm H! which through a
discharge. side of a suitable fuel pump ‘I. The
inlet side of fuel pump 1 isconnected by a pipe , link I9 is pivotally connected to one end of a‘
line 8 to a suitable fuel supply tank. The prod 50 ?oating lever 20 pivoted ‘on a pin 20' ?xed eccen
ucts of combustion‘ generated in combustion
' trically to the end of a rotatable shaft 2| on the
chamber 5 are supplied to a nozzle box _9 which
other end of which is a valve body 22. In valve
in turn supplies the hot gases to a turbine wheel.
body 22 is an opening 23 adapted to connect
‘conduits l2 and I3 together. In other words,
10. ’ Turbine wheel I0 is connected to the rotor of
compressor I to drive it. The excess power in 55 valve body 22 controls the ?ow of ?uid between
2,411,065
3
.
The ?yball governor structure and its housing 4
so far described form a unitary structure which
can be assembled and tested as a unit. As will
conduits i2 and I3. The other end of ?oating
lever 28 is connected to the pilot valve 24 of an
hydraulic motor the piston of‘which is indicated
at 25.
be clear, the stub shaft 39 with the speed gov
ernor assembly thereon may be ?rst assembled in
spider 43.after which the spider may be mounted
On the governor housing, stub shaft ~48 being in
serted through bearing 42 which has previously
Piston 25 is located in a cylinder 25 and
is carried by a piston rod 21 which is pivotally
connected by a link 28 to a crank arm 29 ?xed on
shaft 2|. Actuating ?uid is supplied to pilot
valve 24 through a conduit 38 connected to the
been assembled in bearing housing 41.
interior of an oil strainer 3|, the space around
The valve structure and leverage mechanism
the oil strainer a! being connected by a conduit 10
are carried in a second housing 58 which has a
32 to the discharge side of pump 1, i. e., to pipe
?ange 59 by which it is attached to ?ange 45 by
line | 2. Upon increase and decrease in speed,
the bolts 46. Housing 58 is provided with walls
. the speed governor turns shaft 81 which in turn
which de?ne a pocket 68 having an open side
moves the pilotto admit actuating ?uid to cylin
' der 25 on one side or other oi’ piston 25, permit 15 which faces toward spider 43. Pocket 68._is rec
tangular in cross section, its two side walls being
ting ?uid to escape from the other side. The
indicated at BI and 62,~its two end walls at 63
piston is then moved to turn shaft 2| to adjust
and 64 and its bottom wall at 65. > In bottom wall
the position of valve body 22, movement of the
65 is an opening closed by a plug 86. Pocket 58
valve body in turn restoring the pilot valve
through eccentric pin 28%, this being a known form 20 houses lever arm l6.
Adjacent to pocket 68 are walls which define a
of follow-up connection. Preferably, eccentric
second pocket 61, the two pockets having the . pin 288 is carried by an eccentric plate 28b at
common side wall 82. The other side wall of
tached by screws to lever 29, so that by changing
pocket 81 is indicated at 68, its two end walls
plates, the eccentricity of the pin may be changed
thus adjusting the restoring ratio of‘ the govern 25 at 99 and 18, and its bottom wall at 1|. Pocket
ing mechanism. The use of a speed governor to
81 has an open side opposite bottom wall 1|
control the positioning of a valve through the
intermediary of an hydraulic motor and. linkages
including a follow-up connection is known. My
which is closed by a cover plate 12 fixed in posi- '
tion by screws 13. The open side of pocket 61
is at right angles to the open side of pocket 58.
30 In Fig. 3, wall 82 is shown partly broken away
- invention has to do speci?cally with the mechan
ical arrangement of these parts in a simple, com- _
to show parts located in pocket 61.‘
Adjacent to wall 98 of pocket 61 are walls 14
pact structure. This structure is shown in Figs.
which define a passage 15 which extends along
3, 4 and 5 which will now be described.
The speed governor comprises two curved
wall 88 and has an open end which is covered
spring strips 33 and 34 which extend transversely 35 also by cover plate 12. At one side of passage
of a rectangular frame 35 (see Fig. 2) and are
15 are walls which define a round passage 15
fastened at their ends to flyweights 35. The one
which extends across passage 15 at right angles
spring 33 is ?xed at its central portion to one
thereto and in which is ‘located a valve liner 11
end of frame 35 by a clamping piece 31 held in
in which valve 22 is located. The outer end of
place by screws 38. Otherwise, the springs 33
passage 16 is closed by a cover plate 18 held in
and 34 and the ?yweights are free to move. At
place by screws 19. In‘ liner 11 are openings
opposite ends of frame 35 are stub shafts 89 and.
adapted to stand in line with the opening 23
48 supported in ball bearings 4| and 42. Ball
through valve body 22. Between cover plate 18
bearing 4| is supported in a spider comprising a
and the valve body is a suitable spring 88 which
ring 43 connected to a bearing supporting hub 45 serves to hold the valve body against the bottom
438 ‘by spokes 43“. It is attached to the open
of a shallow recess formed in wall 68. The stem
side of a governor housing 44, the governor hous
2| of valve body 22 projects through wall 68 into
ing being provided with a ?ange 45 to which ring
pocket 51.
>
'
43 is fastened by a ring of bolts 48. Ball bearing
Formed integral with bottom wall 1| on the
42 is carried in a wall of governor housing 44 op 50 side opposite to pocket 81 are walls which de?ne
posite spider 43. It is positioned in a ball bear
the cylinder 2-6 and a pilot valve casing 8|. As
ing housing 41, the bearing being held in the
shown in Fig. 5, piston rod 21 and the pilot valve
housing by a-ring of bolts 48 and a washer 485.
stem 82 project through wall 1| into pocket 51.
> At 48b is a packing. On the outer end of stub
The open outer ends of cylinder 25 and pilot
shaft 48 is a splined head 49 adapted to. be con 55 valve casing‘sl are closed by a cover plate 83
nected to a suitable driving shaft 58. Ball bear
held in place by screws 84.
ing 4| is held in place in spider 43 by a ring of I‘
Adjacent to they walls which define passage 16
bolts 5| and by a nut 52 which threads on an ’
extension of stub shaft 39. Stub shaft 39 and
its extension are hollow and projecting there
through is the governor spindle l5 which at its
and on opposite sides thereof are rounded walls
85 and 86 which de?ne inlet and outlet conduits
81 and 88 with which pipe lines. i2 and I3 connect.
Conduits ‘81 and 88 are connected by passage 15.
outer end is provided with a ball 54 held in a
In Fig. 4, pipelines i2 and i3 are-indicated for
pocket in the end of the spindle. ‘The end of
purposes of illustration although they would not
screw l5a engages ball 54. The other end of
show in true section on line 4-4, Fig. 3.v
, ‘spindle | 5 engages with the central portion of 65
Extending across wall 64 in a direction parallel
spring 34. It is biased to a position in engage
with wall 85 is a rounded wall 89 which forms
ment with said spring by a coiled spring 55 lo
a well 98 for strainer 3|. The inner end of well
cated between clamping plate 31 and a collar 56
98 is closed by a wall 9| and its outer open end
on the governoryspindle. Connected with gov
is closedby a plug 92 which holds in place ‘a
ernorhousing 44 is a drainpipe 51. The ?ybali 70 spring 93 ‘the purpose of which is to hold the
governor is more speci?cally described and
strainer on its seat. The conduit 32 which con
claimed in an application Serial No. 553,611, ?led
nects well 98 with inlet pipe line I2 is formed
September 11, 1944, in the name of Donald F. '
by a rounded wall 94 beneath wall 84 as shown in
Warner and assigned to the same assignee as the
Fig. 4. The conduit 38 which connects the in
present application.
35 side of the strainer to the pilot valve casing is ,
2,411,065
5 '
.
shown in Fig. 3. Thus it will be seen, (referring
particularly to Figs. 3’and 4) that liquid entering
through pipe line I2 may flow by way of passage
81 ,to‘passage ‘I5, thence' through valve body 22
to passage 88 and out by way of pipe line l3.
At the same time liquid for the hydraulic motor
may flow from passage 81 through branch con
duit 32 to well 90, thence throughthe strainer
3| and conduit 30 to the pilot valve.
The spaces '
all the parts readily accessible. Furthermore,
the construction is compact which has the ad
vantage that it may be built so as to be relatively
light in weight, a thing especially important '
where the mechanism is to be used in connection
with a power plant on an aircraft. .
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
.Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1.. In combination, a governor housing having
above and below the pilot valve heads are con~ 10 an open side, a bolting ?ange opposite said open
side, and a bolting ?ange surrounding the open
nected to pocket 61 by passages 95 and 96 _(Fig.
side, a ?yball governor mounted in the governor
5) so that ?ow of actuating liquid from the cyl-‘
housing having a spindle which projects out
inder 28 is discharged to pocket 61. Also, any
‘ leakage of liquid around piston rod 21 or pilot‘ ' through said open side, a second housing fas
valve stem 82 is discharged to pocket 61. _In wall 15 tened to said last-named bolting ?ange having
walls which de?ne a pocket, the open side of
88 is an over?ow opening 91» which connects
which faces toward the open side of the governor
pocket Bl to- outlet conduit 88 so that liquid
housing
and into which the end of the governor
accumulating in pocket 6‘! will ?nd its way out
spindle projects, walls defining a pocket adjacent
to the outlet conduit.
'
Shaft H is mounted in suitable bearings ‘38 20 to ‘said ?rst-named pocket having an open side '
facing in a direction other than that in which the
and 99 which are accessible through an opening ‘
?rst-named pocket faces, walls de?ning inlet
in wall 6i closed by a plug Mill. The one end of
and outlet passages connected by a transverse
shaft i‘l projects through wall 62 into pocket
passage, walls de?ning a valve casing extending
51!. The lever arm it. link i9, ?oating lever 26,
transversely
of said transverse passage, and walls
link 28 and lever arm 2Q all are located in cham 25 de?ning piston and pilot valve cylinders having
ber 6i. Also the one end of shaft ‘2i is in cham
ber El, it projecting through wall 68‘. V
Mounted on shaft H where it passes through
' wall 62 is a seal Hill to prevent leakage of ?uid,
(which may be under low pressure). from cham
ber 61 into chamber 5%, thereby preventing ex
cessive leakage out pipe El and also preventing
accumulation of liquid in housing M‘ where it _
might interfere with rotation of speed governor
weights 36. Drain pipe 51 serves to carry away
to any suitable point any ?uid which leaks into
governor housing M. Viewed from one aspect,
wall 62 forms a dam to keep liquid from getting
into chamber 60 and hence ?nding its way into
40
the speed governor housing 44.
By my invention, I provide aspeed governing
mechanism wherein the speed governor is located
in one casing part and may be assembled as a
open ends which face outwardly, a valve in said
valve casing having a shaft the‘ end of which
projects into said second-named pocket, a. lever
arm in the ?rst-named pocket with which the
end of said governorspindle engages, a shaft
for said lever arm an end of which projects into
said second-named pocket, a piston and a pilot
valve in said piston and pilot valve cylinders re
spectively having shaft ends which project into
said second-named pocket, leverage mechanism
in said second-named pocket which. connects to
gather the shaft ends therein, and cover plates ,
for said second-named pocket, said cylinders and
said valve casing.
2. In combination, a governor housing having
an open side, a ?yball governor mounted in the
governor housing having a spindle which pro
jects out through said open side, a second hous
unit and tested, and wherein the leverage mech
fastened to said governor housing having
anism, the hydraulic motor and the valve may 45 ing
walls which de?ne a pocket, the open side of
be assembled in another casing part and be
which faces toward the open side of the governor
separately adjusted and tested. Afterwards, the
‘housing
and into which the end of the gov
two casing parts may be bolted together and the‘
ernor spindle projects, walls de?ning a pocket
mechanism as a unit attached to the machine to
to said ?rst-named pocket having an
be controlled. It will be noted in connection 60 adjacent
open
side
facing in a direction other than that in
with the parts contained in casing section 58 that
which the first-named pocket faces, walls de?n
all may be ‘assembled through the outside of
ing inlet and outlet passages connected by'a
the casing part and that all parts are readily '
transverse passage, and walls de?ning a valve
accessible for inspection. repair and replacement.
casing extending transversely of said transverse
In assembling the mechanism contained in cas 55
passage, a valve in said valve casing having a
ing part 58, lever arm It may be positioned
shaft the end of which projects into said second
through the open end of pocket 50 between its
named pocket, a lever arm in the ?rst-named
bearings 98 and‘ 99 after which shaft I‘! may be
inserted through the opening provided by plug
~ pocket with which the end of said governor spin
die engages, a shaft for said lever arm an end of
H. After shaft I‘! has been inserted. plug lilll 60 which projects into said second-named pocket,
may be put in position. At any time, the setting
leverage mechanism in said second-named pocket
of the governor may be changed by removing
which connects together the shaft ends therein,
plug 66 and adjusting screw i5‘: and this adjust
and cover plates for said secondmamed pocket
ment can be made readily while the governor is
and said valve casing whereby by the removal of'
operating. The leverage mechanism located in
said cover plates access may be obtained to said
pocket 61 may be assembled through the open
valve casing and to said second-named pocket.
side of the pocket, the valve being inserted
3. In combination, a governor housing having
through passage 15 and the piston and pilot valve
being inserted from the outside into their re
spective casings. After the parts are in position,
cover plates 12, ‘I8 and 83 may be fastened in
place. The strainer 3| is inserted through the'
open end of well 80 after which the plug 92 may 1
be put in place. This arrangement ‘makes for
an open side, a governor mounted in the governor ‘
housing having a spindle which projects out
through said open side, a second housing fastened
to said governor housing having walls which do:
fine two pockets, one having an open side which
faces toward the open side of the governor hous
ease in assembling the ‘construction and renders 75 ing and into which the end of the governor spin
7
2,411,065 ,
die projects‘ and the other having an open side
facing in a direction other than that in which
the ?rst-named pocket faces, walls de?ning inlet
and outlet passages connected by a transverse
passage, and walls de?ning a valve casing extend
ing transversely of said transverse passage, a valve
in said valve casing having a shaft the end of
which projects into said second-named pocket,
a lever arm in the ?rst-named pocket with which
the end of said governor spindle engages, a shaft 10
of said governor spindle engages, a shaft for said
lever arm an end of which projects into said
pocket, a piston and a pilot valve in said piston
and pilot valve cylinders respectively having shaft
ends which project into said pocket, leverage
mechanism in said pocket which connects to
gether the shaft ends therein, and cover plates
for said pocket, said cylinders and said valve
casing.
,
5. In combination, a casing, having two unitary
for said lever arm an end of which projects into ~
separable parts, one of which forms a governor
said second-named pocket, leverage mechanism
housing and the other a leverage and valve hous
in said second-named pocket which connects
ing, a governor supported in the governor housing.
together the shaft ends therein, cover plates for
a longitudinally slidable spindle with a
said second-named pocket and said valve casing, 15 having
free end which projects into the leverage and
and walls which de?ne an over?ow passage con
valve housing, walls in the leverage and valve
necting said second-named pocket to the said
housing which de?ne a pocket having an open
outlet passage.
,
side and piston and pilot valve cylinders each
4. In combination, a governor housing, a second
being open at the end remote from said pocket,
housing connected to the governor housing, a gov 20 a rotatable valve in the leverage and valve hous
ernor mounted in the governor housing having
ing having a shaft which projects into said pocket,
a spindle which projects into said second housing,
a piston and a pilot valve in said cylinders having
walls de?ning in said second housing a pocket
shafts which project into said pocket, leverage
‘having an open side, inlet and outlet passages
mechanism in said pocket which connects said
connected by a transverse passage, a valve casing 25 shaft ends together and is loosely engaged by
extending transversely of said transverse passage,
the face end of said governor spindle for actua
and piston and pilot valve cylinders having open
tion thereby, a ?rst cover plate for the open side
ends which face outwardly, a valve in said valve , of said pocketand a second common cover plate
casing having a shaft the end of which projects
for the open ends ‘of said cylinders.
‘
into said pocket, a lever arm with which the end 30
AUSTIN G. SILVES'I'ER.
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