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Patented Nov.
2,411,066‘ ~
Leslie ‘Stevens, Glen Ridge, N. J.
‘ Application September 26, 1939, Serial No. 296,555
2 Claims.
This invention relates to the manufacture'of
(Cl. 92-57) ,
‘ paper products by controllably variable ?brous
‘of ring ‘32 engages. the under side of form 20
deposition, and especially to the-production of
loudspeaker diaphragms and the like by the de
‘substantially no leakage‘ along'such line of en
position of pulp ?bres on a sieve-like form.
The object of this invention is to make paper
products such'as loud speaker diaphragms in a
‘ 30 radially beyond the line 'of engagement of the
simple and emcient manner, while at the same .
throughout its circumference,- so that there is‘ ‘
gagement. For convenience, the portion of form
ba?le ring with 'the form is termed the rim por-q
tion, or zone,_ and designated 34 while the por
‘ tion of form 30 radially within such line is
time producing diaphragms'which are uniformly
termed the central portion,‘ or zone,‘ and desig
satisfactory both mechanically and acoustically 10 noted
35. The battle ring is provided with a
' andwhich will remain so throughout their lives.
‘ ‘The features of the invention will become ap-
number of holes 36 which a?'ord the only com
municationbetween the areas under the rim por-.
tion 24 and under the central portion 35, respec
parent from the following description taken in
conjunction with the ‘accompanying drawing; in
tively. of the conical form 30.
. i
'In the use of the apparatus-in carrying out
Fig. 1 is an'elevational view of an apparatus 16 the
method of the invention, ‘the container ll is
for depositing cones;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the apparatus of
l . Fig. 1; taken along the line 2-—2 of Fig. 1;
initially empty with its upper section I3 unlockedand turned back on its hinge. A form "is in
serted in the apparatus, and the upper "section I:
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a cone deposited by the ,
apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2;‘ _
turned forward and locked by the latch I! to the '
Referi‘ing to Figs. 1_ and 2, III is a cylindrical
Thereupon a measured‘ quantity of a prepared
lower section l2. The parts are'now in the posi
Fig. 4 is an enlarged section of the cone of Fig. ' tion shown in Fig. 2.
I 3, taken along the line H thereof;
Water from the supply main is then introduced
Fig. 5 is an elevational view of a modi?ed form,’
the container by opening valve 26.‘ ‘When
of apparatus for depositing cones; and
desired water level is attained, as may be
Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the apparatus of 25 the.
determined by observing the gauge glass 31, the
Fig. 5, taken along the line 6—6 thereof.
valve 26 is closed.
' '
‘container supported upon a table II, the con
mixture of pulp and water is poured into the
' tainer being split horizontally near the‘ bottom
container In through the open top thereof and,
so as to form a lower'portion or base l2 and 80 the pulp thoroughly mixed with the water al
upper portion I3 which are‘hinged together at M. >
The two sections of the container may be locked
ready present in the container.
together by a latch 15 which is secured by links , V or more air jets 38.
I6 to‘the base section i2, the latch ?tting within
' '
The‘ outlet valve 28 ‘is thereupon opened to '
arecess I 1 in the ring i8 secured to the upper
This is con
veniently done by agitating the mixture withpne
allow the‘ liquid ‘to drain o?'. . ‘During the drain
ing of! period some of the liquid drains through
‘The ring l8- has a sealing gasket 20 secured
the 'rim portion 34 of the form while the'rest
therein which engages a similar gasket 2| secu'red . drains through the central portion 35, the drain‘
to the base section so as to provide a liquid-tight
age starting through the two portions: substan
joint between the two sections when they are 40 tially simultaneously.
locked together.
Since the now of the liquid through‘ the rim
The center" of base section l2 communicates
portion 34 is retarded by the ba?le ring 32, less
with a pipe 24v which extends downwardly there
liquid drains throughthe rim portion '34 ‘than
from. This pipe “communicates with a water 45 through the central portion 35. The pulp, how
inlet main 25 through the valve 26 and also'com
ever. does not drain through the form. It is‘
municates with an outlet pipe 21 through the.
caught and deposited thereon over both the cen- '
valve 28. These valves are manually operated by‘
tral and rim portions, less pulp being deposited
any suitable mechanism, the mechanism shown
over the rim portion 34 than :over the central
in Fig. 1 being diagrammatic only.
50 portion 35in view of the different amounts of
Removably mounted in the base section i2 is
liquid draining through these portions. During
a conical form 30 containing a multitude of
apertures so that it is sieve-like in construction
this deposition the pulp ?bersfelt together in ‘
and operation,- serving' as‘a ‘screen. The base
, of the {porous form 30 ‘engages a‘ gasket ‘ring 3|
mounted’in- the {base section so that there is
substantially no leakage around the base of the
heterogeneous directions, thus producing a coni
cal diaphragm which, after drying, has no tend
ency to warp.
After all the liquid is drawn off, the apparatus 2
is opened up, the form with the diaphragm "de
'Mounted on base section l2 and radially with
‘ in the rim of form 30 is’ aba?le ring 32 having a'
relatively sharp upper edge 33. This upper edge
posited thereon removed, and the form and dia- -
phragm placed ‘in a suitable drying apparatus.
Whenthe diaphragmisdry, it is removed from ‘
the form and subjected to such supplementary
operations as are desirable, for example, coating '
with a sti?ening substance, trimming andppress
which may'bevaried as desired, and maintained , throughout its , life, and produces such dia
phragms with consistency. The process is simple
Figs. 3Vand 4' show a diaphragm 40 made by ' ' and fast and uniformly produces a satisfactory
this process, before being subjected .to such sup
plementary' operation. The rim portion 34a of >
Referring to Figs. 5 and 6,v the apparatus there’
> the diaphragm is substantially thinner than the
shown is in many respects identical to that shown
central portion 350 of the diaphragm, and it will
in Figs. 1 and -2 and corresponding parts are des- '
be found that the pulp deposited in each por
ignated similarly as in Figs. 1 and 2.
tion 340 or 35a is of substantially uniform thick 10 ' The apparatus of Figs. 5 and 6 contains an
ness throughout that portion. In addition, the
inner cylinder 50 the lower edge of which nor
junction 4| between these two portions is control-'
mally rests upon form 30, the diameter of inner
. lably de?ned at the radius where the sharp edge‘
cylinder 50 being substantially the same as that
33 of ba?le ring 12 engages the conical form 30. ~
of ba?ie ring 32. The inner cylinder 50 extends
The total weight of the diaphragm is deter 15 to the top of container l0 and is prevented from
mined by the amount of pulp contained in the
moving laterally by the spacing pins 5| secured
pulp mixture poured into container 10, since all
to inner cylinder 60 and projectingradially’out
such pulp is ‘deposited upon the form. By pour
warclly substantially to the inner surface of con
ing into the container a measured amount of the
tainer ID; 'A ball 52 is secured to the upper pore
mixture from a batch having known and unvaried 20 tion of inner cylinder 50, the bail passing through '
proportions of pulp and liquid, the weight of the
a slot 53 in an arm ?‘pivotally mounted on the
individual diaphragms produced by this method -' bracket 55. at‘the top of container 10.‘ Arm I4
' may be kept within narrow tolerances.
extends past the pivot 56 and isbent downwardly
The'relative weights of the rim portion'ila - - to form a handle 51. ‘A bolt 58 _is threaded
and' the central portion 35a for different dia 25 through the handle at the lower end thereof and
phragms are determined ‘by the amounts of liquid'
is secured in place by a nut 59. 1 The head of .the
which pass through the respective portions of the
bolt extends toward the container I0 and in the
form during the formation _of the diaphragms.
normal position of the parts as shown the head ’
I As these two flows start simultaneously, the rela
is disengaged froma spring latch 60. 'However,
tive weights of the two portions are determined 30 when thehandle 5'! is pushed-toward the con
by the difference in the rate of flow of these two.
tainer Hi, the head of bolt 58 engages spring latch ,
?ows, except for the slight additional deposit on
60 and the latter serves to hold the handle in the
the outer portion after the liquid level has
position to which it has been moved. In such,
dropped below the upper portion. Thus, by re
position the arm 54 is raised above its normal
.tarding the flow through the rim portion 34, ac 86 position, thereby raising inner cylinder 50 a short
complished by reducing the area of the passage
distance, determined’ by- the adjustment .of bolt
ways through ba?ie ring 32 (as by plugging up
58. In the raised position the lower end of inner
one or more holes 38, as with the threaded plugs
cylinder 50 does not engage the form 30. ‘
42) , less of the‘ total amount of pulp is deposited
uWhen this apparatus is charged, there is anv
upon the rim portion 34 and more is deposited 40 outer annular body of liquid 34.1; between inner
upon the central portion 35. The diaphragm
cylinder 50 and the wall .of container l0 and an
formed when using reduced-area‘passageways in
inner cylindrical body of liquid 35:: contained
the baille ring therefore has a thinner rim por-.
within inner cylinder 50.
tion 34a than the diaphragm formed when using
In the use of the apparatus of Figs. 5 and 6, the '
full-area passageways in the ba?le ring, other 45 containe‘r Ill is initially empty with its upper sec
factors remaining the game.
tion I3 unlocked and turned back on its hinge.
Diaphragms of any desired weight and of any
desired comparative thicknesses at the rim and
Inner cylinderSO moves with the upper section ~
l3. ,
central portions may thus be made by appropriate
Ajiorm 30 is inserted in the apparatusand the
adjustment of the amount of pulp introduced into‘ 50 upper section l3 swung forward and locked by .
the container l0 and of the rate of flow of the
the‘ latch l5 to the lower section l2. The handle
51 is pulled outwardly so that the lower end of
liquid through a baiiie ring 32.
The line of demarcation or junction 4| between
the inner cylinder rests upon form 30. The parts .
the rim portion 34a and the central portion 35a
of the diaphragm is a true circular line of con
trollable de?nition concentric with the axis of
v ' the diaphragm, thereby enabling the central por
tion 35a to propagate sound with a minimum of - \
are now in the position showniin Fig. ,6.
Water fromthe supply main is then introduced .
into the container by opening the valve commu- .{
nicating with pipe 24. When the desired water
level is attained, this valve is closed.
Thereupon a measured quantity of a prepared
The vcontrollable rim portion 34a integral with on mixture of pulp and water is poured into the .body.
the ‘central portion 35a enables the diaphragm
to be supported at the ‘rim with a widely control
lable load upon the sound-emitting portion of the .
of liquid, 35:]: and a measured quantity of another ~
prepared mixture of pulp and water differing in; ,
constituents or in concentration, or both, from
diaphragm, and enables annular corrugations of
the mixture poured into the body of liquid ate; j_
widely controllable axial flexibility to be formed 65 is poured into the body of‘ liquid 34x. 'I'hereupon '7
in the rim. These abilities open up an extremely
each body of liquid is thoroughlyagitated to dis
wide range of acoustical requirements to which
tribute‘the pulp in suspension in the‘liquid,‘ sep- .
diaphragms made by this method- may be accu
arate airijets being 'used in the different bodies
' _,
of liquid,_air jet 38‘ being in theouter body of ,
The manufacture of diaphragms by the fore '70 liquid 34a: and air jet 38’ being in the inner body '
going process thus employs a single mixture of
of liquid 35m.
pulp and water, molds the entire diaphragm in one
The outlet valve communicating with pipe» 24 is . V
operation with the rim area thinner vor thicker" ’ thereupon opened'to allow theliquids to drain
rately manufactured.
than the central’ area, produces a diaphragm with
oiT. . The outerbody of liquid 34:: drains through
excellent acoustical and‘ mechanical properties 75 the rim portiontl' of the form while the innerv '
body of liquid 35m
. 2,411,066
through the central
tion, as the apparatus readily accommodates
forms of different angles, shapes, and outer limits
portion 35 of the form, The pulp in suspension
in the outer body of liquid 34x is thus deposited
of perforations, as well as ba?le rings of di?erent
upon the rim portion 34 and the pulp in suspen- ,
sion in the inner body of liquid 35:: is deposited
upon the inner portion 35 of the form. These de
positing operations over the different portions of
the form occur simultaneously but independently
of each other, with none of the pulp from one
diameters and heights.
While the invention has been described in con
nection with the production of a diaphragm for
loudspeakers, it is not confined thereto, but is in
tended to cover the similar controllably variable
production of deposited paper products.
body of liquid intermingling'with the pulp of the 10 I claim:
other body of liquid nor depositing on the other
1. Apparatus for. forming one-piece cone
portion of the form.
Near the end of the depositing-operation, as
determined by observing the gauge glass 31, the
handle 5'! is pushed inwardly to raise the inner 15
. cylinder 50 and maintain it raised, by the latch
60, through the remainder of the depositing pe- _
riod. The two pulp mixtures thus intermingle at
the surface of the form beneath the lower end of
shaped articles having an annular outer section
thinner than’ the center inner section, a ver
tically sustained cylindrical container having a
centrally located drainage opening in the‘ bottom
thereof'and an ‘annular shoulder in the side wall
thereof at a horizontal ‘level above the bottom with
a ?uid permeable conically shaped former mem
ber seated by its periphery on said shoulder, an.
inner cylinder 50 and as a consequence the de 20 annular partition member seated on the bottom
posited ?bers at that region are an intermixture
of said container and concentrically disposed
of ?bers from the two pulps. This intermixture
about the said drainage opening, the upper edge
of ?bers serves to knit the rim portion 34a of the
of said partitioh member being knife edged and
resulting cone with the central portion 35a there
contacting the under surface of the said former
Ba?ie ring 32 enables the rate of ?ow of the
outer body of ‘liquid 34a: to be adjusted to such a
25 member, “ said partition member being provided
with a plurality of openings therethrough, the
number and diameter‘ thereof being selected to
value that the drainage of the outer body of liquid‘ _ provide a determined rate of ?ow of ?uid through
Ila- will be completed at substantially the same
the partition member to ‘the drainage opening
time as the drainage‘ of the inner body of liquid 30 less than that through the central portion, of the
350:. As a consequence this eliminates the tend
former member to the drainage opening, means to
ency, when the two bodies of liquid drain in dif
ferent times, for the slower body of liquid to
drain or slop over on to the portion of the form
fill the cylindrical container to a determined hori
zontal level with water and to suspend a measured
quantity of pulp suspension in the water above
> on which the faster body of liquid deposits its 35 the former member and means regulating the rate
pulp. In other words, there is in such cases a
tendency toward irregularity in production and
an indeterminate, indistinct and non-circular
of ?ow of said water through the said drainage
2. Apparatus for forming one-piece cone
line of demarcation between the rim area 34a and
shaped articles having‘ an annular outer section
the central area 35a of‘the resulting cone. These 40 thinner than the center inner section comprising
irregularities and uncertainties areaeliminated by
the use of the ba?le ring 32.
a centrally located drainage opening in the bot—
After all the liquid is drawn oil the apparatus ‘ ‘
, is Opened up and theform and diaphragm han
died as previously explained in connection with
Figs, 1 and 2.
a vertically sustained cylindrical container having
tom thereof and an annular shoulder in the side
wall thereof at a horizontal level above the bottom
witha ?uid permeable conically shaped former
member seated by its periphery on said shoulder,
In the general use of this apparatus of Figs. 5
and 6 the two mixtures of pulp are of different
an annular partition member seated on the bot
tom of said container and concentrically disposed
about the said drainage opening, the upper edge
area 34a may be of long, soft, ?exible ?bers while 50 of said partition member being knife-edged and
the pulp for the central area 35a may be of short,
contacting the under surface of the said former
hard and stiff ?bers, or vice versa, or of any
member, said partition member being provided
length desired to produce the required acoustic
with a plurality of openings therethrough. the
results, The entire diaphragm is molded in" one
number and diameter thereof being selected to
operation to produce an integral diaphragm in’ 55 provide a determined rate of ?ow of ?uid through
which the respective areas are sharply de?ned by
the partition member to the drainage opening less
than that through the central portion of the
a circular line of demarcation coaxial with the
diaphragm and yet felted together in a continu
former member to the drainage opening, a cy
ous ?brous unit. Thus the resulting diaphragms , lindrical partition member located centrally with
have uniformly excellent acoustical and mechan 60 in the container above the former member hav
ical properties.
ing a diameter approximating that of‘ the an
ingredients; for example, the pulp for the rim
The two-mixture apparatus of Figs‘. 5 and 6 is ‘
nular partition member, the bottom of said cy
lindrical partition member being provided a knife
of Figs. 1 and 2 by lifting out the inner cylinder
edge, means to raise and lower the said cylindrical
65 partition member out of and into knife edge con
Although, in both the single and double-mixture
tacting position with the upper. surface of said
apparatus, the water is most conveniently intro
former member, means to ?ll the container with
duced into and drawn from the container I 0 in
water to a determined horizontal level and to sus
‘the manner shown, the water may be introduced ‘ pend a measured quantity of pulp suspension of
and drained out in different manners, suchas by 70 different compositions inside and‘ outside the said _
lowering and raising the container, respectively,
cylindrical partition member, and means regu
quickly changed to the single-mixture apparatus
It is to be noted that the apparatus is readily
adapted to the manufacture of diaphragm: 11 al
most any angle, shape, size and relative construc
lating the‘rate of flow of said water through the
drainage opening.
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