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Nov. 12, 1946.
J
vH_¢_.=ORD ETAL
’
' 2,411,087
STABLE VERTICAL
Filed July 7, 1957
I27 25'
122
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4 sheets-sheet 1 ‘.
Nov. 12, 1946.
H. C. FORD ET‘AL
_
2,411,087
STABLE VERTICAL
Filed July-7, 1937
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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3549-’
358"
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270
275
4g, IN
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ATTORNEY
‘
‘Nov. 12,1946. 1. -
‘H, ¢_ FORD ET AL
2,411,087
STABLE VERTICAL
Filed July 7, 19:57
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4 Sheets-Sheet 4:
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358i
37
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4-17
INVENTORS
Hannibal, C.Ford
EllioltBRnss
smP‘s
SPEED
Blank/L114
‘
ATroRNEY
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,411,087 ‘
UNITED, STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,087
'
STABLE VERTICAL
Hannibal 0. Ford, Great Neck, and Elliott P. Ross,
' Forest Hills, N. Y., assignors to Ford Instrument
Company, Inc., Long Island City, N. Y., a cor-,
poration of New York
' Application July '7. 1937, Serial No. 152,352;v
- 21 Claims.
(01. 74-5)
2
1 .
The invention herein disclosed relates to a
gyroscopic mechanism for use on a moving craft
and in particular to a vertical-seeking or level
gyroscopic mechanism that is suitable for pro
viding a reference for the true vertical and hori
zontal.
Figs. 2a and 2b diagrammatically illustrate a
similar gyroscopic mechanism but one that is
mounted upon a rotatable platform,‘ Fig. 3 is a
motion diagram for the gyroscopic system illus
trated in Fig. 2a and 2b; Fig.‘ 4 shows a modi?ed‘
form of part of the gyroscopic mechanism; Fig.
'5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5—5 of
3 _
It is a well known fact that a perfectly bal
anced, freely mounted'or neutral gyroscope re
mains stationary inspace; that is, its spin axis
Fig. 2a.
'
a
’
-,
In Fig. 1 of the drawings, the gyroscope sup
port is represented by a pair of standards Ia
and lb. which are permanently secured to the
remains parallel with its original positionas the
gyroscope support is moved in, space ‘by the
rotation of the earth or the combined movement
of the earth and a vehicle or craft upon which the
deck of a ship upon which the gyroscope is _
mounted. In the construction illustrated in Fig.
gyroscope may be mounted. . In order to provide
1, the standards la and lb form bearings for trun
a vvertical-seeking or level gyroscope that will 15 nions 2a and 2b that extend from a gyroscope remain with its spin axis vertical at all times,_
frame 2. The standards la and lb are so posi
it is necessary to apply precessing .forces to the
tioned, that the axes of the trunnions 2a and
gyroscope to compensate for- small unbalances.
and the effect of the rotation of the earth in
"2b of the frame are parallel to the fore and aft
line of the ship. Within the frame 2, there is
accordance with the latitude ‘of the craft. on 20 mounted a phantom ring 3. The phantom ring
which the gyroscope may be mounted. Such
3 has trunnions '3a and 3b that are Journaled in
forces for seeking and maintaining the vertical
the frame 2, the axes of the trunnions 3a and 3b ‘
may be applied through a suspended mass, acting
being athwartship‘or at an angled 90° to the
as a pendulum and so designating the vertical,
trunnion .axis of the frame. Within the phan
, providing the pendulum is not caused to depart 25 tom ring 3 there is a gimbal ring 4 having trun
from the true vertical by accelerations. of the
nlons 4a and 4b that are journaled in the phan
support or craft on which the gyroscopic mecha
tom ring and the'axis of which is parallel to the
nism is mounted. Precessional forces to com
axes of the trunnions 3a and 3b of the phantom
pensate for the effect of the rotation of the earth
ring 3. Within the gimbal 4, the gyroscope i'is
may be applied directly to the gyroscopic system. 30 mounted for oscillatory movement about trun
In accordance with this invention there is pro
nions 5a and 5b, that extend from the case of the
vided a suspended mass that serves as a reference
gyroscope and that are‘ Journaled in the gimbal
for the true vertical. Whenever the gyroscope
ring 4 and at an angle of 90° from the trunnion
departs from the true vertical, a precessing force
axis la and‘ 4b.
is applied to the gyroscope so that the gyroscope j as Movement of the gyroscope about the axes to
is precessed in a direction to‘ maintain its spin
and 5b relative to the gimbal ring 4 controls
axis vertical. In order to prevent the suspended
the movement of the frame 2 about the trunnions
mass from departing from the true vertical and ‘
2a and 2b. This movement of the frame 2 is
assuming the pseudo-vertical when the suspended
‘e?‘ected through a follow-up motor 6 and elec
mass is subject to accelerations, these acceleration
trical contacts ‘I. The follow-up motor 6 is con
forces are continuously measured and generated
nected to the frame 2 through a worm 60 mounted
forces are applied to the pendulum tov prevent the
_ upon the shaft of ‘the follow-up motor 6 and a
drag of the pendulum or tendency to depart from
segmental worm gear 6b that is secured to the
the true vertical upon changes in movement of
frame and that is mounted concentric with the V I
the craft upon- which it is mounted. The sus 45 trunnion axis of the frame“ The contacts 1 in;
pended mass is thus caused to indicate the true
clude a pair of spaced, electrically insulated con
vertical at all times and the gyroscope is precessed
tacts 1a that are mounted on a bracket .11) secured <
to agree with the suspended mass as deviations
[to the gimbal ring I, and a roller contact 'Ic
occur between the vertical as represented by the "
that is mounted on a bracket 1d secured to the
suspended mass and the spin
axis of the gyro
scope;
'
'
50 case of the‘gyroscope.
As relative movement be- _
tween the gyroscope and the gimbal ring 4 occurs
about the trunnions 5a and 5b, the contact 10
A gyroscopic mechanism of this type is shown
diagrammatically in Fig. 1 of the drawings and in
on‘ of the central insulated sectionlbetween
Fig. 10!. there is illustrated a movement diagram . rides
the contacts 11: and on to one or the other‘ of
of the craft upon which the gyroscope is mounted; 56 the
contacts. Such contact between the contacts
3
4
.
and connected tov thetrunnion 4a of the gimbal?
1c and 1a causes theoperation of the motor 8
in a direction corresponding to the direction of
ring so that a torque is applied to the gimbal
ring 4 about'the trunnions 4a, 4b, whenever the
movement of the gyroscope with respect to the
gimbal ring 4. To e?ect this operation, one side
contact 35 on the pendulumengages either the
contact 35 or 31 secured to the bracket 33, the‘
direction of the torque on the gimbal ring be
> of the motor 3 is connected through a wire 8 to
a line wire 9. The contacts 1a are separately
connected to the motor through wires l0 and
II and the contact 10 is connected to line wire‘
4
. ing determined by the contact engaged by con
tact 35. With this arrangement, it will be seen
that whenever the phantom ring 3 is inclined to
Similarly, movement of the gimbal ring 4 about 10 the horizontal by virtue of the movement of the
the trunnions 4a and 4b relative to the phantom _] frame 2 about its trunnions 2a. and 2b, a torque
"'will be applied to the gimbal ring about the
3 is reproduced in the phantom ring. The re
axes, 4a and 4b. A torque applied to the gimbal
production of the movement .of the gimbal ring]
ring in this manner will cause the gyroscope to
is effected through a follow-up motor M. The
precess about the axes 5a., 5b.v Such precession
shaft of this‘ motor extends through a bracket
of the gyroscope will be transmitted to the frame
l5 secured to the standard la and it is connected
and the frame “will be moved to a position in
to a shaft [5 by means of a pair of spur gears
which the pendulum is so suspended that the
|1.' The shaft |6.has a ?exible joint I8 therein
contact 35 is between the contacts 36 and 31.
in line with the trunnions 2a, 2b and an inclined
~|2byawire l3.
‘
'
section I9. The inclined section extends through . 20 _ The pendulum 32 'is similarly mounted on, a '
bracket 43 that is secured to the phantom ring 3.
a bracket 2|] on the frame 2 and carries a worm
The bracket 43 is mounted on the phantom ring
3 adjacent to the trunnion 3a of the phantom
2| that meshes with a segmental worm gear 22,
‘the segmental gear 22 being concentric with the
axis of the trunnions 4a and 4b. Operation of
the motor l4 in accordance with relative move 25
ring. In this case, the pendulum 32, is mounted '
to swing about a pivot or axis 44 that is parallel
to the axis 3a, 3b of the phantom ring. On the
ment between the gimbal ring 4 and thephantom
arm 32a of 'the pendulum. intermediate the ends
.thereof, there is mounted an electrical contact‘
45. This contact 45 is between contacts 46 and
the phantom ring 3 and two spaced contacts 23b
and 230 that are mounted on a bracket 24 se 30 41 that are mounted upon the bracket 43. The
3 is effected by means of contacts 23.‘ These con
tacts 23 include a roller 23a that is mounted upon
contact 45 is connected to the positive side of.
the line by a conductor 48. The contact v4|; is
cured to the gimbal ring 4. When-the gimbal
ring 4 and the phantom 3 are in alignment, the
roller 23a. rests on an insulated ‘section between
connected by a‘ conductor 49 to a torque applica
the contacts 23b and 230. Upon relative move-‘
tor 5B. The torque applicator 50 is mounted upon
the'gimbal ring 4 and positioned and connected
ment between the phantom 3 and the gimbal ring
to apply a torque about the trunnion 5a of the
4, the roller 23a rides upon one or the other
gyroscope. The torque applicatorv is connected
of the contacts 23b or 230. The contact between
to the negative side of the line by a conductor
‘the contact 23a and‘ the contacts 23b and 230
5|. A conductor 52 connects the torque. appli
veffects the operation of the motor l4. For this
purpose, the contacts 232) and 230 are connected 40 cator to the contact 41. It will thus be seen that.
when the phantom ring 3 moves‘ from the hori
to the motor by wires 25 and 26. One side of
zontal position about the trunnions 3a, 3b,‘ the
the motor isconnected to a negative line wire
contact 45 on the pendulum 32 will engage either
21 by a conductor 28 and the other line wire 29
the contact 46 or 41 depending upon the direction
is connected by a conductor 30 to the contact
of the movement of the phantom ring.. Upon en
gagement of the contact 45 andz‘either of the
From the foregoing it will be seen that the
contacts 46 or 41 the torque applicator 50, which
phantom ring _3 corresponds at all times with they
may be an ordinary motor, will be energized and '
gyroscope 5. vIf the ‘spin axis of the gyroscope
‘apply a torque to the trunnion 5a of the gyro
is vertical the phantom ring 3 will be horizon
tal'and represent a true horizontal plane. Any 50 scope. The torque applied to the trunnion 5a
of the gyroscope will cause precession of the gyro
deviation of vthe spin axis of the gyroscope from
scope to effect movement of the gimbal ring about
the true vertical will‘ cause the phantom ring 3
23a.
é
“
-
-
the trunnions 4a, 4b.
to deviate in like manner from the horizontal.
‘ For the purpose of maintaining the gyroscope
with its spin axis vertical, there are provided
a pair of pendulums 3| and 32. The pendulum
Through the follow-up
‘ motor M, the phantom‘ring will be restored to
the position in which the contact 45 on the pen
dulum 32 is between the contacts 46 and“. ‘
- 3| is mounted on a bracket 33 that is secured
From the foregoing description of the gyro-w‘
scope and the pendulums it will be seen that the
to the phantom ring and extends vertically there
gyroscope receives precessional forces to main
from. The bracket 33 ‘is adjacent the trunnion
2a about which the‘ frame" 2 oscillates. The 60 tain it with its spin axis vertical. Whenever the
gyroscope departs from the position in which its
pendulum 3| is mounted on‘the bracket 33 to
spin axis is .vertical, the phantom ring likewise
swing about an axis or pivot 34 that is generally
departs from the horizontal and the relative
parallel to thetrunnion axis of the frame 2. On
’ the‘arm of the pendulum 3|, there is mounted
an electrical contact 35. The contact 35 cooper
ates with a contact 36 and a contact 31 mounted
on the bracket 33. The contact 35 is connected
movement of the pendulums about their axes
of oscillation eifects a precessional force on the
gyroscope to return the gyroscope with its spin
axis vertical and the phantom ring to a truly
horizontal position. This pen'dulous control of
by a conductor 38 to the positive side voi? the
the gyroscope takes care of all ordinary condi
line. The contact 31 is connected by a conduc
tor 39 to a torque applicator 40 and the contact 70 tions. The pendulums cause the gyroscope to
35 is likewise connected to the torque applicator
40 by a conductor 4|. The torque applicator 40‘
is also connected to the negative line wire by a
conductor 42. It will be noted that the torque
applicator 40 is mounted on the phantom ring 3 75
quickly settle upon the true vertical when the
gyroscope is started up, returns the gyroscope to .
the true vertical when accidentally displaced 1
therefrom, and keeps the gyroscope from'wander
ing due to unbalances in the system.
'
2,411,087
5
6
This pendulous operation of the gyroscope may
The resistance unit 55 includes a pair of arms
also take care of such factors as rotation of the
55a and 55b that are rigidly secured together and
angularly displaced through an angle of 90°.
earth and movement of the ship over the earth.
However, a gyroscope to remain vertical must be
precessed at the rate of 15° or less per hour, de
pending upon the latitude at which the gyroscope
is located, to compensate for the rotation of the
earth. This of course would necessitate the con-
These arms are moved over the resistance 55 in
accordance with the angle Co or the compass angle
of the ship. This is accomplished through a com
pass repeater 54. The compass‘repeater is'con
nected to one side of a differential 65 and the
tacts of the pendulum always making and break
other side of the diil’erential is connected to a
ing or trying. to maintain this uniform rate of 10 shaft 66 that operates the‘ arms 55a and 55b ,
through a gear 51. Likewise connected to the
Since the precession requisite to compensate for
shaft 66 is a follow-up servo-motor 68 which is
the rotation of the earth is uniform, forces are
connected to the shaft 66 through a shaft 619. The
generated proportional to the rotation of the
servo-motor is controlled by the center of the
earth and these forces are applied to the gyro
precession.
‘
-
,
scope to effect the uniform precession of the
gyroscope in accordance with the rotation of the
earth. As the forces must be applied about the
15 di?erential 55 which is connected through a
shaft 10 to a movable electrical contact arm ‘H.
The contact arm ll carries a contact 'Hla that
cooperates with contacts 12 and 13. The. contact
‘Ila is connected to the positive side of the line
mutually perpendicular precessional axes of the '
gyroscope it is necessary to resolve the effect of 20 .wire by a conductor 14. - The contact 12 is con
the rotation of the earth into components along '
nected by a conductor ‘I5 to them‘otor 68 and con
these axes. An exemplifying set of conditions is
tact 13 is connev. ted tothe motor 68 by a con
illustrated in Fig. 1a of the drawings. Here the
ductor 16. The motor is connected to the nega
line AN represents the North and ‘AB represents
tive line wire by a conductor 11. From the fore
the direction of movement of the ship or the fore
going it will be seen that as the compass'repeater
. and aft line of the ship on‘ which the gyroscope
is mounted.- The line AC represents the correc-,\
tion necessary for the rotation of the earth at the
particular latitude at which the ship is located.
~_ operates, one side’ of the di?erential is operated .
and since the other side represented by the shaft»
65 is stationary, the contact arm ‘II will be oper
ated so that contact is made between the contact
By resolving the line AC into its components along
and across the fore and aft line of the ship, there
is'obtained the components Y0 and Xc, the com
ponentYc being along the fore and aft line of
the ship or the trunnion axis 2a, 2b of the frame
2, and the component Xc being athwartship or 35
along the trunnion axis 3a, 3b of the phantom
ring 3.
t
_ ‘I la and either one of the contacts ‘I2 or 13. This ’
will cause the motor 68 ‘to operate and will operate
shaft 55 until contact arm ‘H is positioned be
tween the contacts 12 and 13-. Operation of the
shaft 55 will, however, through the gear 5]‘ effect
rotation of the arms 55a and 55b over the re
sistance 55 until the arm 55b assumes a position
relative to the representative north and south
line indicated in Figure 1, in which position the
For the purpose of providing ‘a uniform pre
cessi'on of the gyroscope in accordance with the
> arm 55b makes the angle Co with the said repre
rotation of the earth, there are provided electri 40 sentative north and south line. The resistance
cally actuated torque-applicators 53 and 54. The
torque ‘applicator 53 is mounted» on the phantom
' ring 3 and connected to apply a torque to the
trunnion 4b of the gimbal ring 4. The torque
applicator 54 is mounted upon the gimbal ring 4
and connected to apply a torque to the trunnion
5b of the gyroscope. It will be understood that
_ the torque applicators 53 and 54 might be com
bined with‘the torque applicators 40 and 50 re
spectively; they are shown separated, however,
for the purpose of simplifying the illustration and
description of vthe operation of the mechanism.
The extent of the energization of these torque
applicators is determined by a resistance unit 55.
The resistance unit 55 is circular and it is con
nected to the positive line wire by a conductor- 55
at a point 51 that may represent compass west. _It
is connected to the negative line wire at a point
55 is a non-uniform resistanceand so distributed
that the voltages under'the arms 55a and 55b
relative to that impressed on the conductor 82
vary in accordance with the sine of the angle that
the respective arm makes with the‘represe'ntative
north and south. The voltage thus obtained
under the arm 55b varies in accordance with the ,w
sine of the course angle Co of the ship, and the
voltage thus obtained under the arm 55a varies
in accordance with the cosine of the angle Co.
The arm 55a carries a contact 55c that engages‘ ’
. an’ electrically conducting sector 18 when the
arm 55a is on the side of the resistance in which
it is‘ illustrated ‘and ‘that engages a segmental
electrical'conductor 19 when the arm 55a is oper
ating on the opposite side of thecircular resist
ance. The arm 55b likewise carries a contact
5511 which engages a semicircular electrical con
58 diametrically opposite to the point 51, through
ductor .80 when operating on the half of the re-.
another resistance 59. This connection is asfol 60. sistance on which the arm is illustrated in Fig. 1,
lows: the conductor 60 connects the negative line
and a segmental electrical conductor 8-! when
“ wire to the arm 59a of the variable resistance 59;
The resistance 59 is connected to the "resistance
vunit 55 by a conductor 6 I . The variable resistance
59 is' utilized for modifying the eiTect of ‘the
resistance unit 55 in accordance with, the cosine
of the latitude at which the ship is operating. The
arm 59a is moved over the resistance by a handle
62. Rotation of the handle 62 operates the arm
the arm is -.on the opposite side of'the ‘circular
, resistance.
The conductor 82 connects the resistance 55 at
diametrically opposite points representing north
and south and to the torque applicator 54 and a
branch conductor 82a connects the conductor 82
to the torque applicator 53. In other words,‘
diametrically opposite points of'the resistor 55
59a and also a dial 53 which indicates the latitude. 70 representing the north-south line are connected
The handle 62 is therefore rotated until the dial
in common to the torque applicators 53 and 54. '
indicates the latitude at which theship is oper
The segmental electrical conductor >80 is con
ating. In such position, the resistance 59 modi
nected by a wire'83 to one side of the torque ap
?es the voltage across the resistance 55 in accord
plicator 54 and the other side of the torque ap- ,
ance with the cosine of the latitude.
75 plicator is connected by a conductor 84 to the
l
2,411,087
segmental electrical conductor 8|.- The segmen- _' - driven by the servo-motor in accordance with the
tal electrical conductor ‘I9 is connected by a wire ' repeater 88 and therefore at a speed proportion
85 to one side of the torque applicator 08 and the. .' al to the rate of change of speed of the ship.’
The clutch 94 is connected to the centrifugal
segmental conductor ‘I8 is connected by a wire
device 88 which is in the nature of a tachometer
86 to the other side of the torque applicator 59.
and the unidirectional clutch 98 is connected to
From the foregoing it will be seen that the re
sistance 55 is‘ in the nature of a potentiometer 4 the centrifugal device 81. The centrifugal device
88 consists of a series of balls 88a each-of which
and varies the amount and the direction of cur
rent that flows to the torque applicators 89 and - has a pair of oppositely extending pivotally con
54 and thus the amount and direction of the 10 nected arms 88b, one arm of which is-pivotally I
connected to a collar 88c that is rotated through
torque applied to the gyroscope about the mutual
the unidirectional clutch 94. The other arm 88b
ly perpendicular axes of the gyroscope.
_
The gyroscope will move about the axis 8a, 822 ' is pivotally connected to a collar 88d. The collar
8811 carries a disk 88c which extends between the
due to the angular velocity of the earth's rota-i
tion E at a rate equal to E cos 4: sine Co, in which 15 forked end 91010! a rod 91-. The collar 88d of
the centrifugal device is forced away from the
_4> represents the latitude of the ship;.and about
collar 880 by a spring 88)‘ acting between the
the axes 5a, 5!) by E cos ¢ 00500. The resistance
55 coupled with resistance 59 is'so graduated as \\ collars 88d and 88c. ' When-there is no movement
of the centrifugal device, the balls 88a are-radial- ,
to provide a current for the torque applicators ‘
proportional to these :quantities. The current ap 20 1y inward and the rod 91 is at the, extreme left
position;
‘
plied to the torqueapplicator 53 will be propor
On the end ofthe rod 91 opposite tome forked,
tional to the quantity E cos 45' cos Co and the cur
end\9'Ia there is mounted a rack 98 which en
rent supplied to torque applicator 54 will be pro.
gages
a gear 99. The gear 99 carries a bevel gear
portional to E cos ¢ sine C0. The gyroscope .will
thus be continuously precessed at a rate to com 25 I00 which meshes with another bevel'gear ~I0I.
The gear ml is mounted on a shaft I02 having a
pensate for the effect of the rotation of the earth '
bevel gear I03 which meshes with a bevel gear
and this precession will maintain the gyroscope
I04 that carries an arm I05.
vertical in so far as the rotation of the earth is
The arm I05 is
electrically insulated from the gear I04 and the
concerned. It will be noted that the combined
precession to compensate for the rotation of the 30. shaft uponwhlch the gear rotates. The arm I05.
is the arm of a potentiometer I06 over which it
earth is constant :‘while the ship remains at any
travels to vary‘ the voltage of an electrical circuit
particular latitude regardless of the course of
of which the potentiometer forms a part.
. the ship.
'
I
If the speed of the ship decreases, the repeater
As heretofore stated, the pendulum will repre
sent the true vertical ‘at all times only if they are 35 89 will operate and rotational movement will be
transmitted from the shaft 98 through the uni- .
not caused to depart from'the true vertical by
directional clutch 94 to the centrifugal device 88.
horizontal accelerations of the support on which '
the gyroscopic mechanism is mounted.
In the -
Rotation of the centrifugal device will cause the
' balls to fly outwardly and move the disk 88c to the
mechanism disclosed‘ in Fig. '1, the drag of the
pendulums upon changes in the horizontal move 40 right against the force of spring 88f, an amount
proportional to the speed of rotation of the de
' , ment of the ship is offset and the centers of in
vice, thus causing a rotation of gear 99 and
ertia of the pendulums are made to reproduce or
through' the gear train just described a move-"
follow the movement of the ship upon changes
ment of the arm I05 over the resistance I06.
in the movement of the ship, by applying to the
Since the speed of rotation of the .device is pro
pendulums magnetic forces proportional to the
portional to the rate of change of speed of the
changes in the movement of the ship. These
ship the displacement of the arm I05 over the
changes in movement of the ship include changes
resistance I08 will be proportional to such rate.
in the speed of the ship while the ship is pursuing
of change of speed or deceleration. The cen
a de?nite course and‘ changes in the direction of
,the movement of the ship, that is, changes in the 50 trifugal device 81 ~is in all respects the same as the centrifugal device 88 and operates an arm I01
‘ course of the ship. For the purpose of compen- .
over a resistance I08. , Thus on a speeding up of
sating for the changes in speed of the ship, the
the ship the arm I01 will move‘ over the resistance
acceleration is measured and magnetic forces are
I08 and vary the voltage of the electrical circuit
produced and applied to the pendulums to coun
.of which the resistance I08 forms a part in pro-v '
ter-balance the drag due to the‘ inertia of the.
portion to the rate of ‘change of speed of the ship
‘ pendulums. Thus the center of inertia of the
or acceleration.
,
pendulums, instead of lagging relative -to the
. The potentiometers I06 and I08 control the
ship as it accelerates, are accelerated at the same
energization of electromagnets I09 and H0 that
rate and ‘as a result the pendulums are main
tained truly vertical.
'
'
The mechanism for this purpose includes two
centrifugal devices 81 and 88, one for accelera
tions and the other for decelerations. The speed
of the ship is obtained from a receiver 89 which
is connected by a shaft 90 to one side of a diifer
entia'l 9|. The otherv side of the differential 9| is
connected by shaft 92' to a shaft 99 which'con
'ne'ctswith a unidirectional clutch (shown dia
60 are mounted on the bracket 43 on opposite sides
of the pendulum 32a. Changes in the speed of
the shipwill have no e?'ect upon the pendulum
9| as this pendulum is mounted to swing about
an axis that is parallel to the fore. andxaftline
of the ship. These changes will however; affect
the pendulum 82 since this is mounted to swing
about an axis at right angles to the fore and aft
line of the ship.
-
One side of the resistance element of the po-'
nected‘to a shaft 95 that is connected to another 70 tentiometer I06 is connected through a con
ductor III to the negative line wire 21. The
unidirectional clutch 96. The center of the dif
other side of the resistance is connected through
ferential operatesa' movable ‘electrical contact
a conductor II2 to the positive line wire‘ '29.
9Ia which in cooperation with stationary con
Likewise, one side of the resistance element of
tacts 9Ib controls a'follow-up servo-motor 92a
that drives the shaft 92.- The shaft 92 is thus 75. the ‘potentiometer I08 is connected through a
grammatically)’ 94. The shaft‘92 is ‘also con
2,411,087
wire II3 to the negative line‘vwire 21, and the
of the potentiometers I23 and I24 are mounted
on a lever I34 that is pivoted at I35. The lever
I34 forms a part of a multiplier I36.
Themultiplier includes a link I3lI that has a
transverse bar I38 having a slot therein. The
link I3‘! is pivotally connected at one end to the
other side of the resistance is connected through
a wire II4 to the positive line wire 29. The arm
I05 is connected :by a wire II5 to one side of
the electromagnet H0 and the other side or the
electromagnet H0 is connected by a line wire
II6 to the wire II 4 and thus to the positive line . lever I34 and at the other end to a lever I361;
wire 29. It will thus be seen'that with the arm‘
that is pivoted at I36b. A screw-shaft I39 is
I05 in the position in which it is illustratedyno
rotatably mounted in a longitudinal'slot I40 in
current will flow to the magnet IIO but as the 10 an arm I“ which carries at one end a segmental
arm I05 moves over the resistance I06 during a
rack I42 which meshes with a pinion I 43. The
decrease in speed of the ship, current will be
screw shaft I39 is connected through a universal
supplied to the magnet H0 in proportion to the '
joint I39a to the shaft 92 to‘be rotated thereby
amount the arm I05 moves over the resistance
in accordance with the speed of the ship and the
I 06 or in other words in proportion to the rate
screw on the shaft is such that it moves a block
of decrease in speed of the ship.
I44 from a pivot I42'a an amount proportiona1 to
The magnet I09 is similarly connected to the '
the square of the rotation of the screw-shaft
resistance I08 and to the line wires. The arm I 01
I39, or, in other words, an amount proportional to
is connected through a wire I" to one side of
the square'of the speed of the ship. The block
the magnet I09. Thev other side of the magnet 20 I44 is received and is slidably mounted in the slot
\ I09 is connected through a wire I I8 to the nega
in the bar I38. The pinion‘ I43 meshing with
tive line wire 21. From these connections it
will be seen that with the arm I01 in the posi
tion indicated no current will flow to the magnet
the segmental rack I42 is rotated through a shaft
145 in accordance with the rudder angle of the
ship. The rudder angle is the angle which the
I09 but upon» movement of the arm I0'I over the 25 rudder makes with the fore and aft line of the‘
resistance I08 upon acceleration in the speed
ship. The radius on which a ship turnsmay be
of the ship, current will ?ow to the magnet I09
considered as inversely proportional to the rud
in proportion to the rate 01' increase in the‘
der angle. The equation for centrifugal force
speed of the ship.
_
-
Between the magnets I09 and H0 and mount
ed on the arm of the pendulum, there is an ar
is MBW” in which.M is the mass, E the radius, "
30
mature II9. The magnets I09 and I I0 act upon
this armature and the potentiometers I 06 and I08
are calculated so that the force exerted by the
and W the angular velocity. The angular veloc
ity of turning of the ship W is proportional to
S/V where S is the speed. Therefore the centrif
ugal force Fe acting on the pendulum III is
' magnets on the armature H9 is proportional to 35
the inertia of the pendulum and the rate of
change in movement of the ship. This force
prevents the pendulum from lagging when there
are changes in the speed of the ship or o?sets the
drag of the pendulum and causes the pendulum
to- follow the changes in the movement of the
ship.
I
_
Changes in the course of the 'ship affect the
pendulum 3! as this pendulum is mounted to
but B equals l/R where Ris the rudder angle.
Therefore FO=MRSZ.
The rudder angle of the ship is obtained from
40 a repeater I46 which is connected by a shaft
I41 to one side of a. differential I48. The other
side of the differential I48 is connected to the
shaft I45. The center of the differential oper
ates a central contact I49 which operates be
swing about an axis that ’is parallel to the fore 45 tween stationary contacts I50 ‘and I5I. The
and aft axis of the ship. These changes in the
contacts I49, I50 and I5I control a follow-up
course of theship however do not have any ef
motor I52 which is also counected'to the shaft
fect upon the pendulum 32 as this pendulum is
I45. Thus, the repeater motor I46 operates the
mounted to swing about an axis normal to the
follow-up motor I52 so that the shaft is moved
fore and aft line of the ship. To compensate 50 by the follow-up motor an amount corresponding
for the centrifugal force acting on the pendulum
to the movement of the repeater I46.
3I upon changes in the course of the ship, there
For this purpose the ‘follow-up motor is con- ‘
are provided two electromagnets I20 and I 2I
nected to the negative line» wire 21 by a conduc
mounted on the bracket 33. These electromage
tor I53 and one side of thefollow-up motor is
nets act, upon an armature I22 mounted on the 55 connected to the contact I5I by a conductor I54
arm of the pendulum 3I. The electromagnets
and the other side of the follow-up motor is con- '
I 20 and I2I are connected respectively to the
'nected to the contact I50 by a conductor I55.
current supply through potentiometers ‘I23 and
The central contact I49 is connected to the posi
I24 respectively. One side of the magnet I20
tive line wire 29 by a conductor I56. Thus upon
is connected to one side of the resistance ele
operation of the repeater motor I46 the contact
ment of‘ the potentiometer I23 by a conductor 60 I49 engages vthe ‘ contact I50 or‘ I5I depending
I25. The other side of the magnet I20 is con- '
upon the direction of operation of the repeater
nected to a contact arm I26 by a conductor I21.
motor I46 and causes the operation of the follow
Conductor I25 is also connected to the negative
‘up, motor'l52 until the movement of the shaft
line wire 9 through a conductor I28. One side
I45 and therefore the opposite side of the di?er
of the electromagnet I2I is connected by a con- ential corresponds to the movement of the‘ re
ductor I29 to a contact arm I30 and the other
peater motor I46 and. brings the contact I49‘ be
side of the electromagnet I2I is connected by a
tween the contacts I50 and I5I. _
conductor I.3I to ‘one end of the resistance ele- '
In consequence of such operation, the bar I“
ment of the potentiometer I24. and also to the 70 will be moved about the pivot I 42a. an amount
positive linewire I2. The other end of the re
' proportional to the rudder angle of the ship; The
sistance I24 is connected to the negative line
product of the square of the speed of the ship
‘ wire 9' by conductor I32. One end of the re-,
as introduced by the screw I39 and the rudder
sistance I23 is connected to thepositive line wire
angle as introduced by the pinion I43 will appear
I2 by a conductor I33. The arms I26 and I30 75 as movement of the lever I34 about the pivot I35.
2,411,087
_
.
11
..
Such movement will move the arms‘ I26 and I30
The contact I66 is connected to they motor I60
the course of the ship. These magnetic forces -
through a conductor I68 and the contact I61 is
connected to the motor through a conductor I68.
The movable contact I65 is connected to a posi
tive line wire I10 by a conductor‘ III and the mo
tor I60 is connected to’ the negative line wire
acting upon thependulum will offset the centrif—
through a conductor I12. Thus, upon operation
over the resistances I23 or I24 and will cause one
or the other of the magnets I20 and I2I to be
energized proportional to the centrifugal force
acting on vthe pendulum 3I due to the change in
ugal force of the pendulum, and in consequence
cause the pendulum to follow the changes in the
movement of the ship. V
It will
there is
and the
the true
thus be seen that in this arrangement
provided a freely mounted gyroscope,
pendulums are provided for indicating
vertical at all times. The gyroscope is
of the repeater motor I59'the contact I65 will be
moved to engage. either the contact I66 or I61
10 and effect the operation of the motor “0111. the
' direction corresponding to the 'operation‘of the '
motor I69. ‘Motor I60 will continueto ‘operate
and through the shaft I62 rotate the platform
I51 until the rotation of the platform corre
continuously precessed to compensate for the 15 sponds with the rotation of the repeater motor '
rotation ofthe earth and so during uniform.
conditions maintained with its spin axis indi
cating the true vertical and the phantom ring
A pair of standards I13 and I14 extend per
pendicular to the platform I51 at diametrically
opposite points of the platform. Each of these
the true horizontal. The pendulums serve to
bring the gyroscope to the true vertical on start 20 standards has a bearing formed in the upper end
thereof. A frame- I15 has trunnions Mia and
ing up or if it is accidentally displaced there
"SD that are journaled in the standards I13 and
from and prevent the gyroscope from wandering ,
I14. Within the frame I15 there is mounted a
“ off of the vertical. The acceleration forces due
phantom ring I16 having trunnions‘ I16u. and to changes in the speed and course of the ship
are thus calculated and magnetic forces gener 25 I16b that are joumaled in the frame, the axis of
ated andapplied to the pendulums to compen
sate for the acceleration forces acting on the
the trunnions H61: and I16b extending at right
angles vto. the axis of the trunnions of the frame.
Within the phantom ring I16 there is mounted a
gimbal 'ring I11. The gimbal ring is provided
the ship and to cause the pendulums to repro
duce the movement of the ship and thus continue 30 with trunnions HM and "1b that are journaled
in bearings in. the phantom ring, the axis of‘ the
to indicate the true vertical while changes in the
movement of the ship are taking place, i. e. forces ,' ‘trunnions I11a, I11b being parallel tothe axis 7
of the phantom ring. _Within the gimbal ring
are applied to the pendulum to cause its mass
the gyroscope I18 is‘ mounted. The gyroscope
to accelerate at the same rate as the ship and
consequently have no tendency to depart from 35 ‘has trunnions I180. and I181) which are rotatably
mounted in journals in the gimbal ring.
_
the vertical.
,
Through the medium of follow-up mechanism,
In Figs. 2a and 21; there is shown a gyroscopic
system of the type described above but which ‘ the phantom ring is causedto follow the move
ment of the ‘gyroscope. For this purpose, there
includes a gyroscope that is mounted on a plat-‘
is provided a follow-up servo-motor I19 which
form that may be rotated with respect to the
pendulums due to these changes in movement of v
deck of the ship upon which the gyroscope is
mounted. ‘That is to say, in the gyroscopic
mechanism illustrated in Figs. 2a and 2b, the
axes of the frame and phantom ring of the gyro
scope mounting may ‘depart from the fore. and
aft and athwartship lines of the ship. In con
sequence of this condition, and the fact that
carries a worm I80. 'The worm I80 meshes with
a segmental worm gear I8I securedto the frame
I15 and concentric with the trunnion axis of the,
frame. The motor I19 is controlled through
contacts I82 and vI83. I The contacts I82 and I83
are carried by a bracket I86 that is mounted on
the gimbal ring I11. The contacts I82 and I83 ,
are arcuate and concentric with the axis of the
withrespect to the axis ‘of the ship, it is neces— 50 trunnions of the gyroscope. These contacts are
spaced apart by a strip of insulating material.
sary to provide further compensation for the
A cooperating electrical contact 1851s carried
pendulums in order that the pendulums will in
by a bracket I85a mounted upon the case of the
dicate the true vertical at all times irrespective
gyroscope. ‘Upon relative movement of the
of changes in movement of the craft.
gimbal ringv and gyroscope about the trunnion . .
In, the gyroscopic mechanism illustrated in 55 axis of the gyroscope, the contact, I85 moves off
Figs. 2a and 2b, there is a platform I61 that is
of the central insulating strip between the con
rotatably mounted about an axis, perpendicular . tacts I82 and I83 and into contact with one or
to the deck of the ship, represented by the end
the other of these latter contacts depending upon
the direction of the relative _ movement‘. The
of a shaft I58; The platform I51 may be ro-v
tated in accordance with the operation of a re 60 vcontact I82 is connected by ‘an electrical con
peater-‘motor I59 controlled by a transmitter at
ductor I86 to the motor I19, and the contact
I83 is connected by a conductor‘ I81 to the motor
a director?ior example, operated to maintain a
lineof'sight on‘ a target. ‘The repeater motor
I19. The contact I85 is connected. by a con
operates the contacts of a follow-up servo—mo 65 ductor I88 to a positive'line wire I89. A negative
line wire I90 is connected to the. motor by a con
tor I68 which [is connected through shafts I6I
ductor- I9I. Thus, uopn engagement of the con
'andIBZ'to a pinion I63 that is mountedtup'on‘
tact I85 with one or the other of the contacts
the shaft‘ I62. The pinion I63 meshes with a
I82 and I83, the motor I19 is energized and
gear formed on the periphery of the ‘circular
platform I51. The repeater motor I59 is con-' 70 causes a movement of the frame about its trun
nions until the gimbal ring I11 is positioned so
nected to one side of a di?erential I64 and the
that the contact I85 rests between the contacts
other side of the differential is connected to shaft
> I82 and I83. Since the phantom ring I16 is‘
I62. The center of the differential operates" a
movable. electrical contact‘ I65 which operatesv 7 carried by the frame it likewise will be moved
the mounting axes of the gyroscope‘ may vary
between two~stationary contacts I66 and IE1
with the frame.
'
>
_
.
13
2,411,087 ,
For moving the phantom ring about its trun- -- _ ' zontal with respect to movement about the frame
nions H611 and H61) there is provided a follow- Y .
up motor I92 that is mounted with/its shaft I93
perpendicular to the platform I51. The shaft
I93 is journaled in a bracket I94 that extends
from the upper end of the standard I13. On the
shaft I93 there is a gear I95 secured to the shaft
trunnions "Ba and I15b, the contact 2I9 car
ried by the pendulum will engage one or the‘
other or the contacts 2I1 and 2|! and cause a
precessional ‘torque to be applied to the gimbal I
_ ring and thus to the gyroscope. The'gyroscope
will respond by movement at right angles to the
axis about which the precessional force is applied
I93 and meshing with the gear I99 secured on to
a shaft I91 journaled in the bracket I-94. The "
shaft I91 has a ?exible connection in line with 10
the trunnions I15a and H511 and it is also jour
‘naled in a bearing bracket I99 carried by the '
/ frame I15. On the end of the shaft I91 there.
and thus cause the phantom ring to be moved to
a position where the pendulum 2I9 will rest be-'- .
tween the two contacts. Likewise movement of
the phantom ring from the true horizontal about
the axis I19a and "6b will cause the contact 229
on the pendulum 2“ to engage either the con
mental'worm gear 299 mounted onthe phantom 15. tact 22I or the contact‘ 222, and cause a preces
- ring I16 and concentric with'the trunnion axis
‘ sional force to be applied through the torque ap
_. of the phantom ring. The motor I92 is con
plicator 223 about the trunnions "-811 and H817
trolled by a pair of contacts 29I ‘which cooperate
of the gyroscope. The gyroscope will respond by
with a roller contact 292. The contacts 29I‘ are I movement about the axis "Ga and I16b of the
mounted on a bracket 293 secured'to the gimbal 20 phantom ring and thus bring the phantom ring
ring 111 and the roller contact is mounted upon
to a position in which the contact 229 is between
a bracket 294 mounted on the phantom ring.
and out of contact with the contacts 22I and 222.
The contacts 29I are connected by conductors 295
The pendulums 2I9 and 2| I will be between the’
and 296 to the motor I92. The contact 292 is
stationary contacts only when the phantom ring
connected. by a conductor 296a to a positive line 25 represents the true horizontal and the spin axis
wire 291. A negative line wire‘ 298 is connected
of the gyroscope represents the true vertical.
to the motor through a conductor 299. It will
The gyroscope is precessed continuously to com
thus be seen that upon relative movement of the
pensate for the rotation of the earth in the same
gimbal and phantom ring about the trunnions of
manner as the gyroscope illustrated in Fig. 1.
the gimbal the motor I92 will be operated and 30 The precessional mechanism includes torque ap
’ through the train of shafts and gears just de
plicators 224 and 225 and resistances 239 and 23I.
scribed will operate the phantom ring about its
The resistance 23l is for compensating for the
axis represented by the trunnions "Ga and I16b
latitude at which the ship‘ is operating and‘ the
'- until the phantom ring corresponds with the
resistance .239-is for distributing the compensat
movement of the'gimbal about this axis. The 35 ing forces for the rotation of the earth between
phantom ring is thus caused to follow accurately
the torque applicators 2.24 and 225. These re
the movements of the gyroscope.
sistances and their manner of operation, with one
For the purpose of providing a reference for I exception which will be described, and their con
the true vertical, thereiis provided a pair of pen-'
nection to the torque applicators and to the line
dulums 2I9 |and 2| I. The pendulum 2I9 swings 40 wires are identical in allrespects with that illus
about a pivot 2I2 that is mounted in a bracket
trated in conjunction with the gyroscopic mech
2I-3. The bracket 2| 3 is mounted on the phan- , anism disclosed in Fig. ‘l of the drawings and a
tom ring adjacent to the trunnion "5:; of the
description of these will not here be repeated.
frame and the pivot; 2I2 about which the pen
The only di?erence between the arrangement
dulum 2I9 swings is approximately parallel to the - for compensating forvthe rotation of the earth
axis of the frame. The pendulum 2H swings
disclosed in Fig. 1, and that disclosed in Fig. 2a,
about a pivot 2 I4 which is supported by a bracket
is that the armslof the resistance 239 are rotated
2I-5 that is mounted on the phantom ring adja
not in accordance with the course angle of the
cent to the trunnion “6a. The pivot 2“ is par
ship but rather inacc'ordance with the algebraic
allel to the axis of the phantom ring. The
v brack "50 'sum of the course angle of the ship and the angle
- ets 2I3 and 2I5 are mounted on the phantom ring that the trunnion axis I15a and. "51) of the
which as heretofore stated partakes of the move
frame of the gyroscope makes with the fore and
ment of the gyroscope.
aft line of the ship. The conditions for which the
Near the bob of the pendulum 2I9 there is
gyroscopic mechanism illustrated in Figs. 2a and
mounted an electrical contact 2I6 which cooper 55 2b are set is illustrated by the diagram in Fig. 3.v
ates with stationary‘contacts, one on each side'
In Fig. 3, there is illustrated the north and south
thereof, 2" and 2I8.> The contacts 2l6, 2" and
line which is represented by the letter N at the
H8 control a torque applicator 2I9 which is
top’ at the arrow. A line AB represents the course
mounted upon the phantom ring and which ap- ’
of. the ship and the angle NAB represents the
pliesa torque to the trunnion "111 of the gimbal 60 course angle Co of the ship. The line AB is a
is mounted a worm I99 that meshes with a seg
ring I11. The pendulum '2Il carries, adjacent
the bob, an electrical contact‘v 229, which cooper
ates withstationary electrical contacts,’ one on
each side thereof, 22I and 222. These contacts
control the energization of a torque applicator
2.23 which applies a torque to the gyroscope about
the axis I18a of the gyroscope, the torque appli
cator ‘being mounted upon the gimbalring I11.
The electrical connection from these contacts on
the pendulums are the same as inthe system de-‘
scribed in Fig. 1 and the, description of these
electrical connections will not be here given. It
will be seen that when the pendulum 2I9 swings
relative to its pivot by virtue of the phantom ring
assuming a position other than the true hori
‘
vector representing the speed of the ship. A line
AC represents the directionof the axis of the
frame of the gyroscopic. mechanism. It will be
seen that this line AC forms with the line AB‘ an
65 angle BAC represented by Be. The arms of the
resistance are therefore rotated in accordance '
with the sum or the'angle Co and Bs.
This rotation of these arms is accomplished
through the following mechanism: The angle Co
70 is obtained from a. compass receiver 232 which is
connected to one side of a differential 233. The
other side of the differential 233 is connected to
a shaft 233a to which is also connected the shaft
of a follow-up motor 235. The center of the
75 differential operates 'a movable contact 236 which
2,411,087
'
16
208 and to one end of the resistance 241.. The
electromagnet 243 is connected by conductors 26!
and 262 respectively to one end of the resistance
241 through conductors 263 and 264 and an arm
241a that moves over the resistance 241. The
wire 2'6l is also connected'through the conduc
tor 263 to the positive line wire 201. One end of
the resistance 241 is‘ therefore connected to the
cooperates with stationary contacts 231 and 236.
Upon operation of the compass repeater the con- .
tact 236 engages one or the other ofthe con
tacts 231, 238 depending upon the'direction of‘
movement of the compass receiver, and causes the
operation oi.’ the follow-up motor 235 until the
contact 236 is again brought between the two sta- '
tionary-_ contacts. Thus the shaft 233a is ro-'
positive conductor 201.
tated in accordance with the. compass angle of
The arm 245a of the potentiometer 245 is actu
the ship. The shaft 233a is connected to a dif 10
ated through a centrifugal device 266. The arm
ferential 234 and in this di?erentialv there is added
2460. of the potentiometer 246 is moved over the
to the compass angle Co of the ship the angle B5
' which is introduced to the differential 234 through
a shaft l6la. The other side of the differential
is connected through a shaft 234a to the .arms of
the resistance 230. The quantity Ba is obtained
from the repeater motor I59. As previously
' stated,>the follow-up motor I60 effects the rota
tion of a shaft I6l in accordance‘ with the rota
tion of the repeater motor and the'platform I51.
The shaft I6la' is connected to the shaft I6I.
Thus, the resistance 230 causes torques to be ap- .
plied to the gyroscope about its mutually perpen
dicular axes in accordance with E‘ cos ¢ sine
(Ca+B8) and E cos 45 cos (00-1-38).
Forces. are applied to the penduiums 2 l0 and 2| I
through electromagnets to offset the drag upon.
the pendulums by virtue of changes in the speed
of the ship upon which the gyroscope is mounted.
In this instance it is necessary to apply compen 30
sating forces to both of the pendulums when the
trunnion axis of the frame of the gyroscopic sys
tem does not coincide with the fore and aft line
of the ship. Whenever the trunnion axis of the
frame of thegyroscopic mechanism deviates from
the‘ fore and aft line of the ship, acceleration
forces will affect both of the pendulums in pro-J
portion to the deviation of the trunnion axis of
resistance 246-by a centrifugal device 265. A simi
lar centrifugal device 261 actuates the arm‘ 248a
over the resistance 248 and another similar cen-.
trifugal device 268 actuates the arm 241d over the
resistance 241.
A vector diagram representing the relation of
the ship’s speed with respect to the trunnion
axis of the frame of the gyroscopic mechanism
is illustrated in Fig. 3. In this figure, the-vector
Ab represents'the speed of the ship, the ship
traveling along the line AB. The trunnion axis
of the frame of the. gyroscope mechanism is
parallel to or is represented by the line AC. Re
solving the ship’s speed into the components
along and across the trunnion axis of the frame
of the gyroscope‘ there is obtained‘ the com
ponents Yo and X0. The centrifugal devices 265
and 266 for affecting the magnets 239 and 240 are
actuated, and the corresponding magnets ener
gized in accordance with changes in the com
ponent of the ship’s speed represented by the
component X0v and the centrifugal devices 261
and 268 which control the energization of mag
.nets 242 and 243 are actuated in accordance with
changes‘ in the component of the ship’s speed
along the trunnion axis of the frame or in pro~
' portion'to the component Yo. To obtain these
For this reason, there are provided electromag 40 components of the ship’s speed and so actuate
the centrifugal. devices in the manner vmennets 239 and 240 for applying an electromagnetic .
' the‘frame from the fore and aftline of the ship.
tioned there is provided a component solver 269.
The component solver is of a type well known
in the art ‘and includes a rotatably ‘mounted
force to an armature 24l on the arm of the pen
dulum 2I0. Similarly,~ there are provided elec
tromagnets 242 and 243 for applying the electro
magnetic forces to an armature .244 on the arm 45 plate 210 having thereon a radially mounted
screw-shaft 21l. The screw-shaft is operated
through a pair of bevel gears 212, one of‘ which is
of the pendulum 2| I. The energization of the
magnets 239 and 240 is controlled by resistances
245 and 246 similar in all respects to the resist
, journaled in the plate and the other of which
is mounted on the screw-shaft. ‘Threaded onto
ances I06 and I08 of Fig. 1. ' The energization of
electromagnets 242 and 243 is controlled by re 50 the screw-shaft thereiis a block 213 that carries
a pin 214 which extends perpendicular to the‘
sistances in the form of potentiometers 241 and
surface of the plate. The pin 214 exmnds
248 which also are in all respects similar to the
through slotted bars 215 and 2.16 which‘extend
at right angles to each other. ,These slotted bars
resistances I06 and I08 of the system illustrated
in Fig. 1.
The electromagnet 239 is connected respec
tively by conductors 249 and 250to one side of
the resistance 246 through conductor 253 and to
55.
‘ are respectively perpendicular, to the bars of
which they form a part. ‘\The plate 210 has a ’
the movable arm 246a which moves over the re
sistance 246. The conductor 249 is also con
V _
are constrained to movement laterally. The bar
215 carries a rack, (indicated diagrammatically)
215a and the bar '216 carries a rack 216a which
nected tov the positive line wire 25I by a conductor 60 gear on the‘ peripherylthereof which meshes
with a gear 211 that is rotated by the shaft l6l,.
252. The resistance 245 is connected to a nega
_which as heretofore mentioned is rotated in ac
tive line wire 254 by a conductor 255 and to the
cordance with the angle BS or the angle that the
positive line wire 25l by the conductors 249 and
trunnion axis of the frame of the gyroscopic
I 252. The electromagnet 240 is connected respec
mechanism makes with the fore and aft line of
_ tively by-conductors 256 and 251120 one end of
the ‘ship. The pm 214 ‘is set ,relative to the‘
center of the plate 210 to a position representing
the speed of the ship by the screw shaft 2“.
the resistance 245 through conductor 255,’ and
the arm 245a that moves over the‘ resistance 245.
Thus, these resistances in the form of potentiom
The speed of the ship is obtained from a re
70 peater motor 218 which is connected to one side . ,
of the differential 219. V The other side of the‘
eters. control the energiz‘ation of the magnets '
239, and 240.
The magnet 242 is connected through conduc
tors 258 and 259 ‘respectively to one end of the
resistance 240 through conductors 260, and an
arm 248a that moves over the resistance 248. The
differential 219 is connected to a shaft 200 and‘
the center of the differential is connectedto move
a movable electrical contact 28I. The electrical
wire268 is also connected to the negative line wire 75 ‘contact 28! cooperates with stationary contacts
2,411,087
17
,
282 and 283 for the purpose of controlling a
follow-up motor 284'. The follow-up motor 284
is connected to the shaft 288 and thus the shaft
288 is driven by the motor 284 in accordance with
the movement of the repeater motor 218. The
axis of the frame. of the gyroscope and the '
potentiometers 245 and 248 are actuated in ac
cordance with the rate ‘of change of the com
ponent of the ship’s speed across or at right
angles to the trunnion axis of the frame of the
shaft 288 is connected to one side of the dif
gyroscope.
ferential 285, the other side of which is connected
by a shaft 286 to the bevel gear 212. The center
. of the diiferential 285 is connected by a shaft
281 to the shaft 181. The purpose of the dif
ferential 285 is to offset the effect on the screw
'
the pendulums. For the pendulum 218 there are
provided electromagnets 318 and 311 mounted_
on the bracket 213 and positioned to act upon
the plate 218 would cause the gear on the screw
an armature .312 mounted upon the arm of the '
shaft to turn with respect to the other bevel gear
pendulum.
The differential 285' -
offsets this effect so that the rotation of the
screw-shaft 211 is only effected by rotation of
the repeater motor 218.
'
10 provided a pair of electromagnets for‘ each of
shaft 211 ofv the rotation of the plate 218. In
the absence of the differential 285 rotation of
as it walked around it.
‘
For the purpose of compensating for accelera
tion forces acting on the pendulum due to
changes in course of the ship there is likewise
'
Electromagnets 313 and .314 are
mounted on opposite sides of the arm of the
' pendulum 211, the electroniagnets 313 and 314
being mounted on the‘ bracket 215 and positioned
to act upon an armature 315 mounted upon the
From this arrangement, in 3a manner that is 20 arm of the pendulum 211. These electromagnets
well known in the art, the components of the
are energized to provide a force on the armatures,
speed of theship along and across the trunnion
proportional“ to the product of the rate of tum
axis of the frame of the gyroscope are obtained.
. ing of the ship and the components of the speed
The component along the trunnion axis or the
of the ship along ‘and at right angles 'to the '
component Yo is obtained from movement of the
trunnion axis of the frame of the gy‘roscope'. In
rack 21511. This rack meshes with a gear 288
‘this connection it will be appreciated that con-v
which is connected to a shaft 289. The shaft
ditions may arise whereby these acceleration
289 is connected to one side of a differential 298
forceswill be negative instead of positive, for ex-'
and the other side of the differential is con
ample, when the trunnion axis of the gyroscope is
nected to a shaft 291 to which the centrifugal 30 rotated 188° with respect to the fore and -aft
devices 281 and 288 are connected respectively
by shafts 292 and 293 which contain unidirec-l
tional clutches. The center of the. differential
operates a movable contact 294 which cooperates
with stationary contacts 295 and 298 and so
control a follow-up servo-motor 291 which is also
connected to the shaft 291. The centrifugal de
line ‘of the ship. For this reason, the multipliers
utilized in providing the product of the rudder.
' angle of the ship and the square of the com
35
ponents of the speed of the ship are slightly dif
ferent from the multipliers used where the
gyroscopic mechanism is fixed with respect to
the fore and ,aft line of the ship.
.
vices 281 and 288 are thus driven in accordance
with changes in the speed of the‘craft along the i
.Theenergization of the electromagnet 318 is
controlled by'a resistance 318, and energization
trunnion axis of the frame of the gyroscope.
40 of the magnet 311 is controlled bywa resistance
The component of the. speed ‘of the ship at
311. For this ‘purpose, opposite sides of the
right angles to the trunnion axis of the frame
electromagnet'318, are connected by conductors
of the gyroscope is obtained from the rack 218a.
This rack meshes with a pinion 298 ‘that is con
nected onto a shaft 299. The shaft 299 is con
nected to one side of a differential 388. The
other side of the differential 3.88 is connected to
a shaft 381. The center of the differential op
erates a movable electrical. contact ‘382 that
cooperates with a pair of ,stationary contacts 383 .
and 384. The stationary contacts 383 and384
control the energization of a follow-up servo
motor 385. The servo-motor 385 is connected to
the shaft 381. Likewise, the centrifugal devices ‘
285 and 288 are connected to the shaft 381 re
' spectively through shaft 388 and 381.
318 and 318 respectively to an arm 318a that
moves over the resistance 318 and one side of the
resistance 318 through a conductor 324.
The.
electromagnet 311» is connected by conductors,
328. and 321 respectively to an arm 311a that
moves over the resistance 311 and one side of
,the resistance 3 I 1 through a conductor 323. The
conductor 319 is also connected through a con- '
ductor 322 to the positive‘ line wire 189 and the
opposite end of the resistance 311 is connected
through the conductor v323 to the“ negative
line wire 198. vThe outer end of the resistance »
316 is connected to the negative line wire 198
by the conductors 321 and 323. Thus, upon
l The shaft 388 has interposed therein a uni
movement of the arms 318a and 311a over their
directional clutch 388 and the shaft 381 has ‘in
respective resistances 318 and 311 the )electro
,terposed therein a unidirectional clutch 389.
magnets are energized in proportion to the.
Direction of transmission of motion through the
amount. these arms move from the position in
clutches 388 and 389 is opposite, that is, the 60 which they are shown.
’
clutch 388 will transmit motion to the centrifugal
The arms 318a and 311a are mounted in com
device 285 when the shaft 381 rotates in one‘
mon’upon a lever 325 ‘of a multiplier 328. 'The
direction, but will not transmit it when it '
multiplier is the type well known in the art and
rotates in the opposite direction. The unidirec
(i5 consists of a link 321 having atransverse bar
tional clutch 389 on the other hand will trans
328 with a slot therein. The link ispivotally
mit rotation of the shaft 381 in the direction
connected to the lever 325 at one end and at
opposite to the direction through which motion
the opposite end it is pivotally connected to one
is
transmitted through the unidirectional
clutch 388.
)
‘Due to the speed measuring action of the
‘.Hc‘entrifugal devices it will be seen that the
end of a lever 338 that is pivoted at 331.
70 Mounted adjacent the transverse bar 328 and
pivoted to swing about a ?xed pivot 332 is a bar '
333 which carries as an integral part thereof an
potentiometers 241 and 248 are operated in ac
arcuate rack 334. A screw-shaft 329 is rotat
cordance with the rate of change of the com
ably mounted in brackets 335 and 338 (see Fig.
' ponent of the ship’s speed along the trunnion 75 5) opposite a slot in the bar 333. The ‘screw
. 2,411,087
.
19
20
.
The gear 338 is secured on one end of a shaft 339
and 314 in accordance with‘ the movement of the
arms 354a and 355a over the resistances. The
that is journaled in brackets 340 and 341 mounted
upon the bar 333. On the opposite end of the
:?liever 365 which forms a Part of a multiplier
shaft 329 is operated through gears 331 and 338.
arms 354a and 355a are mounted in common upon
shaft 339 there is a bevel gear 342 that meshes
with bevel gear 343. The bevel gear 343 which
is mounted concentric with the pivot 332 meshes
with the bevel gear 344 which is rotated by the
shaft 291.
On the screw-shaft 329 there is
The multiplier 366 is in all respects similar
to the multiplier 326 and the 'details thereof will
not be described. The screw-shaft of the mul
tiplier 366 is rotated in accordance with the ro
threaded a pivoted block 345 that extends into 10 tation of shaft 391 which as heretofore described is rotated in accordance with the component of
the slot in the bar 326. Since the shaft 291 is,
the ship’s speed across the trunnion axis of the
as heretofore described, rotated in accordance
frame of the gyroscope. The arcuate rack of
with the component of the ship’s speed parallel
the multiplier 366 is actuated through agear
to the trunnion axis of the frame of the gyroscope
the block 345 will be' positioned along the screw 15, 361 that is connected to a shaft 368 which in turn '
is connected to the shaft 341. The inputs to the
'shaft, on either side of the center thereof, in
multiplier are therefore the rudder angle of the
} accordance with the component of the ship’s
ship and the square of the component of the
speed along the trunnion axis of the frame of
the gyroscope, and more particularly propor
.
speed of the ship at right angles to the trunnion
tional to the square of the component of the 20 axis of the gyroscope. The product of these is
represented by the movement of the arm 365 and
ship’s speed since the screw on the shaft is cut
the. energization of magnets 313 and 314 is in
to effect this result. The arcuate rack 334
proportion to the product of the rudder angle of
meshes with a gear 346that is mounted upon a
the ship, and the'square of the component of the
shaft 341; The shaft 341 is rotated in accord
ance with the operation of a repeater motor 348 25 speed of the ship at right angles to the trunnion
axis of the frame of the gyroscope.
that is actuated in accordance with‘the rudder
In Fig. 4 of the drawings there is illustrated a
angle of the ship. The repeater motor 348 is
connected to one side of‘a differential 349 and ~ modi?ed form of a portion of the system illus
trated in Fig. 1. In the system illustrated in Fig.
the shaft 341 is connected to the other side of
this same. differential. The center of the dif
30 4 the effect of the rotation of the earth is com
pensated by potentiometers which are operated
ferential operates a movable electrical contact
by a component solver that resolves the move
350 that cooperates with stationary contacts 351
ment of the earth into components along and
and 352 for controlling the operation of a follow
transverse to the fore and aft line of the ship
up servo-motor 353. The servo-motor 353 is
alsoconnected to the shaft 341 so that the shaft 35 or along and transverse to the‘, trunnion axis of
the frame of the gyroscope. In addition, the rate
341 is driven‘ by the servo-motor in accordance
of turning of the ship is utilized directly in con‘
with the operation of the repeater motor 348.
trolling the energization of the electromagnets.
Thus the bar'333 is swung about the pivot 332
for counteracting the effect on the pendulums of
in accordance with the vrudder angle of the ship.
centrifugal force due to changes in course of the
,Depending upon the position of the block 345
ship. It is in this respect that the system illus
with respect to the center 332 the link 321 will
be moved a greater or lesser extent and in a
trated in Fig. 4 differs from that previously de-
direction corresponding to‘the position of, the
scribed.
‘
h
_
For the purpose of providing a current/propor
block with respect to the center 332. Such
~movement of the link 321 will be transmitted to 45 tional to the rotation of the earth ‘with respect ~
to the trunnion axis of the frame of the gyro
the lever 325 and thus cause the movement of
scope and at right angles thereto, there is pro
the arms 316a and 311a over the resistances 316
vided a component solver 369. This component
and 311.
'
solver consists of a plate 310' which has formed
In a similar manner the magnets 313 and 314
are energized in accordance with the product of 50 integral therewith a radial arm 311. The radial
arm carries a pin 312 which extends through slots
the rudder‘ angle of the ship and the square of
in bars 313 and 314, the bars-313 and 314 being
the component of the speed of the ship acrossor
at right angles to the trunnion axis of the frame '
of the gyroscopic mechanism. For the purpose
“of controlling the energization of these magnets
mutually perpendicular.
its relation to the arm 311\as
The pinthe
312rotation
is ?xed in
of
the earth is a constant factor. The bar 313 car
' there are provided resistances or potentiometers
ries a lateral arm 313a upon which is mounted a
354 and 355. The electromagnet 313 is connected
by conductors 356 and 351 respectively to an
transverse electrical contact 315. Similarly, the
bar 314 carries a lateral arm 314a that has mount- '
ed thereon a transverse electrical contact 316.
arm 354a of the potentiometer. 354 and one end
of the resistance 354 through a conductor 364. 60 The contacts 315 and 316 are electrically insulated
from the arms uponwhich they are mounted.
The electromagnet 314 is connected by conduc
The contact 315 travels over a resistance 311 and
tors 358 and 359 respectively to an arm 355a of
.makes contact between the resistance 311 and _
the potentiometer 355 and one side of the resist
ance 355 through conductors 363 and 361. > The
spaced contact bars 318 and 319. The contact
wire 351 is alsoconnected to a positive line Wire
3611 and thus one side of the resistance 355 is con
315 and resistance 311 and the‘ contact bars 318
and 319 are in all respects similar, in so‘far as
their electrical relation is concerned, to the arm
55b and the circular resistance 55 and bars 80
nected to this positive line wire. The other end
of the resistance‘ 355 is connected through con
and 81.- The resistance‘ 311 instead of being ar
ductors 361 and 363 to negative line wire 362.
The conductor 359 is connected by conductor 363 70 ranged in the form of a circle or semicircle, is
arranged linearly. Similarly; the contact 32"’;
to the negative line wire 362 and the'other side
of the resistance 354 is connected by a conductor
_ travels over a- resistance 380 and makes contact‘
between the resistance 38!! and spaced electrical
conductor bars 381 and 382. The conductor bars
355 control the energization of the magnets 313 75 362 and 381 ‘and the resistance 389 correspond
364 to the positive line wire 360. Thus, through
these connections the . potentiometers 354 and
'
2,411,087
-..
with the bars 18 and ‘I9 and the circular resist
to those torque applicators.
'
.
which actuates arms “81: and 4l9a of poten
tiometers M8 and “9. These potentiometers are
a
connected in the same manner as the potentiom
The correction for the latitude at which the
ship is traveling is inserted manually through a
eters H23 and I24 to the electromagnets which
act on the armatures connected to the arms of the
crank handle» 383. This causes a variation in a
resistance 384 and so a variation in the voltage
across resistances 311 and 388 so that the volt
age supplied is proportional to the rotation of
pendulums.’
From the foregoing it will be seen that there is
provided by the invention herein disclosed and
described a freely mounted gyroscope which is
maintained at all times with its spin axis vertical.
the earth modi?ed by the cosine of the latitude
at which the ship is traveling.
22
due to changes of course of the ship. The mul-'
tiplier H4 is connected to operate a lever 4"
ance 55. These resistances and bars are con
nected to the torque applicators 53 and- 54 in the
same manner as the resistance 55 is connected
‘
> 'The spin axis of the gyroscope is maintained ver
The plate 318 is rotated in accordance with the
tical through reference pendulums which are
course angle of the ship. The course angle of 15 prevented from assuming '_ the pseudo-vertical
the ship is obtained from a compass repeater
upon changes in the movement of the'ship by
385 which is connected'to one side of a differen
tial 388.
. mechanism which continuously calculates and
The other side of the differential is
connected to a shaft 381 which in turn is con
‘ nected to a shaft 388. The center of the differen
tial operates a movable electrical contact 389 that
cooperates with. two stationary contacts 398 and
39!. The contacts 389, 398 and 39! control the
2,0
generates forces proportional and opposite to the
acceleration forces acting on the pendulums which
forces‘ are applied to and prevent‘ any lag of the
pendulums and cause them accurately to partake
of the changes'in the motion of the vessel. In
consequence of the spin axis of the gyroscope rep- »
I operation of‘a follow-up servo-‘motor 392 which
resenting the true vertical at all times, the phan
is connected by a shaft 393 to the shaft 381. The 25 tom. ring of the freely mounted gyroscope must
shaft 381 is thus driven in accordance with the
represent'the true horizontal at all times. There
movement of the repeater motor 385. The plate
is thus provided a gyroscopic mechanism by means
318 and the arm 3'“ are thus rotated in accord
of which there is a reference, on a moving vessel,
- ance with the compass angle of the ship and the
bars 313 and 314,represent the components of 30' of the true vertical and the true horizontal.
It will also \be seen that a pendulum or pen
this movement along and across the trunnion
dulums corrected for accelerations as herein dis
axis of the frame of the gyroscope.
,
closed constitute a stable vertical and in many
The shaft 388 is also connected to centrifugal
cases may be used as such without the ?ltering *
devices 394 and 395. This connection is effected
e?ect obtained by interposing a gyroscope be
to the centrifugal device 394 through‘ a shaft 396 35
tween the vertical ‘determined by the pendulous
a in whicli there is interposed a unidirectional
mass vand the follow-up mechanism. In other
clutch 391.
The centrifugal device 395 is con
‘words the pendulous mass which determines the
true vertical at all times may directly control the
nected to the shaft 388 through a shaft 398
including a unidirectional clutch 399., The uni
mechanism. ’In such cases, since the
directional clutches 391 and 399 operate to trans 40 ‘follow-up
pendulous mass continually remains at the ver
mit motion when the shaft 388 rotates in one di
tical due to the compensation. for accelerations,
rection'or the other, that is, each. clutch will
no
correction is necessary for the rotation of the
transmit the opposite direction of motion of the
earth or movement of the ship\over the earth
shaft 388. The centrifugal device 394 operates,
other than that effected by the natural pull of
through a rack 488, a gear 48l connected through
a shaft 482 to one side of a differential 483. The
centrifugal device 395 operates, through a rack
’ 484, a gear 485 that is connected by a shaft 486
to the other side of the differential 483. The
algebraic sum of these movements is represented
by the movement of the center of the differential
45
gravity.
'
‘
_
.
'
.
It will, be obvious ‘that various changes may be
made by those skilled in the art in the details of
the embodiment of the invention disclosed in the»
drawings and described above within the prin
ciple and scope of the invention as expressed in
the appended claims.
‘
.
'
which is connected by a shaft 481 to one side of
another differential 488. The other side of the
1. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
differential 488 isconnected to a shaft 489 that is
the combination comprising a gyroscope sup
operated by a follow-up servo-motor M8. The
follow-up servo-motor is controlled by a movable 65 port, a gyroscope mounted in the support for move
ment about mutually perpendicular axes, a pen
contact 4“ that is operated through the. center
,
dulum mounted to swing “about an axis parallel
of the differential 488' and cooperating with sta
to one of said mutually perpendicular axes, means
tionary contacts‘ M2 and M3. The shaft‘ 489 ‘is,
controlled by movement of'the pendulum about
thus power-driven in accordance with the move
its
axis relative to the support for exerting a pre
60
ment of the shaft 481. The shaft 489 drives one
'cessing
force about the other of said‘ mutually
‘ side of a multiplier “4 through a gear “"5 that
perpendicular axes. means for generating forces
is driven by the shaft 489. The other side of the ' proportional
to the changes in movment of the
multiplier 4l4', or the uniform lead screw-shaft
craft at’right angles to the axis about which
4l4a, isoperated in accordance with the rotation
the pendulum swings,_ and means for applying
of a shaft 4|8 that is operated in accordance with 65 theigenerated forces to the pendulum to‘annul
the speed of the ship. Through the arrangement
in the pendulum the effect of the changesin the
of the centrifugal devices 394 and 395 the rate
course and speed of the craft. ‘
of turning or the rate of change in compass angle
2. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
of the vessel is obtained andtthus the gear'4l5 is 70 the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
rotated in amount representing the rate of turn
a gyroscope mounted in the support for oscilla
ing of the ship. When the rate of turning of the
tion ‘about mutually perpendicular horizontal
‘ ship is ‘multiplied by the speed of the ship the
axes, a pendulum, means controlled thereby for
product is ‘proportional to the acceleration or I j exerting a processing force,to‘ effect precession of‘
centrifugal forces which act upon the pendulums 75 the gyroscope about said mutually perpendicular
2,411,087.
24
' of said mutually perpendicular‘ axes, means for
exerting a precessing force upon the gyroscope
about the other of said mutually perpendicular
axes upon pivotal movement of the pendulum,
relative to the gyroscope, means for generating
forces proportional to the changes in rate ofv
movement of the craft, means for applying the
generated forces to they pendulum to annul in the
pendulum the ve?ect of changes in the course and
axes upon relative movement of the pendulum
about its axis, and means for applying forces to
the pendulum to compensate for the effect there
on of changes in the rate of movementof the
craft at right angles to the axis about which
cessing forces to the gyroscope about said axes
proportional to the components of rotation of‘ ' the pendulum swings.
the earth including means for generating prev 10 8'. In a gyro vertical-for use on a moving craft,
the combination comprising a gyroscope, a'pen
cessing forces proportional to said components;
.3. In a gyro verticalfor use on a moving craft. ' dulum arranged and connected to exert a verti
speed of the ‘craft, and means for applying pre- '
cal-seeking precessing force on the gyroscope
the combination comprising a gyroscope support
upon relative tilt therebetween, and means for
adapted to be ?xed to the craft, a frame mounted
in the support for oscillatory movement aboutan 15 annulling the effect on the pendulum of changes
axis parallel to the base of the gyroscope sup- . in the course of the craft including means for
generating forces proportional to the product of
port, a phantom ring mounted in the frame for -
movement about an axis perpendicular to the,
axes of the frame, a gim-bal ring mounted in the
phantom ring for movement about an axis per 20
allel to‘ the axis of the phantom ring, a. gyroscope
mounted in the gimbal ring for movement about
an ‘axis parallel to the axis of the frame, means
the rate of turning and the speed of the craft
and means for applying said generated forces to
the pendulums.
.
.
v
9. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
the combination of a gyroscope support, a gyro
scope mounted in the support, pendulous means
arranged and connected to exert vertical-seeking
for effecting movement of the phantom ring in
_ accordance with the relative angular movements 25 precessing forces on the gyroscope, means re
sponsive to accelerations of the craft and means
of the gyroscope, a pendulum supported by the
controlled by said responsive means for applying'
phantom ring to swing about an‘ axis parallel to
forces to said pendulous means to neutralize the
the axis of the frame, means actuated by relative
effect of the accelerations on the pendulous .
movement of the pendulum and phantom ring for
applying a precessing force on the gyroscope 30
10. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
upon the inclination‘ of the phantom ring and
the combination of a gyroscope support, a gyro
frame about the axis of the frame, another pen
scope mounted in the support, pendulous means
‘ dulum supported ‘by the phantom ring to swing
arranged and connected to exert vertical-seeking
about an axis parallel to the axis of. the phantom
ring, means actuated by the said latter pendulum 35 precessing forces on the gyroscope, means re
sponsive to accelerations of the craftand means
for‘ applying a precessing force 'on the gyroscope _
controlled by said responsive means for applying
upon the inclination of the phantom ring about
means.
and course of the craft.
-
a
-
.
forces to said pendulous means to neutralize the .
its axis, and means for compensating for the '
effect on the pendulums of changes in the speed
'
effect of the accelerations on the pendulous
40 means, and means for applying precessingforces
to the gyroscope proportional to the rotation of
'4. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
the combination comprising a. gyroscope support,
the earth.
-
Q
‘
a freely mounted gyroscope in the support, a sus
pended mass arranged and connected to exert a
11. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft .
and means for applying such forces to the mass
to compensate'for the drag on said mass upon
movement about mutually perpendicular axes, a
suspended mass arranged and connected to exert
50 a vertical-seeking precessing force on‘ the gyro-.
the combination comprising a platform mounted
vertical-seeking precessing force on the gyroscope‘, 45 for rotation about an axis perpendicular to the
deck of said craft, means for rotating the plat
means for generating forces ‘proportional to
form, a gyroscope mounted on the platform for
changes in therate of movement of the craft,
changes in the rate of movement of the craft.
5?. In a‘ gyro verticalfor use on a moving craft,
scope, means for generating forces proportional
the combination comprising a gyroscope, a sus-v '
pended mass arranged and connected to exert a
vertical-seeking precessing force on the gyroscope,
and means for compensating for the effect on the
suspended mass of changes in the course of the
to changes‘ in the rate of movement of the craft
in components along said axes, means for apply
ing such forces to the mass to compensate for
’ the drag on said mass upon changes'in the rate .
of movement of , the craft, means for generat-
ing forces‘proportional to the angular relation
of the platform to the craft in components along
craft including meansfor generating forces pro
portlonal to the product of the rudder angle and
the square of the speed of the craft, and means
the said axes, and means' for applying such‘ forces
for applying said forces to the suspended mass. 60 to the mass-to compensate for the drag on said
6. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
mass upon changes in the position of the plat
the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
form relative to the craft.
a freely mounted gyroscope in the support, a pen- .
12. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft
dulum arranged and connected to exert‘a verti
cal-seeking force‘ on the gyroscope, means for gen
erating forces proportional to the changes in the
rate of movement of the craft, and means for
applying such generated forces to the pendulum
65
the combination comprising a platform mount
ed for rotation about an axis perpendicular to
the deck of said craft, means for rotating the
platform, a gyroscope mounted on the platform,
for movement about mutually perpendicular axes,
to annul in ,the pendulum the effect of the changes
a suspended mass arranged and connected to ex
70 ert a_vertical-seeking precessing force on the gy
in the rate of movement of the craft.
7. In a gyro vertical for ‘use on a moving craft,
roscope, electric means for generating forces pro
the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
portional to changes in the rate of movement of
a gyroscope mounted in the support for movement
the craft in components along said axes, electro
about mutually perpendicular axes,‘ a pendulum
mounted to swing about an axis parallel to one 75 magnetic-means or applying such forces to the
' ‘
2,411,087
25
mass to compensate for the drag on said mass
upon changes in the rate of movement, of the
craft, electric means for. generating forces pro- '
portional to the angular relation of the platform
to the craft in components along the said axes,
and electromagnetic means for applying such
forces to the mass to compensate for the drag on
N26
rate of movement of the craft at right angles to'
the axis about which the pendulum swings.
17. In apparatus of the class described, a gyro
horizon for aircraft, means for exerting a stabi
lizing force thereupon, means normally de?ning ’
the true vertical but ‘tending to .establish an ap
parent vertical during acceleration and decelera
tion of the aircraft, means for governing the ?rst
platform relative to the craft.
named means in response to movements of the
13. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving-craft“ 10 gyro horizon relative to the means de?ning the
the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
true vertical, means for exerting a force upon
a gyroscope mounted in the support for move
the vertical de?ning means, and means responsive
ment about mutually perpendicular‘ axes, two
to acceleration and deceleration of the aircraft
_ pendulums mounted to swing in axes perpendic
for controlling the last named means to prevent
ular to each’ other and respectively parallel to 15 said vertical de?ning means from establishing an
the said mutually perpendicular axes, means con
apparent vertical.
said mass upon changes in the position of the '
trolled by the movements of the pendulums about
‘their respective axes relative to the support for
18. In apparatus of the class described, a gyro .
rotor in gimbal ring suspension, means for exert
exerting precessing forces about the other of the
ing a stabilizing moment upon said suspension, a
said mutually perpendicular axes respectively, 20 pendulum normally de?ning the true vertical but
means for generating forces proportional to the
tending to establish an apparent vertical when
changes in movement of the craft ‘at right an
gles to the axes about which the respective pen
dulums swing, and means for applying the gen
acceleration
forces _ act thereon,
means
for
actuating the ?rst named means in response to
movements of said suspension from a pre
erated forces to the pendulums to ,annul in the 25 determined angular relation with said pendulum,
pendulums the effect of the changes in the course
means for exerting a stabilizing moment upon
and speed of the craft.
,
the pendulum, and means responsive to accelera
14. A gyro vertical, comprising a universally
tion forces for controlling the last named means
mounted gyroscope pendulum means effective to
to prevent said pendulum from establishing an
maintain the spin axis of said gyroscope vertical,
apparent vertical.
means responsive to both directional and veloc
19. The combination with a gyro horizon in
ity accelerations, and means controlled by said
cluding a gimbal ring suspension of means for
acceleration responsive means to apply forces to
exerting a stabilizing moment upon the suspen
said pendulum means proportional to a function _
sion, gravity responsive means for controlling the
of such accelerations, said forces being effective
?rst named means, and acceleration responsive
to neutralize the effect on said pendulum means -means for actuating said gravity responsive
of said accelerations and thereby to maintain said _
means to compensate for the effect of acceleration
pendulum means and the spin axis of the gyro
upon the gravity responsive means.
scope vertical.
'
‘20; The combination with a gyro horizon of ‘
15. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft, 40 means ‘for exerting a stabilizing moment there
the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
a gyroscope mounted in the support for move
upon, gravity responsive means for governing the
?rst named means, acceleration responsive means,
ment about mutually perpendicular axes, a pen
and means for operatively interconnecting the
dulum mounted to swing about an axis parallel
acceleration responsive means and the gravity
to or coincident'with one of said mutually per 45 responsive means to prevent the latter from
pendicular axes, means controlled by movement
establishing an apparent vertical.
of the pendulum about its axis relative to the sup
21. In a gyroscopic arti?cial horizon for lair-v
port for exerting a precessing force about the ' craft, comprising a gyroscope including a rotor
other of said mutually perpendicular axes, means
having a normally vertical spin axis and mounted
‘for generating forces proportional to the changes 50 for relative angulaFmovement about two hori
in movement of the craft at right angles to the
zontal axes mutually perpendicular to said spin
axis about which the pendulum swings, and means
axis, the combination with said gyroscope of
for applying the generated forces to the pendulum
means normally de?ning the true vertical but
to annual in the pendulum the effect of the
tending to de?ne an apparent vertical during
- changes in the course and speed of the craft. 55 acceleration or deceleration of the aircraft, means
_ 16. In a gyro vertical for use on a moving craft,
responsive to acceleration and deceleration of
the combination comprising a gyroscope support,
said ‘aircraft for actuating said vertical de?ning
a gyroscope mounted in the support for movement
means to counteract the tendency. thereof to
about mutually perpendicular axes, a pendulum
establish an apparent vertical, whereby said ver
mounted to swing about an axis parallel to or
tical de?ning means de?ne the true?ve'rjtical at
60 i
coincident with one of said mutually perpendicu- - - all times, and means responsive to relative-move
lar axes, means for exerting, a precessing force
ment between-said vertical de?ning means and
the spin axis of said rotor for applying a torque
lative move; to said gyroscope to cause precession of said spin
ment of the pendulum about its axisrand means 65 axis to the true vertical.
for applying forces to ‘the pendulum tocompen
HANNIBAL C.‘FORD.
sate for the e?ect thereon or changes in-the
ELLIOTT P. ROSS.
upon the gyroscope about the~_other of said
mutually perpendicularaxes upon
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