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A. G. @@@LEY
@AMAN
REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 28, 1943
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IN VEN TOR.
A . G.COOLE Y
Nov.; 19, 15946„
A. G. QOOLEY >
291431.34?
REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS
Filed OGL 28, 1943
HJVIENTOR.
AAB .COO
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Nov. 19, l946.
A, @_ @@@LEY
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REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 28, 1943
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4 `Sheets-Sheet 3
Nov. 19, 1946.
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REMOTE CONTROL- SYSTEM AND APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 28, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
ÍNI/ENTOR.
A.G.COOL_EY
Mlm
'GM/wb)
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,147
UNITED STATES- PATENT OFFICE
2,411,147
'
REMOTE-CONTROL SYSTEM AND
APPARATUS
.
Austin G. Cooley, New York, N. Y., assignor to
Times Telephoto Equipment Inc., New York,
N. Y., a corporation of
New York
Application October 28, 1943, Serial No. 508,041
l
6 Claims.
This invention relates to the remote control of
the position oi' objects, such as guns, searchlights,
pointers and the like, through the instrumental
ity of electric motors.
One object of the invention is to provide a re
mote control system in which the position of the
movable object may be controlled with great pre
cision and in which considerable power is avail
able, if required.
Other objects and advantages ofthe invention
will become apparent from the following descrip
tion of the preferred embodiments thereof shown
in the accompanying drawings, wherein
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a remote con
trol system utilizing two synchronous motors at
the receiving station, one operating at constant
speed and the other at variable speed.
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a system utilizing a
Another object of the invention is to provide a 10
single control circuit for a plurality of transmis
sion channels.
which the number of conductors or circuits be
Fig. 3 is a view of a modified form of phase
tween the control station and the receiving sta
shifting means that may be used at the control
tion is reduced to a minimum, and in which the
station.
‘
construction of the apparatus employed is simpler
system of the above-mentioned character in
than that heretofore proposed.
,
Fig. 4 illustrates another modification employ
ing optical elements.
A further object of the invention is to provide
Fig.,5 is a plan view of the disc shown in Fig. 4.
an electrical remote control system in which the
Fig. 6 illustrates a form of motor mechanism
control current transmitted from the control sta
tion to the receiving station is of such character 20 in which no differential gearing is required.
Fig. ’7 is a diagrammatic View of another modi
' that it may be amplified at the receiving station
iication of the system according to the invention.
to supply the operating power required at that
Referring to the drawings, Fig. 1 illustrates a
point without introducing an error in the re
remote control system 'comprising two single
sponse of the motor mechanism.
'
vA still further object of the invention is to pro- 25 phase synchronous motors II and I2 connected
to an alternating-current supply circuit I3. The
vide improved control apparatus responsive to the
motors II and I2 are arranged to drive amem
diiïerence in phase or frequency between two a1
ber I4 (constituting or connected to an object to
ternating currents.
Y
be controlled) through differential gearing I5,
In accordance with the invention, accurate con
trol oi’ an object to be positioned is effected by 30 whereby the member I4 is moved in accordance
With the difference in speeds of the motors I I and
controlling the' speed of a continuously rotating
I2.
single-phase synchronous motor. In its preferred
In order to vary the relative speeds of the mo
form, two synchronous motors or two synchronous
elements of a combined motor are differentially
tors II and I2 to eifect desired control of the `
connected to actuate the controlled (operating) 35 member I4, means is provided to alter the phase
or frequency of the current supplied to the motor
member or shaft in accordance with the diiïer
I2. As shown, phase-shifting means I6 of the
ence in speeds between the two motors or motor
type capable of shifting phase more than 360° is
elements. The speed of one or both of the motor
connected between the supply circuit I3 and mo
elements is controlledjliy,v varying the phase or
tor
The phase-shifting means I6 comprises
frequency
'
of the curr‘eiftf'oir- currents transmitted 4o two I2.
stationary field poles Il and I8 disposed 90°
from the primary station or control station to the
apart and provided with windings connected to
receiving station. The frequency of the control
the circuit I3 directly and through a condenser
current is Ípreferably oi' the order of 1000 or 2000
I8, respectively. The capacity of the condenser
cycles per second, the motor element being con
structed to run on current of this frequency and 45 I9 is such that the magnetization of one field pole
is displaced 90° with respect to the other pole.
to follow variations in frequency to effect the de
The armature consists of two opposite salient
sired control. The control current may be am
poles 20 having windings connected in series so
pliñed at the receiving station without ailecting
that the sum of the -induced currents is substan
the accuracy of control and may be transmitted
over long high-resistance or inductive circuits 50 tially constant in any position of the armature
without difilculty, since'the essential'character
istic of the control current, i. e., the frequency,
will not be changed by alterations in the electri
cal characteristics of the connecting circuit or
the amplifier.
and is retarded or advanced in phase as the ar
mature is rotated by the hand-wheel 2|. With
Ithe described arrangement, it will be evident that
l’motor II rotates at a constant speed and the
'speed of motor I2 is dependent upon the adjust
55 ment of the phase-shifting means I6, the rota
`animer
F)
m
,
plifiers. Considerable power is available, if re
tion of the armature of motor i2 being advanced
quired, and this power need not be transmitted
or retarded two poles with respect to the arma
over the control circuit. No attempt has been
ture of motor ii for each complete revolution of’
made to illustrate the exact proportions and
the armature of the phase-shifting means.
structural details of the phase-shifting means it.
The frequency of the alternating current sup»
2b, as such devices are well irnown in the art
plied to the motors ii and i2 is preferably of the
and are described in prior publications, includ
order of 1000 'or' 2000 cycles and the motors may
ing my prior Patent No. 2,138,398, dated No=
be of the reluctance or phonic wheel type similar
vember 29, i938.
to that described in my prior Patent No. 2,257,158,
A modifledforrn of phase-shifting means which
dated September 30, 1941. If desired, other syn l(
may
be used at the control station invplace of
chronous motors of known design adapted to op
means 2b is illustrated in Fig. 3. This construc
erate on the particular frequency chosen may 'be
tion may be small and compact so that less torque
utilized in carrying out the invention. However
is vrequired and a greater phase shift obtained
frequencies in the so-called “audible-frequency”
with a given angular displacement of the control
range are advantageous for many applications oi
member. As shown, it comprises a movable con
the invention. In particular, control currents of
trol member ¿45 in the form of a plate or vane
this frequency may be transmitted at low power
which is integral with or secured to a compass or
level and ampliiied at the receiving station in a
other instrument or control element. The mov»
vacuum-tube amplifier to increase the power
available without affecting the accuracy of con 20 able vane db is provided with spaced iron inserts
de supported for movement along a row of trans
trol. Furthermore, separate frequencies for driv
lating devices in the form of stationary electro
ing the motors may be transmitted over a single
magnets d8, 69, 50 and si. The spacing between
control circuit and separated yat the receiving sta
the inserts ¿i6 is such that as the right-hand edge
tion by conventional nlters.
A system of this character is illustrated in Fig. 25 of one insert is moved to the middle of the core
of the magnet 65B, the left-hand edge of the next
2 wherein an oscillator 26, for example of a fre
quency of 1800 cycles, is utilized to generate the
control frequency. The oscillator 24 having a
constant frequency output is connected through
phase-shifting means 25, which may be similar
to the phase-shifting means it of Fig. 1, to one
primary winding 26 of a transformer 27. The os
insert lies above the middle of the core of the elec
tromagnet 5 i, and the width of the inserts is sub
stantially equal to the distance between the cen»
tral axes of adjacent magnet cores so that the
magnetic iiux induced in said inserts remains
constant as the vane ¿l5 is moved (assuming that
the electromagnets are of equal strength).
cillator 2d is also connected through a frequency
The electromagnets dit, d2, 50 and Eil are con
changer 28 to a second primary winding 29 of
nected
to an alternating-current supply circuit
transformer 2l, so that a constant frequency of, 85
53, for example of a frequency of the order of
say 1200 cycles, is applied to the winding 29. Cur
1000 or 2000 cycles. However a condenser td'is
rents of a frequency of 1800i cycles and of a con
connected
in series with electromagnet 130 to dis
stant frequency of 1200 cycles are induced in the
place vthe phase of the current traversing its coil
secondary winding 30 of transformer 2l, said sec
90°. Similarly, means such as a .transformer 55
ondary winding being connected to the control
land
condenser 5d is provided to displace the phase
circuit Si. At the receiving station,y a single
of the currents traversing the electromagnets t@
phase synchronous motor 365 is connected to the
and 5i by 180° and 270°, respectively, with refer
control circuit 3i through the 1800-cycle filter 35
ence to that traversing' the electromagnet de. In
and an amplifier 36, whereby the motor 3d is
this manner .the algebraic sum of ythe vfiuires in
driven by the 1800-cycle component of the trans
the insert ¿it opposite the electromagnets is shifted
mitted current, amplified as may be required to
in phase 360° as the insert is moved from a' posi
give the necessary power output. A second syn
tion approaching magnet dit to a position beyond
chronousrmotor 3i, similar to the motor 363 but
magnet 5i (or vice versa). A stationary mag
driven at constant speed by the 1200-cycle com
ponent of the current in the control circuit, is 50 netizable core 5e opposite the electromagnets
tit-_5i carries a pick-up coil d@ in which current
connected to the control circuit through the 1200-=
is induced of the same frequency as that of the' ‘_f
cycle nlter 38 and an ampliiier 39. The member
supply circuit 53 but retarded or advanced Vin
¿l0 to be controlled from the primary station or
phase by 360° as each insert d@ moves past the
control station is connected through diñerential
gearing ¿li to be moved in accordance with varia 55 'core 50. The terminals of the pick-up coil d@
are connected to the control channel, for ex
tions?in the speed of the motor 3d as the adjust
ample 'as illustrated in connection with the phase
ment of the phase-shifting means 25 at the con
shifting means 25 in Fig. 2. in ythis manner the
trol station is changed. If the motors 311i and si
speed of a synchronous motor at the remote sta
have equal numbers of poles, the motor te will.
tion is varied in accordance with the movement
run on. l800-cycle current at one and one-half
or adjustment of a controlling member attached
times the speed of the motor et on 1200-cycle
to the vane ¿55.
current. Accordingly gearing ¿32 may be provided
Another modified construction of phase-shift-vv Y .,
to establish the desired speed relation between
ing
means utilizing a series of translating devices
the drive gears of the differential gearing ¿ii or,
of different character that may be employed at alternatively, the motors may be designed to run>
the primary or control station is 'shown in Figs.
at the same speed on diiïerent frequencies.
e and 5. in this arrangement, a pivoted-disc iii
It will be apparent that the object to be con
having a series of equally spaced holes t2 around
trolled may be positioned or moved, in the sys
its periphery is employed in an optical system to
tems shown in Figs. 1 and 2, precisely in accord
shift the phase of an alternating current to any
ance with the adjustment of the phase-shifting
desired extent (from a fraction of a cycle tosev
means, _and the accuracy of control is not af
eral cycles or more). The disc _Si is arranged to
fected by variations in the supply voltage or other
variations which are likely to occur, such as the
be turned bythe control element. In the particu-`
lar embodiment illustrated, a fluctuating limiti-_Q.,
resistance, inductance or leakage resistance of the
control circuit, or changes in the gain of the am 75 source 65 is arranged to illuminate a series of " Y
2,411,147
5
6
photocells 88, 81, 88 and 88 through _successive
holes in the disc 8| as the latter is rotated. The
and |0I, and a commutator |02 as shown. The
field poles 84 and 88 lare carried by a rotatable
light source 88 may be a neon glow-discharge or
yoke or frame |05 on a shaft |08 projecting from
arc-discharge lamp connected to an alternating
current supply circuit of constant. frequency
whereby a pulsating iight of constant frequency
the motor casing 83, said shaft being provided
with a worm thread“ |01 at the upper end thereof
meshing with a worm gear |08, and slip rings |08
through which current is supplied to the ~field
is obtained. A suitable opticalsystem including
planoconvex- lenses 1| and 12,'and an aperture` Ywindings H0, Ill on the fleld poles 84 and 95.
plate 18, is constructed and arranged to cause the
The motor` terminals, connecting leads and other
beam of light passing through the holes in the 10 conventional elements of the motor are not illus
trated in detail for the sake of simplicity. The
disc 8| to sweep over the photocells one after the
other as the disc rotates.
numbers of teeth in the rotors 80 and 8| have a
'
The lenses 1|, 12, and the aperture in the plate
predetermined ratio, say 2:'3 incase frequencies
of 1200 and 1800 cycles are supplied to the respec
18 are correlated with the size and spacing of the
holes 82 and the location and extent of the cath 15 tive motor elements, so that normally there is no
tendency for the field poles 84, 85 to rotate and
odes of the photocells to insure that the total
the shaft |08 remains stationary. When the rel
output current from the cell or cells illuminated
ative phase or frequency of the currents supplied
at any instant remains substantially constant.
to the motors is changed by the phase-shifting
The spacing of the holes 82 is such that as one
hole moves past the edge of the aperture in the 20 means at the control station, the shaft |08 is ro
plate 18, the adjacent hole permits light from
tated to a corresponding extent. As shown, the
worm gear |08 may be attached to a pointer ||8
the source 88 to strike one of the end cells. Thus
to indicate the change in adjustment of the con
the photocells are successively and repea-tedly
illuminated with pulsating light from the lamp
trol means at the control station. A bell-crank
85, always in the sequence 88-88-81--88 when 25 lever I | 8 and rod ||1 may also be provided to ac
tuate an object to be controlled. ` As stated, the
the holes in the disc 8| traverse .the light field
mechanism described is merely illustrative of the
in the direction indicated by the arrow, and in
principles of the invention and the structural de
the sequence 88-81-88-89 for rotation of the
tails may be widely varied without departing from
disc in the opposite direction.
'
In accordance with the invention, the output 30 the invention.
Another modification of the remote control sys
currents of lthe respective cells are phase-con
tem embodying the invention is shown in Fig. '1.
trolled in a predetermined manner and combined
Referring to this ñgure, an electric motor |2| is
in the primary winding of a transformer 18 so
shown at the primary or control station, said mothat a control voltage is generated in the second
tor being arranged to drive two alternating-cur
ary winding of said transformer which is uni
rent generators |22 and |28 to generate control
formly and continuously shifted in phase as the
currents of constant frequencies, say 1200 and
disc 8| is rotated. As shown. a .conventional
1800 cycles per second. The generators | 22 and
two-stage amplifier comprising tubes 11 and 18 is
provided for the photocell 88. A similar ampli
|23 are connected to the control circuit |24
fier 19, 80 is provided for the photocell 81, except 40 through two phase-shifting devices |25 and |28.
These devices may be similar to that shown in
that a condenser 8i is connected in the input
Fig. 1, 3 or 4, and are arranged for control in the
circuit of the tube 19 to displace the output cur
opposite sense 'by a hand-wheel |21, i. e., the
rent 90° with respect to that of the amplifier 11,
phase of the output currents from the generators
18. Likewise ‘the amplifier 82, 83 for the photo
is shifted in opposite directions when the hand
cell 88 includes a coupling transformer 84 so that
wheel |21 is turned, thus providing a more rapid
the output current is displaced 180° with respect
change in the frequency ratio of the control cur
to that of the amplifier 11, 18; and the amplifierA
rents. A position indicator |28 is also shown at
85, 88 for the photocèll 89 is similar to 'the am
the control station to indicate to the operator or
pliiler 82, 88 except for the condenser 81 arranged
to effect a further phase displacement of 90°. or a 50 attendant the position of the controlled device at
the remote station. This position indicator may
total of 270° with respect to the output current
be constructed like the synchronous-motor mech
from the first cell 88. The phase-control ar
anism of Figs. 1 and 2, or that shown in Fig. 6,
rangement illustrated is preferred but a modified
and may also be used at the control station in the
arrangement may be employed in carrying out
55 systems of Figs. 1 and 2, if desired. AA ñlter-am
the invention if desired.
plifler |29 for the 1200-cycle current and a second
Instead of using two separate synchronous mofilter-amplifier |80 for the 1800-cycle current are
tors and differential gearing', as shown in Figs. 1
connected between the control circuit and the
»and 2. a unitary motor mechanismV having two
motor mechanism |3|. The latter may be simi
synchronous motor elements as 4shown in Fig. 6
may be used. Referring to this figure, a preferred 60 lar to that shown in Figs. 1 and 2 or Fig. 6, and is
shown as arranged to control the elevation of a
form of motor mechanism comprises upper and
gun |82 by means of a worm |33 and worm gear
_lower toothed rotors 80 and 9| secured to a shaft
|84. Obviously the system may be utilized to con
92 which is supported for rotation in the motor
trol the position of other objects, as already ex
casing 88. Each of said rotors is disposed between
a pair of salient field poles 94, 95 and 96, 81, re 65 plained.
spectively, thus forming two separate synchronous
It is to be understood that the invention is not
motors with their rotors mounted on the same
limited to the details of the mechanisms illus
trated by way of example, and that these may
shaft. Each rotor may be connected to the shaft
82 through a resilient connection, as described in
be modified without departing from- the scope of
my Patent No. 2,276,936, dated March 17, 1942. 70 the invention as defined in the appended claims.
The shaft 82 also carries an armature 88 of a
I claim:
universal motor element which _is employed to
1. In a remote control system, in combination,`
bring the synchronous motors up to speed in
an object to be controlled, motor mechanism ar
ranged to position said object, said motor mech
starting. The start motor includes a stationary
core member provided withfleld -windings |80 75 anism comprising. two single-phase synchronous
l
2,411,147
motors and a pivoted actuating member tuned in
accordance with the difference in rotative speeds
of said motors, a single control-circuit to said
motors, _means for supplying relatively variable
frequency alternating currents to said control cir 5
varying the dißerence between said frequencies,
means for impressing both currents on said con
trol circuit, fllter means at the receiving station
for separating said currents oi' different ire
quencies, synchronous motor means at the receiv
ing station connected to be responsive to the
cuit- and for separating the currents at the end
of said circuit adjacent the motors to vary the
relative speeds 'of said motors and thereby controlk
transmitted currents of both frequencies and a
the position of said object.
in accordance with variations in the frequencies
-
-
/
2. In a remote control system, in combination, 10
a control circuit, a constant-frequency source of
alternating current, phase-adjusting means of
the type capable of shifting phase more than 360°
interposed between said source and said control
circuit, a frequency changernalso interposed be
tween said source and said control circuit and a
controlled member `actuated by said motor means
of said currents.>
.
.
5. In a remote control system, in combination,
a. control station, a receiving station, an oscil
lator at the control station, a frequency changer
connected to said oscillator, means for combining
the output currents of said oscillator and said
frequency changer, phase shifting means for
control actuating device including a continuously
swinging the frequency of one current relative to
rotating synchronous motor connected .to said
the other, means for transmitting the relatively '
control circuit whereby its rotative speed at any
variable-frequency currents to the receiving sta
`particular moment is aifectedby operation of said 20 tion, a movable member to be controlled at the
phase-adjusting means, said actuating device fur
receiving station anddiiferential motor means
ther comprising a second motor and tuning means
for actuating said movable member connected to
for rendering said second motor responsive to the
be responsive to the frequencies of the transmitted
output current of said frequency changer.
currents.
3. In a remote control system, in combination,
6._ In a remote control system, in combination,
a control station, a receiving station, a control
circuit connecting said stations, a source of audio
an object to be controlled, a control circuit, means
for generating alternating current oi' constant
frequency, a frequency changer connected to said
generating means, and arranged to provide output
frequency current at the control station, means
including said source for'impressing currents of
two different frequencies on said control circuit,
current of a different constant frequency, means
ñlters at the receiving station for separating said
for impressing the output currents of said gen
currents of different frequencies, motor means at
erating means and lsaid frequency changer upon
the receiving station connected to said control
said control circuit and fo;` varying the phase or
circuit and responsive to both said currents, a
frequency relation between the resultant currents
movable control element at the control station and 35 of different frequencies traversing said control
means including said control element for shifting
circuit, filters for separating the last-mentioned
the phase or frequency of one of said currents in
currents 'at the remote end of the circuit, rotating
the control circuit to effectsJ corresponding re
synchronous motor means connected thereto to
sponse oi' the motor means at the receiving sta
operate at relative speeds dependent upon the
tion.
`
40 changes in the phase or frequency relation be
4. In a remote control system, in combination,
tween the currents traversing the control circuit
a control station, a receiving station, a control
and a connection between said motor means and
circuit between said stations consisting of a single
the controlled object to move said object in ac~
circuit, an audio-frequency oscillator at the con
cordance with the changes in said phase or fre
trol station, means for deriving currents of two 45 quency relation.’ ‘
different frequencies from said oscillator and for
\
‘AUSTIN G. COOLEY.
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