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Patented. Nov.v 19, 1946
, 2,411,150
011. BLEND
Hector 0. Evans, Cranford, and David W. Young,
Roselle, N. 1., assignors to Standard Oil De
velopment Company, a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application September 20, 1941,
Serial No. 411,652
12 Claims.
(CL 252-56)
This invention relates to hydrocarbon oil blends ‘
with a combination of additives for more effec
,Notable examples of satisfactory V. I. improv
ing thickeners are the highly saturated aliphatic
hydrocarbon polymers typi?ed by the polybu
tively improving viscosity-temperature relation‘
shlps of the blends with restricted thickening.
A major requirement of motor lubricating oils
and other industrial petroleum oil products is a
tenes, which are derived by low temperature cat
alytic polymerization of pure isobutene or isobu
' tene in mixtures with other ole?ns. ‘Methods for
- satisfactory viscosity-temperature characteristic,
i. e., as little variation of viscosity over a wide
the preparation of these polymers are described
in the prior art. Other analogous aliphatic hy
drocarbon V. I. improvers include hydrogenated
temperature range as possible. Petroleum lubri
eating oils with high viscosities at low tempera
tures have poor ?ow characteristics in a cold
engine, while with proper low viscosities at low
temperatures, many of them lack su?icient vis
cosity at operating temperatures for proper lubri
cation. Although, certain thickening agents are
capable of giving these oils more satisfactory vis
'diolefin polymers and copolymers of ole?ns with
In addition to the aliphatic hydrocarbon poly
mer V. I. improvers, there have been developed
aliphatic-aromatic types of polymers, represented
by condensation polymers of alkyl halides with
aromatic hydrocarbons, e. g. chlorinated wax with '
cosity-temperature characteristics, in serving this
purpose, they thicken the oils to unduly high
naphthalene, also, various oxygen-containing
condensation polymers represented‘by polymer
viscosities, which increase power consumption
ized acrylates, e. g., polymerized laurylmethac
and make the oils un?t for low temperature use. 20 rylate, polymerized vinyl esters, and the like.
Accordingly, it is desirable to improve many pe
In accordance with the present invention, the
troleum oil products by lowering the rate of
change of viscosity with temperature With pref
erably, a reduction in viscosity, or at least, only
a small change in viscosity, at low temperatures.
In evaluating lubricating oils on their ability
to maintain a more uniform viscosity with change
in temperature, the well known viscosity index
V. I. improving e?’ectiveness of the thickening
polymers is greatly improved with ,a bene?cial
restriction ins-thickening of the oil blend by an
added blending agent which is substantially im- ,
miscible with the thickening additive at tempera
tures below about 100° F., but whch, nevertheless,
in ' suitable proportions forms a homogeneous
classi?cation of Dean and Davis is widely used
blend with the thickened oil and substantially
by the oil industry. This classi?cation compara 30 lowers the viscosity of the blend at these tem
tively rates the oils by their relative variations
peratures. The agents which act in this ca
inviscosities accurately determined at the tem
pacity will‘be referred to as non~solvent modi
perature limits of 100° F. and 210° F. in Saybolt
?ers of the thickening V. I. improvers.
Universal seconds (S. S. U.). Using this method
Another desirable property of the modifying
of classifying and rating lubricating oils, the best
agents used for controlling the thickening action
petroleum lubricating oils economically obtain
of the thickening V. I. improvers in a lubricating
able by re?ning of crude petroleum oils have a
oil is asuitably high ?ash point and low vola
viscosity index (V. I.) of the order of 100. . But,
tility to avoid impairment in the ?ash point value
at the same time, the lubricating oils must meet
of the petroleum on base and avoid, loss by va
grade requirements with respect to viscosity 40
ranges determined, for example, by S. A. E. num
From a study of a large number of compounds
bers which indicate whether the oil is too heavy,
for their e?‘ects on the thickening of oil blends,
too light, or suitable for a certain use.
_ ,
it ‘was noted‘ that modi?ers oi’ the thickeners ’
A variety of thickening V. I. improvers have
which behave satisfactorily in desired low con
been developed. These have been characterized 45 centrations for the present purposes, in general,
, largely by linear chain or two dimensional poly
are polar organic compounds having dielectric
meric compounds having molecular weights above
constants substantially higher than those of the
800, derived mainly by simple polymerization,
thickeners and hydrocarbon oils, e. g., substan
condensation, or copolymerization of low molecu
tially above 4 at 20° C. Although, such polar
_ lar weight monomeric reactants. In order to be 50
. useful as V. Limprovers, .these synthetic poly
meric compounds must meet with certain re
quirements of oil solubility, e?ectiveness-in low
concentrations, and stability under operating
conditions to which the oil blends are subjected.
compounds are non-solvents forthe, thickening
polymers at 0° F. to 100° F., they tend to have
solvency for the polymers at above 100° F. in a
hydrocarbon oil.
A test procedure which may be used to pre
determine whether a polar organic compound
2,411,1oo (1 I
' 3
‘has adequate non-solvent action on the polymer
polymer in a clear, colorless,‘ light hydrocarbon
. and for the sake of economy,;_-in as small a pro
solvent, such as naphtha, or kerosene, e. g., 10% *
portion ‘as possible, e. g., about 4:to 20%. The
by weight of the polymer in~25 cc. of the liquid ’
I effects of various thickening and modifying blend
ing agents in the'oil blends will be apparent from
. to the resulting solution, the ‘polar organic com- v
pound to be tested. If the polar organic com
solvent modi?er is preferably used in a propor
tion less than 50% by weight of the total blend,
. consists simply in dissolving a quantityv of the
solvent, then adding slowly, with slight agitation,
‘type as the V. I. improving thickener, the non
' the twt results reproduced hereinafter.
One procedure used in formulating blendsv of
the thickeners with petroleum oils and the added
non-solvent modi?er to control the action of the
polymer wasto blend the non-solvent modi?er
pound added in an-amount of about 5 to 75 cc.
causes precipitation of the polymer from the
solution, observed by the formation of turbidity,
or separation of the polymer, then the polar
. with-a petroleum base oil together with a small»
‘ proportion of more viscous voil until-the viscosity
polar compounds having lowest miscibility with 15 of this blend corresponds closely to the original
viscosity of the base oil at 210° ,F.-for reference
_ the polymer prove to be the most effective modi
organic compound is indicated to have the de
sired non-solvent property.» However, while the
purposes, after which the thickening V. I. im
?ers, it is also important that effective amounts
of'such polar compounds be capable of being
blended with or homogeneously dispersed in the
thickened oils ‘containing the polymer.
prover was added to the oil blend, slightly warmed‘ -
and with agitation. The viscosities of the result
20 ing blends were then determined accurately at
100° F. and 210° F. in order to observe the effects
' Among polar organic compounds tested va’nd
found to give favorable results in restricting the
of the, non-solvent modi?er. -
thickening .action'of polybutene and increasing _
the V. I. improving effectiveness of v this polymer
The amount of the thickening v. I.‘ improver
added to. the oil in the blends was completely
in hydrocarbon oil blends are high boiling- oiry-' 2.5‘ ‘soluble in the. hydrocarbon oil and was com
estersQsuch' as dibutoxy‘ ethyl phthalate, 'butyir
aeetyl ricinoleate,' and triethylene glycol di-2
ethyl butyrate. The potency of these compounds
pletely ‘soluble in' the blends with the non-solvent
' modi?ers usedin proper proportions, so that the
heating and agitation of the blend is simply to
for controlling the thickening effect of the poly- ' ~ facilitate solution. The procedure of the blend
ing may’. be varied as desired. The non-solvent
mer with added V. I. improvement depends upon
modi?er for the thickening V. I. improver may _
a number of factors, hence allgpolar organic .com-.
pounds, including those represented by high boil
v“be added subsequent to the'thickening of the
ing oxygen-containing compounds; do not give? Y‘ hydrocarbon oil, simultaneously with the thick-' ' '
exactly the same effects. For example, altho'uglr' - ener, and in practice be used without the added
castor oil is a non-solvent for the hydrocarbon 85. small proportion of more viscous hydrocarbon
polymer at ordinary temperatures, it was found
ineffective by itself, ‘because it. could not be
homogeneously blended with-the thickened oil.
However, castor oilcould be used together with a
_'In a speci?c scienti?c investigation of- howa
more oil-solublemodi?er. ‘e. 8-. dibutoxy ethyl 40 satisfactory non-solvent for the thickener acts,
phthalate. Lower alkyl phthalate esters, such as
usewas made of the Staudinger method for de
methyl and ethyl phthalates, behave somewhat.
like castor oil. Thus, it is important to use a
non-solvent modi?er which blends homogeneously .
termining viscosity characteristics of thethicken
ing polymer, as explained in Staudinger's articles,
> Trans. Faraday, Soc. 29, 30, (1933). It was ob
with the thickened oil despite its non-solvency 45 served that a non-solvent modi?er for the thick
' for'the thickener at ordinary temperatures.
ening polymer tends to reduce the specific vis
The hydrocarbon oils to be used in the oil " cosity of the polymer at lower temperatures, beblends may be of any preferred type, such-as
low about 100° F., with less reduction or even
those ‘derived from the" ordinary paraf?nic, ‘ some increase at higher temperatures, thereby de
' naphthenic', asphalticp or mixedv base crude 50 creases the di?'erential of the speci?c viscositiesv
petroleum stocks by suitable re?ning practices,
with respectgto increase in temperature, and thus
or by synthesis. The hydrocarbon oil component
makes the desired modi?cation in the thickening
is. not limited to any speci?c viscosity or boiling
action of the polymers. ,This effect is illustrated
range, other than by the. speci?cations for the
by the following data, in which ‘Nap denotes the
'purpose they are to be employed. ‘Inmaking 55 speci?c viscosity (ratio of viscosity coemcient of
improved industrial oils, the hydrocarbon oil may
thickened‘oil to that of the oil minus 1) and C.
have to- meet certain high flash‘ point and
denotes the concentration of the polymers hav
volatility requirements; in making lubricating
ing varying molecular weights which were tested
oils, the hydrocarbon oil component should be
in samples of thesame petroleum lubricating oil.
substantially non-volatile and meet minimum 00
' ?ash point requirements.
The particular type of thickening V. I. improver
to be used ‘may vary with the type of hydro
carbon oil and the purpose of the blend. 'This
Viscosity characteristics of p'olybu'tenes in hydro- ‘
carbon oil blends '
component may amount to- about 1% to 15%. or
higher, by weight of the ?nished blend,'but is 65,
generally used in motor oils in a proportion of
about 1% to 5% by weight.
The nature and quantity of the thickener
modifying agent also depends upon the particular 70
hydrocarbon oils, the particular V.‘ I. improving
Approx. M. W. -
of polybutene
of speci?c
20° C
415"v C.
05° C.
_ viscosities
unit change
1n N.,/C 20°
to 65°C.
thickening agent, and the proportions of these
" components in the finished blend. '" With ‘common
types of petroleum lubricating oils and preferred
1 aliphatic hydrocarbon polymers of the polybutene 75
20,000 .............. --
0. 24
45,000 .............. __
,000_._............ --
0- 28
0. 20
0. 15
0. 09'
0. 35
. 0.18
a 0.26
0. 16
Tan: 2
I Turin 5
Viscosity character-mites o! polybutenes in hydro- carbon oil blends ‘with 10% non-solvent (di
s. s. U. Wis.
bntomy ethyl phthalote)
v. I_
100° F. 210° F.
Approx. M. W.
of polybutene
20° C.
45° C.
65° C.
of specific
Hydrocarbon reference 011 __________________ __
unit change
Blends with thickener and modi?er med
in Nw/C 20
to 65°C.
93. 8
37.‘. 32:
dibutoxy ethyl hthalate
'27 ‘as s s U
it 210° F. 01])-..5 ______ __ (+ _.°
0. 19
0. 23‘
0- 40
0. 18
0. 22
0. 36
0. 16
0. 20
0. 33
0. 03
0. 07
140- 9
Blend with thickener and modi?er used
To illustrate how the non-solvent modi?er acts
’ as
5% thickener _____________ -_
5% thickener +995 dibutoxy ethyl phtha
late (+270 65 s. s. U. at 210° F. oil) ______ __ 211.1
to bene?cially decrease thickening and at the
same time improve viscosity-temperature char
‘8. 9
143.0 -
Effects of dibutoxy ethyl phthalatewith a poly
acteristics of the polymer‘ thickened oil on the
acrylate thickener is shown in the‘ following
V. I. scale,_the following data are presented:
T2311: 6‘
s. s. U. vis.
S. S. U. vis.
v. I.
V. I
‘ 100° F. 210“ F.
100° F. 210° F.
Hydrocarbon reference oil __________________ __ 92. 40
Hydrocarbon reference 011 (S. A. E. 10W)____
37. 32
8. 9
. Blend with polyacrylote thickener alone v
‘Blends with thickener and modi?er used
36% dibutoxy ethyl phthslate (+21% oil of
37. 22
3% polyacrylnte unmodi?ed, _______________ __ 140.5
Blend with thickener and polymer used‘toyether
65 S. S. U. at 210° F. ____________________ __ 89. 64
‘2% polybntene 13,000 M. W ................ ._ 227. 7
1.28. 0
9. 8
3% polymer+40% dibutoxy ethyl phthalate__ 136. l
44. 56 ‘141.4
Triethylene glycol d1-2-ethyl butyrate is a
.35 non-solvent modi?er having somewhat greater
2% polybutene +36% dibutoxy ethyl phtha
potency than the dibutoxy' ethyl phthalate, as
late (+4% oil of 05 S. S. U. at 210° F.) .... __ 121. 5 46.04 171.7
shown in the following data on its use with poly
butene type and polyacrylate type‘ thickeners.
The data in Table 3 illustrate how the modi
Blends with thickener and modi?er used
?er itself has little effect on the V. I. of a base 40
oil, but when used in conjunction with the thick- .
ening V. I. improver,v considerably increases in
V. I. and bene?cially lowers the thickening at the
E?‘ect of triethylene glycol di-Z-ethyl butyrate
as non-solvent modi?er on polybutene thick
lower temperature level (100° F.), so that the re
sulting blend ‘is more useful as a lighter grade,
S. S. U. vis.
V. I
lower power-consuming lubricating oil of highly
improved V. I. value. Pronounced bene?cial ef
100° F. 210° F.
fects were obtained with a high V. I. petroleum
lubricating oil base, as shown in the following
Hydrocarbon reference oil (S. A. E. l‘0W),__. i078
38. 2
Blend with polybutene thickener unmodi?ed
2% polybutene ......
____ ._- ________ ..
2‘7 polybutene+6.4% modi?er ______________ _. 194.2
2 a polybutene+12.8% modi?en.
_,._ 184.4
2% polybutene+32% modi?er ______________ ._ 147.1
48. 56
Blenda with polybutene thickener and modi?er
5. 5.11m.
100° F. 210° F. ’
Hydrocarbon reference oil __________________ _. 239.2
lends with thickener and modi?er used
187 dibntoxy ethyl phthalate (+27 65
s‘.’ s. U. 8t210°F. oil) _________ -v ____
E?ect of methylene glycol di-Z-ethyl butyrate
as non-solvent modi?er‘on polyacrylate thick
ened oil
92.32 38.10
0.6% polybutene ____________________________ _- 316.5
65.8 _
S. S. U. vis.
V. I.
Blend with thickener and modi?er used
100° F. 210° F.
0.07 polybutene +187 dibutoxy ethyl phtha
late (+27. 65 s. s. ii. at 210° F. oil) ______ -_ 273.3
Hydrocarbon reference oil .................. __
54. 3
33. 80
Blends with polyocrylote thickener and modi?er
The following data illustrate how the non-sol
vent modi?er, dibutoxy ethyl‘ phthalate, acts in
‘used separately
10% modi?er ....
_________________ _-
54. as
as. n
3% polyacrylate thickener __________ _-
69. 9
37. 25
144. 8
66. 97
37. 09
smaller concentrations on hydrocarbon oils thick
Blend with thickener and modi?er used together
ened by aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbon V. I. im
proving polymers formed by condensation of
3% polyacrylate+l0% modi?er _____________ __
highly chlorinated wax with naphthalene.
‘Tara: 9.
Additional speci?c types of compounds found
to actas eifectively non-solvent modi?ers ior ob
taining blends of improved V. I. with lower vis
cosity at temperatures below about 100° F. in 5
clear, thickened hydrocarbon oil blends are rep
resented by:
v- Compositionolblsuda'
100' r. no‘, r. r_.
. 011+5' dibutoxy ethyl phthalate ........... -_ 1. cs5 - 50.1
0il+4 ,, polybutene (13,000 M. W.) ......... __ 2,061
' Butyl-acctyl ricinoleate
on+4% polybutene (13,000 M. woe-5% di-
' Diethylene glycol '(mono) laurate
Glyceryl oleate
s. an. via
butoxy ethyl phthalats ___________________ __
1 500 99.03
The modi?ed thickenedpil blends, prepared in
accordance with this invention, may contain two
Diglycol oieate
Butoxy ethyl stearate >
or more di?erent types of thickeners and two or ' '
more different types of modi?ers. They may also
contain small amounts of other kinds of oil ad
ditives used for stabilizing, dyeing, inhibiting
oxidation, imparting oiliness, lowering the pour
Methoxy ethyl oleate
Buty-l stearate
Tributyl ‘acoanitate
point, etc.
The present invention has been illustrated by
numerous~examples but is not intended to be
The number and‘ variety of effective modi?ers
‘limited thereby, nor is it intended to be limited
' is much larger than shown by the illustrative
by any theory ‘on the mechanism by which the
improvement is obtained, nor to any particular
kind of hydrocarbon oil, polymer, modi?er, or
blend. Any modi?cation which comes within the
speci?c examples, and can be further extended
by the use of the guiding explanations given.
_ Some of the modi?ers are more effective than
others on account of their greater non-solvent
spirit of the invention is ‘intended to'be‘ included ’
action on the thickeners.' It. is apparent that a.
within the scope thereof
number of the preferred modi?ers for use in
in: claims.
as de?ned inthe follow
lubricating oils'are high boiling oxy-esters, i. e. 30 We claim:
' >
' 1. A lubricating oil comprising a hydrocarbon
hydroxy or alkoxy esters. Some of the modi?ers
lubricating oil blended withv about 1% to 5% by
are more eiiective with one kind of thickener
than another. For example; methoxy eth'ylole
weight of a polybutene viscosity index‘improving
atev appears to be more eifective than triethylene
thickener and homogeneously blended with about '
glycol vdi-2-ethy1 butyrate with a polyacrylate 35 4 to 50% by weight of a substantially non-vola-_
tile oxy-ester which is a non-solvent for said poly
The non-solvent modi?ers may be only par
butene at temperatures below 100° F. as shown by
tially miscible with the hydrocarbon’ oils, which
its ability'to precipitate polybutene from a 10%
occurs often in the case of highly potent modi
solution thereof in alight hydrocarbon solvent
?ers. Those having too low solubility in'the hy 40 when added at room temperature in amounts of
drocarbon oil for making a homogeneous blend
may be used bene?cially together with a more
from about 20 to 300% based on said solution,
said oxy-ester being homogeneously dissolved in
the thickened blend to substantially reduce the
oil-soluble modi?er.
The use of castor oil as a non-solvent modi?er
illustrates the importance of homogeneously
blending the modi?er with the thickened oil to
a viscosity thereof at 100° F. and increase the vis
: cosity indexpf the thickened oil blend.
secure a further improvement in V. I. and at the
2. A lubricating oil composition in accordance
with claim 1, in which said ester, is a high boiling
same time restrict thickening. Castoroil is found
aliphatic alkoxy ester.
‘ ~ to restrict thickening‘ to some extent in low con
~_ 3. _A lubricating. oil composition in accordance
centrations with a polybutene thickened 102 V. I. 50 with claim 1, in-which ‘said ester is a high boiling
oil, but it also lowered the V. I. and made the solu
tion cloudy. When the castor oil was jointly used
in small concentrations with a more oil-soluble
modifier, dibutoxy ethyl phthalate, in the poly
aliphatic hydroxy ester. -
4. A hydrocarbon oil blend containing a minor
proportion of an oil-soluble acrylate polymer
thickener lowering the rate of change of viscosity
butene'thickened oil, the blend was clear, the 55 with the temperature of the oil and a su?lcient .
thickening was reduced, and the V. VI. of the
amount of a substantially now-volatile oxy-ester '
thickened oil was increased considerably, from
which is a non-solvent at ordinary temperatures
124.4 to 157.0.
for said polymer as shown by its ability to pre
Hydrogenated castor oil, _ considered . to have
cipitate said polymers from a 10% solution there
more oil solubility than castor oil, also increased
the thickening action of the polymer and adverse
‘ ly a?ected the viscosity index of the oil when‘
of in a light hydrocarbon solvent when added at Y
room temperatures in amounts of from about 20
to 300% based on said solution, said oxy-ester
used alone as a modi?er, and further demon
being homogeneously dissolved in the blend to‘
strated the need of having the modi?er homo
substantially reduce thickening by the polymer
65 at a temperature below about 100° F. and ‘give the
geneously blended with the'thickened oil.
Another extension in the utilization of the
oil alower rate or change of viscosity with tem
present invention is illustratedby the effects of
the vmodi?ers on thickeners in hydrocarbon oils
.5. A hydrocarbon oil blend containing a minor‘
having extremely low V. I. values. ~For example,
proportion oi’ a synthetic aliphatic-aromatic con
using a low‘ V. I. phenol extract or a naphthenic 70 densation polymer which lowers the rate of
lubricating oil, a study was 'made or how a non
solvent modi?er ailfected the oil and its thickened
blends. The following data illustrate how- a mod? ‘
i?er Jointly with the thickener tremendously im
proved the VV. 1. with restricted thickening.
change of viscosity with the temperature 0! the
oil and a suf?cient amount of a substantially non- - _'
volatile oily-ester which is a nongsolvent at or- ‘
dinary temperatures for said polymer as shown
75 by its ability to precipitate said polymers from
a 10% solution thereof in a light hydrocarbon
solvent when added at room temperatures in
amounts of from about 20 to 300% based. on said
sisting of polybutenes, hydrogenated diol‘e?n
polymers, condensation polymers of alkyl halides
with aromatic hydrocarbons and polymerized
solution, said oxy-ester. being homogeneously dis
vinyl esters and with a substantially non-volatile '
oxy-ester which is a non-solvent for said thick
solved in the blend to substantially reduce thick
ening by said polymer at temperatures below
ening polymeric compounds at ordinary tem
peratures as shown by its ability to precipitate
of change of viscosity with temperature.
said polymers from a 10% solution of the poly
6. A lubricating oil blend comprising a hydro;
mer in a light hydrocarbon solvent when added
carbon lubricating oil blended with about 1% to‘ 10 at about room temperature in amounts of from
5% by weight of a viscosity index improving ‘
about 20 to 300% based on said solution, said
thickener and a su?icient amount of triethylene
oxy-ester being homogeneously dissolved in said
glycol di-2-ethyl butyrate blended with the thus
blend in an amount su?icient to lower the rate
thickened oil to substantially reduced the vis
of change of viscosity with temperature of said
cosity and raise the viscosity index of the thick 15 blend from the rate of change of viscosity with
ened oil blend, said thickener being normally
temperature of a blend consisting of the lubricat
about 100° F. and give the oil blend a lower rate
immiscible with triethylene " glycol di-Z-ethyl
ing oil and polymer.
11. A hydrocarbon oil blend comprising a h -
7. An oil blend comprising a hydrocarbon lu
, drocarbon lubricating oil blended with about 1
bricating oil thickened by about 1 to 15% by 20 to 15% by weight of a soluble thickening poly- '
weight of a viscosity index improving thickener
meric compound selected from the‘ group consist
and blended with a minor proportion of dibutoxy
ing of polybutenes, hydrogenated diole?n poly
ethyl phthalate, said thickener being normally
, vmers, condensation polymers of alkyl halides with
immiscible with dibutoxy ethyl phthalate. I
8. An oil blend comprising a hydrocarbon lu
bricating oil thickened by about 1 to 15% by
weight of ‘a viscosity index improving ‘thickener
aromatic ‘hydrocarbons and polymerized vinyl
25 esters and with about 4 to 50% by weight of a
substantially non-volatile oxy-ester which is a
non-solvent for'said thickening polymeric com
pounds at ordinary temperatures as showngby its
ability to precipitate said polymers from a, 10%
solution of the polymer in a light hydrocarbon
and blended with a minor proportion” of butyl
acetyl ricinoleate, said thickener being normally
immiscible with butyl acetyl ricinoleate.
9. A hydrocarbon oil blend comprising a hydro
carbon lubricating oillblendedwith a minor pro- "
portion of a soluble thickening polymeric com
pound selected from the group consisting of poly“
butenes, hydrogenated diole?n polymers, conden
solvent when added at about room temperature
in amounts of from about 20 to 300% based on
said solution, said oxy-ester being homogeneous- '
1y dissolved in said blend and imparting to' the
35 blend 3. lower rate of change of viscosity'with ,
_ sation polymers of 7 alkyl halides with aromatic
temperature than is possessed by a blend con
hydrocarbons and polymerized vinyl esters and‘
sisting of the lubricating oil and polymer.
with a substantially non-volatile oxy-ester which
-is a non-solvent for said thickening polymeric
12; A hydrocarbon oil blend comprising a hy
drdcarbon lubricating oil blended with about 1
~ compounds at ordinary temperatures as shown by 40 to 15% by weight .01 a polybutene/viscosity im~ ‘
its ability‘to precipitate said polymers from ‘a
proving thickener and with a. substantially non
z 10% solution of the polymer in a light hydro-.
volatile oxy-ester which is a non-solvent for said
carbon solvent when added at about room tem
‘ polybutene at ordinary temperature'as shown by
l perature in amounts of from about 20 to 300%
based on said solution, said oxy-ester being
homogeneously dissolved in said 'blend in an
amount sufficient to lower therate of change ‘of
viscosity with temperature of said blend from the
rate of change of viscosity with temperature of
a blend consisting of the lubricating oil and 50
10.‘A hydrocarbon oil blend comprising a hy
drocarbon lubricating oil blended with about 1
to 15% by weight of a‘soluble thickening poly
meric compound selected from the group con
its ability to precipitate polybutene from a 10%
solution thereof in a light hydrocarbon solvent
when added at about room temperature in
amounts of from about 20 to 300%,based on said
solution, said oxy-ester being homogeneously dis
solved in said blend in an amount sumcient to
lower the rate of change of viscosity with tem
perature of said blend from the rate of change of
viscosity with temperature of a blend consisting
of the lubricating oil and apolybutene.
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