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Nov. 19, 1946.~
' 2,411,239
Filed July 8, 1943
' 2 Sheets-Sheet l
an mug o. RUSSELL.
Nov. 19, 1946.
Filed July 8, 1943
2 Sheets~Sheet 2
HP -' 7/0
EEC/{EL and
nRr/lu a RUSSELL
Patented Nov. 19, ‘19.46
’ 2,411,239
' Frank
Arthur 0. Russell,
Fredericksburg, Va., assignors to Sylvania In
dustrial Corporation, Fredericksburg, van, 11'
. corporation of Virginia
Application July 8, 1943, Serial No. 493,919
6 Claims; (01. 210-85)
The invention relates in general to dialysis,
and, in particular, to an apparatus for‘ the sepa- ,
ration of a soluble substance from its solution by
dialysis, and to correlated improvements designed '
to enhance the structure and function and to ~
extend the uses of such apparatus.
It has been proposed to dialyze soluble mate
rials from their aqueous solutions through hy
drophilic membranes, such, for example, as sheets
.cordancewith recent usage in the art; the termv
“diifusate” will designate the solution oi-the mate
rial which diifuses through the-membrane during
dialysis, and the term "dialysis” will be used to
designate the di?usion of soluble substances f ‘
through a semi-permeable membrane from one
liquid into another.
The invention-‘accordingly comprises: the fea
tures of construction, combinations of elements,
- of regenerated cellulose,‘parchment paper, and 10
and arrangement of parts which will be exempli~
the like. However, dialyzers employing mem- '
branes- in the form of ?at sheets have certain
inherent disadvantages.‘ For example, the edges
.?ed in the‘ construction hereinafter set forth and
the scope of the invention will be indicated in the
of the sheets must be maintained under pressure
For a more complete understanding‘ of the
or ?rmly'sealed to- avoid loss of liquidduring 15
nature and objects of ‘the invention, reference
dialysis. To clean the apparatus or to replace
be had to the accompanying drawingsv in
a broken sheet it is generally necessary to com
pletely dismantle the dialyzer. Further, to de-'
which Figure 1 represents a sideelevation of one
crease breakage, the membranes must. be sup
ported over their surfaces. Finally, such prior '
apparatus did not provide any means for retard
and Figure 2 represents a cross-sectional view
of the dialysis chamber of the apparatus of
ing the dilution of the'solution being dialyzed.
Thus, sheet dialyzers of prior design have gener
ally been complicated in construction, di?icult to
embodiment of the apparatus of the invention,
Figure 1 taken along the line ‘2-2 thereof.
Figures 3 and 4 show two embodiments of means
for anchoring the dialyzing tubes to the headers
of the apparatus shown in Figure 1.
repair or to clean and capable of handling only 25
In that embodiment of the apparatus shown in
small volumes of liquid.
Figs. 1 and 2, the dialyzing chamber proper com
Accordingly, it is a general object of the present
prises a vertical outer chamber l0, which is shown
invention to provide a dialyzer which will be
as a cylindrical chamber, but which may be of
capable of handling large volumes of liquid and
which will operate rapidly.
any cross-sectional shape. The chamber is closed
It is a further general object to provide a
30 at the top by a plate II, and is closed at the
bottom by a conical base' l2, which is provided with
a drain- l3 having a valve l4. Situated adjacent
the ends inside the chamber Hi, there are posi
may be replaced without completely dismantling ,
tioned headers l5 and I 6, each provided with a
the dialyzer.
A speci?c object is to provide an apparatus for .35- plurality of holes into which are threaded short
sections of pipe ll, which serve to anchor the
means‘ of retarding the dilution of the solution .
dialyzing apparatus which is easy to construct
and to clean‘ and in which broken membranes
being dialyzed.
Other objects of the invention will in part be
obvious, and will in part appear hereinafter.
According to the present invention, there is
_ dialysis tubes l8 to the headers.
The'chamber I0 is provided with a removable
side portion 18 attached to the tank by the bolts
19 so as to make the dialysis tubes l8 ‘accessible; ,
from the outside. When a tube bursts, it is thus
provided an apparatus for the dialysis of solu
possible to reach it and insert a new tube. To
tions comprising in, combination a chamber, a
change a tube, particularly wherevit is in the
dialyzing membrane in the form of a tube dis
posed therein, means to pass the solution to be 45 center or opposite side of the chamber; it is
desirableto drain the apparatus. The empty
dialyzed into contact with one surface of the tube,
‘tubes obstructing the way may then be collapsed
means to pass another liquid ‘into contact with
and pushed to one side to a. su?lcientextent to
the other surface of the tube, means to heat the
insert the new. tube in its proper location. In
solution being dialyzedv and/or the other liquid,
order to- insert a new tube'pit is' therefore not
and preferably means to maintain a pressure
50 necessary, in general, to remove the tube located
differential between the inside and-the outside
between the opening into the chamber and the
of the tube to distend the tube.
tube to be replaced.
In the following speci?cations and in the ap- -
The anchoring or sealing of the dialysis tubes
pended claims, the term “dialyzate” will be used
‘to designate the solution being dialyzed in ac 55 to the headers may be e?'ected by any suitable
means, but’there is shown in Figs. 3 and 4 two
means vfound suitable for this purpose.
means of the heater 28 and introduced into the
chamber I8 through the inlet 3|. The dialyzate
?lls the lower space 32 of the chamber, the tubes
I8, and the upper space 33 until the level is such
that the dialyzate over?ows through the drain
34 which returns the excess to the evaporator 21.
ring to Fig. 3, thelnumeral I5 represents the up
per header into which is screwed a short section
of pipe I1 having a threaded union joint I9, the
lower end of the pipe |'|' being sealed by means
of a tubular sleeve 28 formed of a resilient ma—
During operation, the dialyzate is preferably
continuously circulated, Therefore, there' is I
provided an outlet pipe 3.5 equipped with a valve‘
terial, such, for example as rubbencork, sponge,
or the like, which forms. a soft cushion to sup-'
port the dialysis tube I8, which is slipped over
. the sleeve and ?xed thereto by means of the 10 "I4 which is positioned at the base of the conical
bottom I2. The pipe 35 is disposed‘vertically“v
and has'attached to its upper end an enlarged
section 36 into which is disposed an extension
the cord 2|. The lower end of the dialysis tube
tube 39 sliding through a hole provided in the
I8 may be united to the lower header by similar
means as shown in Fig. 3. The joint shown in 15 packing 48. Between the ends of the tube 39,
a branch 4| carries'the'solution into a pipe 42
Fig. 3 is particularly advantageous when the
which is attached to the upper end and sur
chamber is being ?tted with the tubes initially
rounds the lower end of the pipe 4| which-slides
or when a dialysis tube is being replaced after
therein. Pipe 42 discharges the dialyzate into
breakage because, in this case, the‘ disconnection
, of the lower section. of the pipe I1 from the. 20 the, evaporator 21. By raising or lowering the‘
pipe 39, it is possible to assure that the level of
upper section, andthe- mounting of the tube I8
the dialyzate in the‘ chamber 33 will be at all
_on the sleeve 28 can take place outside, of the
times above the header I5, and if necessary, up
chamber l8, after whichthe ends are joined
to the level of the over?ow pipe 34. By this
to the headers by means of the threaded joint l9.
.An alternative means of anchoring the dialysis 25 means, one can insure that the dialyzing tubes
will be completely ?lled with the dialyzate even
tubes to the headers is illustrated in Fig. 4, in
cords 21. If desired, the outer surface of the
sleeve I8 may be grooved to provide seats for
which embodiment the header I5 is provided
with a threaded section of pipe 22. The casing
though the dialyzate is being circulated down
, ward through these tubes.
The apparatus also includes'means for bring
is pulled through the section of the pipe and
the end turned down over the upper end of the 30 ing a liquid into contact. with the outside of the
‘pipe 22 to form ‘the cuff 23 which may be
anchored to‘ the pipe by means of the band 24,
dialyzing tubes ‘I8. These means comprise stor
age tanks 58 and 5| from which liquid may be
removed by means of pipes 52, 53, and 54, each ~
which may be formed of rubber vas shown, or of
of which is provided with asuitable valve, the ‘
metal or the like. The tube I8 may be mounted
'on the lower header I6 by means similar to that 35 liquid being forced upward through the pipe 55
by means of the pump 58 and heated if desired by
shown in Fig. 4. The coupling shown in Fig. 4
means of the cylindrical heater 51. The pipe
has the advantage of maintaining the maximum
55 provides means for entering the ‘chamber I8
diameter of the tube I8 at the joint, andlthus
at a point above the upper header and then
does not interfere with the flow of the liquid
through the tube I8.
40 communicates. with the space between- the head
ers by passing through the plate I5 as shown
The dialysis tubes . I8 may be disposed and ar
by the broken lines 58. .The diffusate ?ows
ranged withln the chamber |8 in any desired
downward and around the tubes I8 until it ?lls
manner, in rows, for example, as shown in Fig.
completely the space 59 between the headers I5
2 or in concentric circles. The space between
the tubes can be varied as desired, but in general i and I6. The excess liquid is removed from the
lower'end of the space 59 through pipe 88, which
a distance of the order of 1/2 to 1 inch is suffi
cient. It is to be understood that a space exists, a’ has an enlarged upper end 38', an extension 39'
around all of the tubes illustrated in Fig. 2,’ and‘
that none of these tubes are in direct contact ,
with. each other along their longitudinal sur
It may be understood that the " apparatus '
shown in Fig. llmay be constructed and arranged
that the dialyzate may be caused to pass inside
the tubes or outside the tubes, but for the pur_
pose of illustration only, the. apparatus of Fig.
' .1 is shown constructed‘ so that the dialyzate
will pass through the interior of the tube I8.
passing through the packing 48', the extension
39’. having a branch 4|’ which ‘discharges the
liquid into a funnel 42,’ which is ?xed into the
upper end of the drain 8|. From pipe 6| the
diffusate may be passed through the pipe 62 to
the reservoir 5| or through the pipe 63 to the
reservoir 58. The diffusate may be discharged
from the reservoir 58 through the pipe 64 or
from the reservoir 5| through the pipe 65 and
forced by means of the pump 86 to storage or
While the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 is con
The liquid to be dialyzed, that is, the dialyzate,
structed so that both the dialyzate and ‘the dif
may be taken from a suitable reservoir and fed 60 fusate ?ow concurrently and downward. in the
through the pipe 25 having a valve 28 into an
chamber I8, it 'is to be understood that the ‘ap
evaporator 21. The liquid in the evaporator
paratus can be modi?ed without transcending;
may be heated from 30° to 100° 0., preferably
the scope of the present invention so as to pro
' above 70° C., by conventional means and/or suc
tion may be applied through the pump ‘I8 to 65 vide that the dialyzate and the di?usate flow up
ward or ?ow countercurrent to each other."
draw off water, alcohol and other volatile sub
Further, the apparatus may be readily modi?ed .
stances from the dialyzate. Heating and’ suc
by anyone‘skilled in the art, without transcending
tion also facilitate elimination of bubbles from
the scope of the present invention so that the
the ‘dialyzate, thev presence of which tends to
favor the growth of organisms which attack the 70 chamber I8 and the tubes |8_ are disposed in a
horizontal plane. Inasmuch as the tubes I8 dur
dialyzing membranes. The evaporator can be
drained for cleaning by opening the outlet pipe
-'II by means‘ of valve 12. From‘ the evaporator,
the dialyzate passes through the pipe 29 by
ing operation are not only completely ?lled with
liquid but also are completely surrounded by liq
uid, the tubes willrequire‘ little or no horizontal v
.means of the pump 38, and is then heated by 75 support.‘ If the tubes I8 are ?lled with dialyzate,
. 2,411,889
5 .
‘which has a higher speci?c gravity than the dif
fusate, the tubes will tend to ?oat so that they
rate of dialysis from dropping too rapidly, there
by resultinginan increase in the yield.
can bekept in position merely by suitable guide
pms. .
above construction and diiferent embodiments of
During the process of dialysis, water from the
diifusate continuously diffuses into the more con
the invention could be made without departing
from the scope thereof, it is intended that all
matter contained in the above description or
centratedgdialyzate, thus diluting the dialyzate
and slowing down the process of dialysis. In or
der to avoid this decrease in the rate of diffusion
resulting from dialysis, the present apparatus pro
Since certain changes may be made in the
shown in the accompanying drawings shall be‘
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
vides an evaporator 21 in which the dialyzate may
be heated by means of the steam coil 28'. The
. top of the tank 21 is left open to permit 'evap»
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for the dialysis of liquid solu- '‘
' tions comprising, in combination, a chamber,
oration of water from the dialyzate. ‘By this
means of dialysis comprising a dialyzing mem
means, the dialyzate. may be continually con 15 brane in the form of a tube disposed therein,
centrated while it is being circulated and sub
means for continuously circulating the solution
jected to dialysis. Moreover, the heating of the
to be dialyzed in contact with one surface of the '
dialyzate serves the purpose of evaporating water
tube, means for passing another liquid into con
or other volatile liquids from the dialyzate thus
tact with the other surface of the tube, means for
maintaining the concentration'and viscosity of 20 concentrating the dialyzate after passage through
this liquid. The temperature of the dialyzate may
the dialyzing tube, and means for recirculating
be kept above the temperature at which the fer
the concentrated dialyzate through the tube.
mentation or bacterial decomposition occurs, thus
2. An apparatus for the dialysis of liquid so
avoiding changes in composition or loss of desired
lutions comprising, in combination, a chamber,’
material through fermentation.
25 means of dialysis comprising a dialyzing mem
The present apparatus is adapted for dialyz
brane in the form of a tube disposed therein,
, ing both organic and-inorganic substances from
means for continuously circulating the solution
organic or aqueous solutions. Organic substances
to be dialyzed in contact with one surface of the
may be separated from solutions by use of a semi
tube, means for passing another liquid into con
' permeable hydrophobic tubing. For the dialysis 30 tact with the other surface of the tube, means for
of aqueous solutions, a hydrophilic tubing is em
concentrating the dialyzate after passage through
ployed. Accordingly, the present apparatus may
oe used for separating inorganic or organic crys
talloids from their solutions, or for separating
the dialyzing tube, means for recirculating the
concentrated dialyzate through the tube, and _
means for maintaining a hydrostatic pressure dif
crystalloids from colloids, or for separating in 35 ferential between the inside and outside of said
organic liquids from organic liquids, or for sep
tube to distend the tube.
arating organic liquids from aqueous or non
3. An. apparatus for ‘the dialysis of liquid so~
aqueous solutions. ‘In particular, the apparatus
lutions comprising, in combination, a, chamber,
is applicable for the separation‘ of glycerine, bu
headers disposed transversely adjacent each end
tylene glycol, and citric acid, sugar and inorganic 40 of said chamber so as to divide said chamber into
salts from their aqueous solutions.
a middle and two end compartments, a plurality
. The heating of the dialyzate from 70°-1_00° C.
of tubular dialyzing membranes disposed between
serves a four-fold purpose: (a) to continuously
said headers and communicating with the end
, concentrate the dialyzate since water is evaporat
compartments, means for continuously circulating
ed in the evaporator; (b) to increase the rate of 45 a solution. through the end compartments and
dialysis; (c) to eliminate dissolved air andair
through said dialyzing tub'esmeans for withdraw
bubbles; _ (d) to sterilize the dialyzate and pre
ing said solution from said tubes, means for pass
vent further fermentation.
The apparatus has many advantages, namely, .
ing another liquid through said middle compart
tube are more self-supporting than ?at sheets
and they can be readily anchored at each end
without danger of leaks. When a tube breaks, the
frontsaid compartment.
ment into contact with the exterior of said dialyz- _
' the dialyzing membranes being in the form' of a 60 ing tubes and means for withdrawing said liquid I
liquid may be'quickly drained from the apparatus
4. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which
the tubes arev affixed to the headers by means
of a threaded union joint so that said tubes are
and a tube replaced without dismantling the en 55 separately removable.
‘tire apparatus. Since the 'tubes are not con
5. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which
stricted at the entrance or exit where they are
there is provided means for concentrating one
Joined to the headers, the ?ow of liquid there
of said liquids positioned outside of said chamber.
through is not retarded and there is no tendency
6. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which
for sediment to collect inside the tube; further, 60 there is provided means for heating at least one
a rapid ?ow can be maintained through the tubes.
of said liquids.
Thus, there is provided a means for continuously
concentrating the dialyzate while preventing the
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