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Nov. 19, 1946.
1. E. MOUROMTSEFF ETAL
2,411,289
BEAT OSCILLATOR
Filed July 18, 1941
17
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MAL/=2? CIRCUIT
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TNVENTORS
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Patented Nov.? 19, 1946
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UNITED STATES
sNr) OPFFFC
2,411,289
' BEAT OSCILLATOR
Ilia E. Mourorntseff, Montclair, and George M.
Dinnick, Bloom?eld, N. 3., ?assignors to Westing
house Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
'
Application July 18, 1941,? Serial No. 402,958
1
2
This application is a continuation-in-part of
our copending application Ser. No. 360,367, ?led
October 9, 1940, for an Ultra-high frequency os
I5 has openings �at either end for the cooling
?uid, such as water, to ?ow around and out the
cillator Patent No. 2,283,895 granted May 19,.
1942.
Our invention relates to discharge devices,
and especially to ultra-high frequency oscilla
low body resonator 22.
tors.
_
pipe Ill.
The pipe M is welded at l9 to the hol
..
~
The hollowvbody resonator 22 is substantially
symmetrical about the hollow pipe l0, and pref
erably has an endv 23 parallel and slightly spaced
fromthe collector face H and another end 24
parallel to and slightly spacedv from the? other
.
An object of our invention is to produce an
ultra-high frequency oscillator having a high ef
ficiency and a greater power output.
Another object of our invention is to provide
collector face .12. . Both ends 23 and 24 are per
forated at 25 and 126 for the passage ofelectrons
to the collector faces. The. perforated ends 23
an oscillator producing .a powerful and stable
provide an oscillating tube, utilizing a plurality
and 2d are thin and ?exible so that their spacing
from the collector faces may be easily adjusted.
Such van adjustmentmay be by a plate 21,
Welded to the outer ?portion of the end.23, and
of high frequency circuits within a common en
having therethrough adjusting bolts 28,?secured.
?beat? wave.
A still? further object of our invention is to
velope.
_
Other objects and advantages of the inven
tion will be apparent from the following descrip
tion and drawing in which:
to another plate 29, in turn screwed to the main
portion of the hollow body resonator 22. A sim
20 ilar adjustment arrangement 21', 28' and 29' is
located .at the other end of - the tube to adjust
.
The ?gure is a view principally in cross sec
tion, of a discharge device embodying our?in
the end 24 in relationship to the collector face? I2.
vention.
entrant insulating portion 10 and 10?. This in
sulating structure is sealed to a metal tube ?H,
welded to a tubular metal casing'lZ. The inner
'end ?of this tubular metal casing, has a per
In our copending application vSerialNo. 360,367,?
?led October 9,1940, for ?Ultra-high frequency
oscillator,? we have disclosed in_Figure 5, two
I We preferably attach to the plate 21, a re
V25
forated control grid structure 13, spaced in par
allel to the perforated openings 25, in the adja
30 cent end 23 of the hollow body resonator. The
closing an anode.
'
other outer end of the tubular casing 12, is pref
Our present invention is to utilize different
erablyclosedby ?exible metal sheet 14, whose
frequencies in the ?rst two hollow body resona
position can be adjusted by any suitable means
tors, but to form the third hollow body resonator
hollow body resonators each formed of a grid
enclosing a cathode and a? third resonator en
as a complete operating unit responding to the ~ .
as, by the v screw. ' disclosed;
two frequencies and having an output, circuit 35 V The cathode 15 comprises a thin plate of metal,
producing a powerful and stable, ?beat? wave
bent to form a ?at face parallel with the grid
opening ?13. This ?at face has preferably longi
from the two frequencies.
'
tudinal slots extending across the face of the
It is apparent, of course, that the structure
cathode. These slots reduce the cross sectional
disclosed in Figure 5 of our copending applica
tion could be utilized for this purpose by making 40 area of the front face of the cathode, and the
increased resistance. causes the slotted portions
a connection between the anode and the enclos
ing hollow body resonator and applying different
of the cathode to rise to the desired temperature
frequencies to the grid-cathode resonators. In
toproduce electrons from the front face of the
cathodes. _ Other types of cathodes may be used
this application, however, we have disclosed in
the ?gure, the hollow body resonator 22 as a 45 if desired, such as the coated, indirectly heated,
unit with the interior portions thereof compris
ing a hollow pipe ID with closed ends II and i2
acting as collector surfaces for the electrons.
The hollow pipe it! has a side opening I 3, to
which is attached an integral or welded pipe M,
for the entrance of a cooling ?uid to the interior
of this hollow pipe Hi. This pipe is preferably
longitudinally divided by a plate l5 having a
central opening IE to which is attached an inlet
to. two rods 16 and ?H, which extend to the outer
end of thetube ?t2, and on their ends are pref
erably two metal pieces 18 and 19, spaced from
the ?exible end plate ?M, a distance approxi
mating the distance of the cathode ?[5 from the
control grid 13. Spacing of this ?exible end
plate. ?ill from these two pieces of metal 16 and
pipe I?! for the cooling fluid. The divided plate
?i9, is adjusted to produce?capacitance therebe
resistance wires, etc.
The ends of the cathode structure are attached
2,411,289
3
4
tween, equivalent to the capacitance between the
type circuit. In the example given, this would
be 10 megacycles per second. The two frequen
control grid ?I3 and the cathode 15.
The cathode connections 89 and BI are taken?
off through insulation 82, and a side tube 83.
These cathode connections are preferably con
nected through a transformer I 0!] to a suitable
source of cathode heating current I02. The
cies would produce a powerful ?beat? wave in
the output portion I35) of this resonant circuit.
Attention is also directed to the fact that our
grid and cathode construction makes a radio
frequency voltage between the grid and cathode
cathode operating potential is derived from a
source NH and we prefer to make this source a
readily available and in fact, this construction
is equivalent to a voltage transformer.
highly negative voltage, for instance ?l0,000 volts ll)
We have designed our grid and enclosed cath
with the positive end grounded. The hollow tube
ode to resonate to a' desired frequency and this
?I2, forming the grid connection, has a connec
frequency is the frequency or approximately the
tion in turn to a source of voltage I03, whose
frequency utilized in the main resonator 22.
positive side is connected to the cathode connec- '
tion as illustrated at I534.
The value of the grid
voltage may be in the neighborhood ofv ?'100D
volts.
The hollow tube ?I2 has a loop 84, preferably
The capacity between the elongated cathode
structure of the cathode proper ?I5, rods ?I6, 11,
metal pieces it, ?IS and the elongated enclosing
grid structure '32 is longitudinally distributed.
The capacity between the cathode proper ?I5 and
located at a central portion, and this loop has
the grid proper 13 is lumped and is balanced
one end passing axially through insulation 85, 20 at the other end by lumped capacity between the
and a short pipe 86, and?both of these are con
nected to form another loo-p 8?. The cathode
and control grid on the opposite side of the hol
low body resonator 22 are preferably similarly
constructed and have corresponding parts desig
nated with prime numbers includingan external
loop 81?.
I
?We provide the central portion of the hollow
body resonator 22 with a pipe 50 and attached
to the inner surface of the hollow body resonator
at the edge of this pipe, a conductor forming a
loop 52 to enclose electromagnetic lines of force
therein, and having its other end 5| passing axial
ly through the pipe and a closed insulation block
53 to form an exterior transmission line.
The hollow body resonator 22 is grounded as
indicated at I05. If desired, energy may be fed
back from the hollow body resonator 22 to the
metal pieces l8, l9 and the adjustable end plate
Til. The resonator 12 (and similarly the res
onator l2?) vhas a capacity that is symmetrical
both in radial and longitudinal directions. The
linear rods ?it, ?I?! extending substantially along
the axial portion of the enclosing cylindrical grid
structure forms a concentric line cavity resona
tor. The feed-back of a necessary amount of
energy from the main resonator 22, as shown in
our copending application Ser. No. ?360,367, will
cause the resonance of the grid structure ?I2- at
the desired frequency. The specially designed
and adjustable resonance of the grid resonator
?I2 will cause the operation thereof at a minimum
loss of energy in the resonator itself. .The res
onator has a relatively high Q.
Although we have shown and described ?a spe
ci?c embodiment of our invention, we do- not
grid-cathode resonators as described in our co
desire to be limited thereto, as various other
pending application Ser. No. 360,367, ?led October 40 modi?cations of the same may be made without
9, 1940, for an ultra-high frequencyoscillator.
departing from the spirit and scope of the ap
We preferably utilize the two exterior loops 81,
'81? to feed slightly different high frequencies into
the two grid-cathode hollow body resonators.
Any suitable high frequency circuit, diagram;
pended claims.
We claim:
l. A discharge device including a hollow body
resonator and means physically opposed to each
other on-opposit'esides of the resonator for ap
plying two different frequencies to said hollow
matically illustrated on the drawing as U. H. F.
#1, may be tuned to a frequency of 700 mega
cycles per second for example, and feeds this fre
body resonator.
'
quency into the resonator ?I2 by means of a trans
2. A discharge device including a hollow body
mission line I20 having a loop IZI coupled to the 50 resonator the body whereof providesa resonator
loop 87. A second high frequency circuit, dia
chamber having openings cammon to the one
grammatically illustrated in the drawing as
chamber for the passage of electrons there
U. H. F. #2 may be tuned to a slightly different
through directly into said chamber at .two differ
frequency such as 690 megacycles per second.
ent portions thereof, and two current means atdif
Other variations in frequency of the order of 108 55 ferent frequencies forpassing electrons through
cycles may be used to advantage with ?this ar
said openings.
.
rangement. This energy is applied to the loop
3. A discharge device including a hollow body
81? of resonator ?I2? through the transmission
resonator the body whereof provides a resonator
line I22 and loop I231. The openings 25 and 25
chamber having openings common to the one
of the central resonator 22 are adjusted to re 60 chamber for the passage of electrons there
ceive the two frequencies.
The output circuit of the central resonator,
namely, the conductor 5| and the eyelet 50 are
connected to two transmission lines I24 and I25
in parallel.
Transmission line I24 has an effec
tive length equal to half the wave-length of
U. H. F. circuit #1 and terminates at the loop
through directly into said chamber-at two differ
ent portions thereof, cathode means for supplying
electrons to and through the openings at one
portion, cathode means for supp-lying electronsito
65 and through the opening at the other portion, a
circuit means modulating one electron stream,
another circuit means modulating the other elec
I25. Transmission line I25 has an effective
tron stream, said two circuit means having di?er
length equal to half the wave length of the
ent frequencies.
'
U. H. F. circuit #2 and terminates in the loop 70 . 4. A discharge device including .a hollow body
resonator and means symmetrically disposed to
I21. Both loops I26 and I2?! are coupled to a
circuit resonant to a frequency equal to the ?dif
said resonator for applying two different .fre
ference .of the two original frequencies. It may
quencies of the order of megacycles tosaid hollow
consist of lump inductance I28 and capacitance
I29 as shown or may be of any other suitable
body resonator.
5. A discharge device including a hollow body
?2,411,289
5
6
resonator and means? for applying two different
frequencies?v to s'aid'hollow body resonator, said
hollow body resonator having an output circuit
nator-3 having; an output circuit having ?two
having two branches, one branch tuned to one of
said frequencies, the other branch tuned to the U!
other frequency.
'
v
?
g
g
6., A discharge device including a hollow body
resonator and means for applying two different
frequencies to said hollow body resonator, said
hollow body resonator having an output circuit
having two branches, one branch tuned to one of
said frequencies, the other branch tuned to the
other frequency, a circuit coupled to the branches
of said'output circuit, said circuit being tuned to
the beat frequency of said two frequencies.
7. A discharge device including a hollow body
resonator having openings for the passage of
electrons therethrough at two different portions
branches,? once-branch tuned vto one of saidfre
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other fre
quency.,
-
'
'
"
- 12.1A discharge device including a hollow body
resonator having openings for the passage of elec
trons therethrough at two diiferent portions ?of
said resonator, and two current means at differ
ent frequencies for passing electrons through said
10 openings, said current means comprising hollow
body resonators tuned respectively to said fre
quencies, said ?rst mentioned hollow body? reso
nator having an output circuit having two
branches, one branch tuned to oneof said fre
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other fre
quency, a circuit coupled to the branches of said
output circuit, said circuit being tuned to thebeat
frequency of said two frequencies.
.'
s
I
of said resonator, cathode means for supplying
13. In combination, a, main hollow body reso
electrons to the openings at one portion, cathode 20 nator, a second and a third auxiliary hollow body
means for supplying electrons at the other por
resonators, means for applying to said second and
tion, a circuit means modulating one electron
stream, another circuit means modulating the
other electron stream, said two circuit means hav
ing different frequencies, said hollow body reso
nator having an output � circuit having two
branches, one branch tuned to one of said fre
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other fre- _
quency.
8. A discharge device including a hollow body
resonator having openings for the passage of elec
trons therethrough at two different portions of ?
third hollow body resonators different high fre
quencies oscillations, each of said second and third
hollow body resonators being tuned to the fre
quency applied thereto, and means for passing
electron streams from each of said second and
third hollow body resonators to said main hollow
body resonator, said electron streams being modu
lated by ?said frequencies.
14. In combination, a main hollow body reso
nator, a second and a third auxiliary hollow body
resonators, means for applying to said second and
said resonator, cathode means for supplying elec
third hollow body resonators different high fre
trons to the openings at one portion, cathode
quencies oscillations, each of said second and third
means for supplying electrons at the other por 35 hollow body resonators being tuned to the fre
tion, a circuit means modulating one electron
quency applied thereto, and means for passing
stream, another circuit means modulating the
electron streams from each of said second and
other electron stream, said two circuit means hav
third hollow body resonators to said main hollow
ing different frequencies, said hollow body reso
body resonator, said electron streams being modu
nator having an output circuit having two 40 lated by said frequencies, said hollow body reso
branches, one branch tuned to one of said fre
nator having an output circuit having two
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other
branches, one branch tuned to one of said fre
frequency, a circuit coupled to the branches of
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other fre
said output circuit, said circuit being tuned to the
quency.
beat frequency of said two frequencies.
15. In combination, a main hollow body reso
9. A discharge device including a hollow body
nator, a second and third auxiliary hollow body
resonator the body whereof provides a resonator
resonators, means for applying to said second and
chamber having openings common to? the one
third hollow body resonators di??erent high fre
chamber for the passage of electrons there
quencies oscillations, each of said second and third
through directly into said chamber at two differ
hollow body resonators being tuned to the fre
ent portions thereof, and two current means at
quency applied thereto, and means for passing
different frequencies for passing electrons through
electron streams from each of said second and
said openings, said current means comprising
third hollow body resonators to said main hollow
hollow body resonators tuned respectively to said
body
resonator,said electron streams being modu
frequencies.
55 lated by said frequencies, said hollow body reso
10. A discharge device including a hollow body
nator having an output circuit having two
resonator the body whereof provides a resonator
branches, one branch tuned to one of said fre
chamber having openings common to the one
quencies, the other branch tuned to the other fre
chamber for the passage of electrons there
quency, a circuit coupled to the branches of said
through directly into said chamber at two differ 60 output circuit, said output circuit being tuned to
ent portions thereof, and two current means at
the beat frequency of said two frequencies.
different frequencies for passing electrons through
16. An ultra high frequency oscillator compris
said openings, said current means comprising hol
ing a ?rst hollow body resonator, a second hollow
low body resonators tuned respectively to said fre
body resonator, a cathode within said ?rst hollow
quencies, and cathode means in each of said last 65 body resonator, passage means for said electrons
mentioned resonators for producing said elec
from said ?rst hollow body resonator to the sec
trons.
ond hollow body resonator, said second body reso
11. A discharge device including a, hollow body
nator receiving said electrons when its ?eld is in
resonator having openings for the passage of elec
opposition to the passage of electrons therein
trons therethrough at two different portions of 70 whereby said electrons give up energy to said
said resonator, and two current means at differ
second hollow body resonator, said cathode being
ent frequencies for passing electrons through said
located next one part of the resonator and having
openings, said current means comprising hollow
body resonators tuned respectively to said fre
quencies, said ?rst mentioned hollow body reso
metal capacitative means connected symmetri
cally therewith at an opposite part of the reso
nator, whereby the capacity between said cathode
8
and said ?rst hollow body resonator is substan
tiallysymmetrically distributed within saidlbody.
17. An ultra high frequency oscillator compris
comprises separately producing two electron
streams, applying high frequency currents of dif
ferent frequencies to said streams while separate,
thereby modulating each electron stream, and
feeding the modulated electron streams to said
ing a ?rst hollow body resonator, a second hollow
body resonator, a cathode within said ?rst hollow
resonator common to both streams.
body resonator, passage means for said-electrons
19. The method of producing oscillations in a
from said ?rst hollow body resonator to the sec
resonator common to two electron streams which
ond. hollow body resonator, said second body reso
comprises producing two electron streams, apply?
nator receiving said electrons when its ?eld is in
opposition to the passage of electrons therein 10 ing high frequency currents of different frequen
cies to said streams while separate, thereby modu
whereby said electrons give up energy to said sec
ond hollow body resonator, the cathode within
said ?rst hollow body resonator being an elon
gated structure having opposite ends and provid
ing lumped capacity between said ends and the .
said enclosing hollow body resonator.
18. The method of producing oscillations in a
resonator common to two electron streams which
lating each electron stream, feeding the modu
lated electron streams to said resonator common
to both streams and producing a beat frequency,
and carrying off the beat frequency as the output
of produced oscillations.
ILIA E. MOUROMTSEFF.
GEORGE M, DINNICK,
I
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