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Nov. 19, 1946.
A. SERNA
2,411,297
HELICOPTER
Filed Jan. 27, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Isnnentor
?/ex 5627770,
Nov. 19, 1946.
A. SERNA
2,411,297
HELICOPTER
Filed Jan. 27, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet‘Z
Patented Nov. 19, 1946'
2,411,297 ‘
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
‘
‘
2,411,297
‘
HELICOPTER
‘
Alex Serna, Dearborn, Mich.
Application January 27, 1944, Serial Nb. 519,335 ‘
13 Claims.
(01. 244-7) ,
The present invention relates to improve
which relatively short wing sections are employed
with the upper surfaces recessed for reception
of one of the blades of the lifting propellers and
a depressible surf-ace adapted to be hinged into
and out, of position to form a continuous upper
ments in, aircraft and, more particularly, to sus
tentation and propulsion systems therefor. >
The primary object of the invention is to pro
vide an aircraft of the helicopter type in which
‘the vertical lifting means or propellers may be
slightly canted to coincide with the wing surface
wing surface of the plane when the vertical lift
ing propellers are employed for gaining altitude.
_of the plane so that the aircraft may be used for
Other objects and advantages “of theinven
horizontal ?ight after the desired altitude has
been reached.
,
tion will become‘apparent during thecourse‘ of
10
the following descripton of the accompanying
Another object of the invention is to provide
drawings, ‘wherein:
an aircraft of the helicopter type in which the
M Figure 1 is an enlarged‘ top elevational'view
vertical “ lifting propellers may be canted or
of an aircraft embodying the invention, illus-'
slightly tilted from their vertical axis 'so that
trating a portion of the fuselage broken away
one of the blades thereof may be received in a 15 in order; to show the various'stru‘ctural. features
well formed in thelwing section of the plane ‘and
and details of the drive mechanism;
» , a‘ ‘
form a continuous plane surface with the other
Figure 2 is a transverse cross-sectional ‘view
vvane of vthe propeller projecting beyond‘the wing
taken on line _2—2 in Figure 1 looking in the
section and thereby increasing the overall wing , .
‘lift area of the plane during its normal hori- -
‘direction of the arrows and illustrating in de
tail the manner in which the vertical lifting pro
pellers may be projected from the well surface
‘ Another object‘ of the invention is to provide
,of the wing section when the propellers , are
‘an aircraft of the helicopter type having a novel
used
Figure
for gaining
3' is a altitude;
vertical ‘ cross-sectional
w
i view
and ‘unique propulsion system in which both of
the vertical lifting propellers are rotated by the 25 taken on line 3-3 in Figure 2, looking in the
propulsion system in such a manner ‘as to cause
direction of the arrows and illustrating therela- ,
the propellers to rotate in reverse order during
tive positions of the bladesof the propeller when
the vertical lift and to permit the propellers to be
the same are angled one to the other;
tilted for horizontal ?ight so that the extended
Figure 4 is a. diagonal cross-sectional view
propeller blades will have substantially the same
taken on line 4-4! in Figure 2 illustrating the
cross-sectional form as the wing section of the
hinge ‘joint, for the recess cover of the wing sec
plane.
Another object of the invention is to provide‘
means for locking the propellers within the re
cesses or wells in the wing section to prevent ro
tation and substantially lock the propeller to
‘the wing section so that the propeller becomes
in‘ effect an integral part thereof.
tion;
.
‘
,
Figure 5 is a transverse cross ‘sectional view
similar to Figure 4 illustrating the manner in
which one of the propeller blades is nested with
in the well or recess in the wing section during
horizontal ?ght;
Figure 6 is a vertical cross-sectional view
Another object of the, invention is ,to provide
taken on line 6-46 in Figure 2 looking in ‘the
an aircraft of the above-mentioned character 40 direction of the arrows and illustrating‘ the var
with means for tilting the blades of the propeller
ious connections and ‘controls for the vertical
so as to vary the pitch thereof in reverse order
and thereby increase and decrease the lifting
power-as well as being able to arrange the pro
peller blades so as to be maintained in co-eX
tensive relation with the wing section.
Another object of the invention is to provide
‘an aircraft of the above-mentioned type with
an indicator to record the‘position of the verti- ,
cal lift propellers so as to facilitate the tilting .
thereof into the well or recess in the wing sec
"tion when the plane is converted for horizontal
J‘ ‘Another object‘of the invention‘is to provide
‘an aircraft of the above-mentioned type in 55
lift
propellers;
.
,
i
.
,
_
t
Figure‘? is a vertical,cross-sectionalview taken
at right angles toFigure 6 on the line l'——1 there
of further illustrating‘ the manner in which the
vertical lift propellers are coupled to permit the
angle of the blades to be varied;
.
t
Figure 8 is. a horizontal cross-sectional view
taken on line 8-8 in Figure 6 looking in the
‘direction of the arrows and illustrating the con
trol for the variable pitch propeller;
Figure 9 is a top plan view of an aircraft illus
trating the vertical lift propellers on each side
thereof and showing the direction in which the
same are rotated;
‘
2,411,297 ‘
4
3
for supporting the outer end of a drive shaft 51.
The outer end of the drive shaft-51 is provided
Figure 10 is a front elevational view of the in
vention showing the propellers in their tilted
position for horizontal ?ight; and
with a bevel gear 53 drivingly engaging the bevel -
gear 5| so as to rotate the propeller hub 21 about
its axis. It is to be understood that the pro
Figure 11 is a front elevational view of an
aircraft showing the propellers arranged for
vertical lift.
In the ‘drawings, wherein for the purpose of
illustrating the invention like reference char
acters will be employed to designate like parts
peller, including the blades 36, may rotate inde
pendently of the control shaft 42 and that rota
tion of the shaft 51 will drive the propeller at
a desired rate of speed. The inner end of the
shaft 51: is connected to‘a stub shaft 59 rotatably
iournalled in a gear housing: 6|). and‘asillustrated
in Figures 1 and 2, the shaft 51 is connected with
throughout, attention. is directed to: Figure 9 .
wherein there is" shown an aircraft including a
fuselage generally indicated by the reference
character 5 having relatively short wing sections‘
the stub shaft 59 by means of a universal connec
tion 6|. A worm wheel 62 is secured to the stub
5 at the front end thereof and elevators l at the
rear. A rudder 9 is mounted between the eleva-~ 15" shaft and is drivingly engaged by a worm 63
mounted on the end of a shaft 65 which is rotat
tors l in the conventional manner to. facilitate _
ably supported in the gear housing $41 by the
the steering of the plane when in ?ight. The
bearing boss 66. ‘ The gear housing 60 is sup
fuselage 5 is provided with a cowling it’ and. nose
ported in the fuselage 5 by means of supporting
II for accommodating the propeller I12. TheI
structure thus far described is typical of a con
20 legs til held in place by any suitable means. An
extension 68 is formed on the power shaft, of
the‘ motor l3 and is provided with a clutch mem
ventional aircraft except that the wing sections
6 are formed relatively shorter‘ (Figures 1', 2‘ and
9')‘ A motor F3 is provided for rotating; the pro
peller l2‘ as is the usual custom.
‘
ber 69' adapted to be drivingly engaged with a
clutch member is on. the shaft 65. The clutch
The‘ wing sections 6 are relatively short and 25
terminate at the ends in housing portions M'with
the" lower‘ wing surface" l5i terminating in the
‘housing portion H!‘ in a well-rounded surface
"li?‘ltoprovid'e a‘ stream'-lih_e'd c‘ont‘our'. Mounted
in the housing“ portion I 4' is‘ a pair of brackets
I1 secured to the bottom‘ wall of the wing‘ sur
face I 5 by suitable nuts or bolts'an'd said brackets
comprising the parts. 69. and it maybe normally
held together by' a suitable spring‘ mechanism
and for the purpose of'separating such clutch
parts, a lever ‘H is fulcrumed on a support .12
formed‘ integral‘ with the motor l3' and‘ said lever
30 is provided with a’ yoke 13' for‘ being received
in a grooved collar 14. A link 15‘ connects the '
lever ‘H to a bell crank operating léverl?pivoted
[ll arej'provided with trunnion bearings‘ IQ for
as at ‘H to the gear housing 60 and said’. bell
receiving'a‘ yoke frame‘ 20‘ having’ trunnions 2|
crank lever 16 is‘ provided with a handle portion
and 22: received in the‘ bearings‘ iii‘. The trun
l8 toifacilitate,clutching and unclutch'i'ngz'of the
men‘ 22“ is substantially larger than the trunnion
v{Hand is provided‘ with a central bore 23 termi
_ motor shaft 68 with the stub shaft 59‘.
Connected to the end of; the control shaft 49
is a, crank arm, 89 as by means of a transverse
hating in an‘ enlarged'bor'e‘ portion 24.. .The yoke
frame are provided with" an annular boss 25
anchoring pin 8! and the freeend of the crank
havinga bore 26 for rotatably supporting the
40 arm Si} is provided with a. swivel’ rod connection
. hollow. shaft portion 21 of a propeller yoke 28
‘provided with oppositely disposed tubular por
tions 29'; The yoke frame 20' projects upwardly I
through ‘an opening 30" in the wing, surface 6
and said"openingrcommunicates with a tapered
opening 31‘ extending inwardly from the outer
end of the wing surface to a point 32 adjacent
the fuselage 5. The opening 3| terminates at
its outer‘ end in the opening 3!!‘ which is greatly
reduced‘ in size so' as to permit the yoke frame i
20’ to project thereth'r‘ough (Figures 6. and 7),
and yet provide an end wing portion or cover
for the top of the housing 14.
.
'
Journal'le'd in the tubular portions 29 of‘ ‘the
propeller hub yoke 28 is a pair of propeller blades
36 having. their shafts as at 31 arranged in op
posed relation and provided on the ends there-
82 for connection with a control rod 83. The
inner end of. the control rod- 83 is connected to a
rock lever 84 (Figure 2) pivoted on a shaft. sup.
ported by a. suitable bracket 85. having a bracket
foot 86 secured to the fuselage floor of the fuse
lage 5. It. is to be noted that the. propellers hav
ing. propeller‘ blades. 3% are mounted on. the ends of each wing section. 6. and since the structure
embodied in each propeller mechanism is identi
cal a description of one will su?ice for both. By
inspection of Figure 2 it will. be noted. that the
control rods 83 are connected to opposite ends
of. the rock shaft 84 so as- to be: rocked- in unison
by means of a. handy lever 85 pivoted to the
bracket 86. and connected to the rock, lever. 84 "
by means of bevel. gears 86-’ and 81.
-
An extension 88 is formed on the trunnion
of with offset arms 38. having eccentric'ally posi- ‘
frame 20 and said extension is provided with. a
pin 39 upon which is rotatably mounted a con
ti'oned pins 39. Said pins 39 are received in a
cross‘ head 40 having opposed slots 4| for slidably
trol rod connection 90' for accommodating a re
accommodating the‘ pins 39 and rotatably secured
ciprocating control rod 91. Each control rod has
its inner end connected to the arms 92 formed
to‘ said cross head 40 as by being swivelled, is a
shaft 4-2 which’ extends downwardly through. an
on a rock shaft 93 which is rotatably supported
opening Min the tubular portion 21 of‘ the pro
between spaced arms 94 of a bracket 95 so that
peller hub 28. The lower. end‘ of the slide rod (i5 said rods 9| may operatein unison. A manual
42" is provided with a block 45' having a. slot 46
control lever 96. is pivoted to, the upper end of
for receiving an eccentric pin 41 carried by the
the bracket 95 and is provided with abevel gear
‘91 in mesh with a bevel gear 98 secured to the
offset arm 48 of the‘ rotary ‘control shaft Mi ex
‘tending through the bore 23. Mounted within
rock shaft 93 to facilitate rotation of the same
the enlarged portion 2'4 of the bore 23 is the
hub portion 59 of a propeller drive gear 5| hav
ing its teeth 52 in mesh with the teeth .53 of the
gear 54 keyed to the tubular propeller hub 21'.
Positioned adjacent the trunnion brackets I1
is a bearing‘ bracket 55 having a bearing boss 56
and thereby adjust or tiltthe trunnion frame 29
on the trunnion» support ll.
When the trunnion frame 20 is tilted so as to
move the propeller blades 36 from the position
shown in Figure 11 to the position shown in Fig
ure 10, one of the blades will be received in the
2,411,297
6
openlngSI ‘while theother blade will project be
yondlthe wing section-6 ‘and form'a continuation
liftingeifect. When the propellers are left tilted
‘or angled one :to the ‘other’by operation'of the
“thereof. When theipropellerpincluding the'blades
.36 “and hub yoke}?! ‘of reach wing sectioned are in
the position shown in Figure 2, .a hinged .cover 69
may be provided ‘for covering the opening and
‘forming ‘a continuous flipper wing surface. The
.cover '99 is hinged to a vbracket member I66
formed integral with the drive shaft supporting
control lever 85, the clutch including the parts
469‘ and ‘wmay-be engaged'byoperation of thelever
bracket 55 (Figure 4-) and, as indicated in Figure l
T8..so as to drive the propellers and cause the
same to be rotated for accomplishing a vertical
lift as shown in Figure 11. When the propellers
are thus arrangedas shown in Figure 2‘, thehinged
covers-99 are.raise'd by the control-lever ‘I01 and
held in place by the detent IE8 engaging within
the notch ,-in the sectorrplate I09. It is to ‘be
4, the hinged (cover 99 is ‘provided with hinge
brackets IIII secured to “oifsetportions rIllihofrthe
bracket Hill by means of hinge pintles I03. The
.inner end of .each hingedcovenilll is connected to
understood that ‘during horizontal flight, the
propeller blades :35 will be rocked about their
‘an actuator .lever tilt by :means of a relatively u;
short I link .i 55 and said actuator lever "I04 is piv
in the opening .3I and with its surface faired
into the adjacent .wingsurface to~form an aero
.otally mounted on a ‘bracket I96 .sectu‘edio the
,fuselage as shown .in Figure -2. The opposite end
of theiactuatorlever Idllis provided with-a handle
I07 ‘to which is pivoted a -detcnt I98 ‘for ‘engag
ing within -a notch in 1a sector plate I59, also
secured to thefuselage ‘in opposed relation to the
bracket MB. The extreme inner end of each
hinged covertll is adapted to be engaged by means
of ‘a spring-projected ‘bolt Hi1 slidably mounted
in a ‘bracket III and said spring-projected bolt
‘III’! is provided on'one end with a handle I I2 ex
tending into the fuselage 5 so as to- be presented
Withineasy reach-of the'pilot. _A coil spring H3
axes .31 so that the innermostblade'will beneste‘d
dynamic ‘cross-sectional pro?le ‘of ‘the wing sec
tion in which it ‘is nested, as shown in ‘Figure 5,
while the outermost blade‘will extend beyond the
wing section and likewise conform in cross sec
tion to the cross ssectioniof ‘the wing section 6.
It is ‘to be understood that the "aircraft above
described may be converted ‘from a helicopter
type plane to a conventional-planelin a ‘relatively
short time so that after the desired altitude ‘has
been reached the conversion may be made ‘quickly
so as not to lose altitude upon cessation of opera
tion-and rotation of the propellers 35. During the
vertical flight the propeller I2 maybe rotated to
encircles the-control -rod “I I4 to normally hold the ‘
cause a combined horizontaland-vertical lift‘ with
bolt I'm-projected so as-to-engage'the edge of the
‘the wing section providing a portion of the ver
tical lift and the ailerons I26 adjusted accord
ingly for such combined ‘forward and "vertical
‘motion.
During the above-mentioned conversion, the
area of ‘the wingsection'?issuf?cient to support
the plane in horizontal ‘?ight. ,Also, the pro
.hingedcoverilg ‘and hold ‘the same in place.
Mounted on a projecting end portion ‘of the
stub shaft v59 ,journalled in the reduction gear
housingtllh-a bevel gear II5 ‘drivingly engaging a - '
\bevelgear .I:I»6 secured to a shaft I-I‘I-in a bearing
bracket‘! t3 and said bearing bracket is secured
peller 12 {may ‘be of the variable pitch type so as
to‘control the forward travel of the plane during
with a‘disc I20 and the shaft I I1 isprovided with 40 take-offs.
a pointer I2I adapted to register and align with
It is‘tobe understood that the form of the in:
a projection £22 on ‘the disc I253. It is ‘noted-that
vention herewith shown :and described is to ‘be
taken as a preferredembodiment of the invention
the indicatorpointer l2! rotates-with the shaft 513
at the same speedthereof and the pointer is posi
and that various changes may be made in ‘the
tioned so ‘that when it ‘is ‘desired'to tilt the yoke 3. shape, size and arrangement of parts without
frame 26 on its trunnion supports I9, the pilot
departing from the ‘spirit of the invention or the
may determine from the indicator the relative
scope of ‘the subjoined claims.
position of the propeller blades 1-36 shown’by dot
What I claim is:
ted lines in Figure 1 so that when the control
1. In ‘combinationlwith an‘aircraft having‘ wing
lever ‘96 isroperated-to tilt the trunnion frame 20,
sections and a propeller ‘for horizontal flight, 21
the innermost propeller blade of ‘each propeller
‘\Vertical ‘lifting propeller ‘mounted adjacent the
_ will be guided through a partial rotation directly
end of each ‘wing-section, means ‘for rocking said
into the recess 3|.
vertical lifting propellers transversely of their
.After the pilot has thus determined the location
:axes .froman operative position to a position of
‘of the vpropeller blades ‘36, the ‘control lever ‘H2 ; Ll. rest so that a portion 'of each lifting propeller
for the latch Ill-0 is operated to release the latch
:will ‘be received "in a recess in its corresponding
and permit the operation of ‘the hand lever -I 9‘! so
wing section with the remaining portion‘thereof
as to retract the hinged cover member 99 within
‘extending beyond the wing section, and means
the recess 3! as shown in Figure 2. After the pro
for :rotating said lpropellerslin reverse directions
peller blades 36 are \thusaligned withthe open
when in said operative position.
ing3l , they may be lowered as indicated in dotted
12. 'In combination'withan aircraft having wing
lines in Figure 2 so that the bolts fill] may be
“sections ‘and a propeller ‘for ‘horizontal ?ight, a
projected into an opening I25 in the end of each
vertical lifting propeller mounted on each wing
“propeller blade 36. In this manner, the pro
section adjacent the end thereof ‘for rotational
pellermay be held in position so that the outer- ~
and rocking-movement, means .for rocking said
most ‘blade 36 will extend inalignment @withthe
lifting propellers transversely of their axes ‘from
wing section .6 and form a continuation of the
operative position to a position of rest so that
lift surface of the wing section. With the ppm
aportion of each lifting propeller will bereceived
pellers thus nested, the propeller ‘I2 may cause
ina recess .in‘its corresponding (wing section with
theplane to “bepropelled in _a horizontal ?ight
to the gear housing 65 ‘by means of va supporting
arm ‘H9. The bearing bracket H8 is provided
as indicated in Figure .10. During landing or as
the remaining portionrthereof extending beyond
cension, the propellers may be arranged as shown
‘in'Figure 2 by operating the control lever ‘.96 “after
which the control lever 85.15 shifted to ‘angle the
said corresponding iwingisection, and means “for
lockin g. said ‘vertical ._liftingjpropellers within their
respective recesses when ‘said propellers are in
‘blades .36 of the propellers to give the ‘required
theirpositionsofrest.
.
‘
‘
'
>
2,411,297
7
8
3. In combination with an aircraft having wing
means for rocking said lifting propellers trans
sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight, a
versely of their axes from an operative position
to a position of rest so that a portion of each
vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation
adjacent the end of each Wing section, said lifting
propellers being supported for rocking movement
about ‘axes extending transversely of the wing
sections and the axes of rotation thereof, means
for rocking said propellers transversely of their
lifting propeller will be received in a recess} in
its corresponding Wing section with the remain
ing portion thereof extending beyond the wing
section, a movable cover for each of said recesses
to form a continuous streamlined surface for each
axes from an operative position to a position of
Wing section when the vertical lifting propellers
rest so that a portion of each lifting propeller 10 are arranged for vertical ?ight, and means oper
will be received in a recess in its corresponding
able from a position within said aircraft for mov
wing section with the remaining portion thereof
ing said recess covers to cover and uncover said
extending beyond the wing section, and means
recesses.
’
for varying the pitch of said vertical lifting pro
8. In combination with an aircraft having wing
pellers so that said lifting propellers can be faired 15 sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight, a
into the adjacent wing surfaces when shifted from
vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation ad
said operative position to said position of rest.
jacent the tip of each wing section, means for
' 4. In combination with an aircraft having wing
sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight, a
rocking said lifting propellers transversely of
propellers each being supported to rock about
pivotal axes extending transversely of the respec
tive wing sections and the axes of rotation of said
sponding wing section with the remaining por
tion thereof extending beyond the wing section,
lifting propellers, means for rocking said lifting
' tially continuous streamlined Wing surfaces when
the vertical lifting propellers are arranged for
their axes from an operative position to a posi
vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation 20 tion of rest so that a portion of each lifting pro
adjacent the tip of each wing section, said lifting
peller will be received in a recess in its corre
propellers transversely of their axes from an oper
a cover for each of said recesses to form substan
ative position to a position of rest so that a por
vertical ?ight, means operable from within said
tion
a recess
of each
in its
lifting
corresponding
propeller’ will
wingbesection
received
with
aircraft for moving said recess covers to and from
a position in which said covers form said stream
the remaining portion thereof extending beyond
‘the Wing section, and means for rotating said
30
lined wing surfaces, and means projecting into
lifting propellers in reverse directions when in
said recesses for locking the nested portion of
each vertical propeller therein when said lifting
said operative position, each of said vertical lifting
propellers being of a length substantially equal
propellers are at rest.
to twice the length of each wing section.
5. In combination with an aircraft‘ having wing
sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight, a
vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation
adjacent the tip of each wing section, said lifting
propellers each being supported to rock about
‘pivotal axes extending transversely of the re
spective wing sections and the axes of rotation of
said lifting propellers, means for rocking said lift
ing propellers transversely of their axes from an
operative position to a position of rest so that a
portion of each lifting propeller will be received
in a recess in its corresponding wing section with
the remaining portion thereof extending beyond
a
9. In combination with an aircraft having wing
sections, a power plant and a propeller for hori
zontal ?ight, a vertical lifting propeller mounted
for rotation adjacent the tip of each wing'section,
said propellers being mounted for rocking and
swinging movement about axles at the tips of their
40 respective wing sections extending transversely
thereof, means for rocking said lifting propellers
transversely of their axes from an operative posi
tion to a positionof rest so that a portion of each
lifting propeller will be received‘ in a recessin
~ its corresponding wing section with the remain
ing portion thereof extending beyond the Wing
section and providing an airfoil surface member,
means for rotating said propellers in reverse direc
the wing section, and means for rotating said ver
tions when in said operative position, and means '
tical lifting propellers in reverse directions when
for drivingly connecting said propellers to the
in said operative position, each of said vertical
power plant of said aircraft.
lifting propellers being arranged with respect to
10. In combination with an aircraft having
its corresponding wing surface when in its inoper
wing sections, a vertical lifting propeller for each
ative position so that said portion will lie Within
wing section having blade portions, said pro
the recess and form a substantially uninterrupted 55 pellers bein'g‘m’ounted forlrotation about their
streamlined surface for its corresponding wing
axes adjacent the ends of the Wing sections and
section.
being rockably movable to a position of rest
6. In combination with an aircraft having wing
with one of the blades of each of said propellers
sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight, a
nested in a recess in its corresponding Wing sec
vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation 60 tion and the remaining blade portion of each of
adjacent the tip of each wing section, means for
said propellers projecting beyond its correspond
rocking said lifting propellers transversely of their
ing wing section.
‘
I
.
v
axes from an'operative position to a position of
11. In combination with an aircraft having
rest so that a portion of each lifting propeller
relatively short wing sections, a vertical lifting
will be received in a recess in its corresponding 65 propeller mounted adjacent the end of each Wing
wing section with the remaining portion thereof
section for rotation about their axes, means for
extending beyond the wing section, and a cover
rockably mounting said propellers to swing about
for each of said recesses to form a substantially
axes disposed at right angles to their axes of ro
continuous streamlined surface for each wing
tation and transversely of said wing sections,
section when the Vertical lifting propellers are 70 means for rotating said propellers in reverse
arranged for vertical ?ight.
7. In combination with an aircraft having
wing sections and ' a propeller for horizontal
?ight, a vertical lifting propeller mounted for
directions, means for rocking said propellers from
an operative position to a position of rest, and
means for holding said propellers in said position
of rest with portions thereof received in recesses
rotation adjacent the tip of each wing section, 75 in the wing sections and‘the remaining portions
2,411,297
10
projecting beyond and forming extensions of said
wing sections.
12. In combination with an aircraft having
wing sections, a vertical lifting propeller mounted
on each wing section having radial blade por
tions, means for rockably moving said propellers
from an operative lifting position to a position
of rest with a blade portion of each propeller re-V
ceived within a recess in its corresponding wing
section and the remaining blade portions of said 10
pellers being pivotally supported in rocking move
ment about axes extending transversely of their
respective wing sections, means for rocking said
lifting propellers transversely of their axes from
an operative position to a position of rest so that
a portion of each lifting propeller will be received
in a recess in its corresponding wing section with
the remaining portion thereof extending beyond
the wing section and providing an airfoil surface,
a cover for each of said recesses positionable to
form a substantially continuous streamlined sur
to ‘provide continuations of the wing sections, and
face with its adjacent wing surface when the ver
means for rotating said propellers when in an
tical lifting propellers are arranged for vertical
operating position for vertical lifting ?ight.
?ight, means for rotating said propellers, and
13. In combination with an aircraft having 15 means operable from a location within the air
wing sections and a propeller for horizontal ?ight,
craft for controlling the propeller rocking means
a vertical lifting propeller mounted for rotation
and said rotating means.
adjacent the tip of each wing section, said pro
ALEX ISERNA.
propellers projecting beyond the wing sections
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