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Nov. 19, 1946.
D. H. SLQAN
2;411;'299
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR'
Filed Nov. 12', 1941
s Sheets-Sheet 1
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57
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INVENTOR.
DA v10 H. SLOA N
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A TTORNEYS.
Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,299
D. H. SLOAN
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
Filed Noxul.
1941
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVEN TOR.
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ATTORNEYS.
Nov. 19, 1946.
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D. H. SLOAN
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2,411,299
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
Filed Nov. 12, 1941
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INVENTOR
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ATTORNEYS.
Nov. 19, 1946.
D. H. sLoAN
2,411,299
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
Filed Nov. 12, 1941
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INPUT INVENTOR.
Dawn H. SLonlv
Nov. 19, 1946.
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2,411,299
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
Filed NOV. 12, 1941
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BY. “WM
A TTORNEYS.
NOV. 19, 1946.
D. H_ SLQAN
2,411,299 ‘
HIGH FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
Filed Nov. 12, 1941
7
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ATTORNEYS.
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,299
If
lTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,299
HIGH-FREQUENCY TRIODE OSCILLATOR
David H. Sloan, Berkeley, Calif., assignor to
Research Corporation, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of New York
1
Application November 12, 1941, Serial No. 418,669
36 Claims. (Cl. 250-36)
My invention relates to electronic tubes of the
triode type and more particularly to high power
tubes peculiarly adapted to the production of
ultra-high-frequency oscillations, i. e., oscilla_
tions having wavelengths from 10 to 20 centi
meters for example. rI'his application is a con
tinuation-in-part of my prior application Serial
No. 364,284, ?led November 4, 1940.
2
wherein the cooling system does not introduce
material parasitic radiation of radio-frequency
power; to provide a novel and effective tuning
apparatus for a micro-wave oscillation genera
tor; to provide a type of electrode support for
high-frequency electronic devices which is mas
sive and rugged, and whichv at the same time
does not introduce inter-electrode capacities
In the recent progress of electronic and radio
which could either severely limit ‘the frequencies
development there has been an increasing de 10 upon which the device is operative or the power
mand for oscillation generators combining high
power output with micro-wave oscillation gen
eration.
These two requirements have been, to
a certain extent at least, incompatible, and a
large amount of research has taken place to the
end that these two factors might be reconciled
in order to produce practical apparatus which
will have a high-power output at extremely short
wavelengths.
In my previous application cited above I have
shown, described and claimed a tetrode structure
which is capable of producing many kilowatts of
which may be developed at such frequencies; to
provide a means and method of easily checking
and measuring the power output of high power
tubes operating at relatively high frequencies; ,
to provide a novel means and method of operat
ing a high-frequency oscillation generator of the
triode type; to provide a simple system of reso
nator chokes for use in preventing undesired ra
diation from a self-resonating oscillating triode;
to provide a means and method of operating a,
triode to obtain maximum power output at high
frequencies; to provide a simple electronic tube
incorporating a resonator, which can be operated
as an oscillation generator; to provide a tuned
power at wavelengths within the micro-wave
range. My present invention is a simpli?ed im
provement on the tube of that application, in 25
?lament tuned-anode oscillator operating with
that I have been able to produce a triode tube
capacity feedback; to provide a triode oscillator
operating on a half-cycle work period, or multiple
thereof; and to provide an electronic triode of
oscillation power having a l5-centimeter wave
length can be produced with the preferred form 30 rugged and simple construction which, when en
ergized, can be utilized to produce tens of kilo
of tube of my invention, herein to be described,
watts of power at relatively high frequencies and
using a 60,000-volt anode excitation.
short wavelengths, such as, for example, from
It is the broad purpose, therefore, of my pres
10 to 20 centimeters.
.
ent invention to provide a simple, compact and
My
invention
possesses
numerous
other ob
easily assembled electronic tube structure of the
jects and features of advantage, some of which,
triode type, completely reconciling the apparent
together with the foregoing, will be set forth in
incompatible factors of the production of large
the following description of specific apparatus
amounts of power at relatively high frequencies.
embodying and utilizing my. novel method. It
As a result of this general purpose, therefore,
several objects of my invention are: To provide 40 is therefore to be understood that my method is
applicable to other apparatus, and that I do not
a triode tube which is capable of producing tens
limit myself in any way to the apparatus of the
of kilowatts of power at extremely high frequen
present application, as I may adopt various other
cies; to provide a high-frequency oscillation gen
erator of great frequency stability; to produce a
apparatus embodiments, utilizing the method
high-frequency oscillator tube of relatively high 41.5 within the scope of the appended claims.
e?iclency, and particularly to produce such a
The triode tube of my present invention em
bodies several basic concepts.
tube wherein the losses due to undesired radia
tion from the tube itself are reduced to negligible
The ?rst basic concept is the provision of a
proportions; to provide a novel means and meth
simple resonator having spaced opposing walls
od of terminating a resonator or transmission 50 carrying a D.-C. diiference of potential, and
line; to provide a high-frequency oscillation gen
wherein the cathode is attached to one wall with
erator of relatively large physical size, as com
.the opposing wall acting as an anode. Grid sur
pared to the wavelength of oscillation; to provide
faces are inserted between cathode and anode‘
an electronic triode tube of the character de
for controlling the effect of the A.-C‘. and D.-C.
scribed which may be fully ?uid cooled, and
?elds on the electrons. The grid surfaces may
capable of generating a large amount of high
frequency power. For example, 100 kilowatts of
2,411,299.
4
be extended to separate the resonator into two
resonant regions, if desired.
A. second basic concept of my invention is the
arrangement and tuning of separate resonator
compartments, if used, in such a manner that the
tioned therein. Near the outer end of the sup
port It the coaxial ducts ‘are separated into re- .
?exed portions I2, ?exible to permit axial expan;
sion of ?laments to be attached to the inner end
of support III.
At the inner end of the central cathode sup
port I0, is fastened a circular ?lament support
?ange I4 in which the ducts in support I6 and
pipe I I are connected. A cathode resonator end
oscillate positively with respect to the cathode 10 element I5 is mounted on ?ange I4 to extend
at the same time. If only a single resonator is
axially beyond ?ange I4.
used, the electrode voltages are divided to cause
concentrically positioned around central ?la
the tube to oscillate in a similar manner. - I pre
ment ‘support I6 is an outer ?lament support I6,
fer to use a ?nite transit time, i. e., an electron
the two supports I0 and I6 being outwardly pro
work cycle of one or more half cycles, preferably 15. vided with lateral sealing ?anges l1 and I9, re
tube can oscillate in a tuned-?lament, tuned- -
anode circuit with capacity feedback, with or
without the aid of electromagnetic feedback.
The circuits are tuned so that the grid and anode
a single half cycle.
.
spectively, connected by an insulating cylinder
It is practical to make the tube of my inven
tion of relatively large size even- for very short
wavelengths, as the transit distance may be one
20, such as a glass cylinder, the latter holding
the supports in concentric relation, using metal
to-glass seals.
Sealing ?ange I‘! is attached to
eighth wavelength.
Thus, in a. tube operating at 20 support I0 outside of reflexed portions l2. De
16 centimeters, for example, the spacing between
mountable seals can, of course, be used in con
grid and anode surfaces may be approximately
junction with continuous pumping. The inner
end of outer cathode support I6 is provided with
The third basic concept comprises forming elec
a circular ?lament support ?ange 2|, positioned
trodes of sturdy coaxial metal containers, which 25 parallel to and axially spaced from ?lament sup
2 centimeters.
'
form a radio-frequency resonator, or resonators,
full D.-C. insulation being maintained between
these elements. D.-C. insulation demands gaps,
through which radiation is reduced to a negligi
ble factor by a choke system formed by a se 30
quence of anti-resonant high impedances and
quarterwave low impedance lines.
port ?ange I4.
_
The cathode support I6 is preferably formed of
two telescoping tubes I6 and II, the inner tube I'I
having opposite channels I8 cut therein. These
channels I8 are connected in support ?ange 2I
at one end thereof and to inlet and outlet pipes
I9 and 26 at the opposite end, as shown in Figs.
3 and 4, these pipes passing laterally, then out
In the ensuing speci?cation, my invention will‘ '
be described in its various aspects as applied to
wardly through sealing ?ange I9 and sealed there
an oscillator tube of high power, i. e., approxi 35 to at right angles to loops I2. Thus, both ?lament
mately 100 kilowatts peak output at 15 centi- '
support ?anges I4 and 2I can be cooled from out
meters wavelength, together with the operating
side the tube by a circulating ?uid, such as water.
circuits therefor, including a simple and emcient
Inner and outer cathode supports are spaced by
means of measuring the power output of the tube.
quartz positioning pins 22 between ?lament sup
40 port ?anges I4 and 2|. The space between ?anges
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of one
- l4 and 2I is closed by extensions 23 and 24 ex
form of my invention embodying outside tuning,
tending from central cathode support I6 and
together with a circuit diagram energizing the
?ange 2I, respectively, and overlapping in the
tube to act as a push-pull oscillator.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken as indicated
by the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
'
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken as indicated
by the line 3_—-3 of Fig. 1. '
midplane intersecting the ?laments, without
touching. The quartz pins 22 are attached to ex
tension 23, and extension 24 is apertured to allow
pins 22 to contact cathode support I0.
_
Filament ?anges I4 and 2I are joined by a plu
rality, preferably twelve in the present instance,
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken as indicated ‘
50 of U-shaped, axially extending ?laments 25, these
by the line 4—4 of Fig. 1.
- ?laments being provided with ?at or slightly con
Fig. dis an enlarged showing of variable elec
cave surfaces facing outwardly, as has been de
tromagnetic feedback structure usable in the tube
scribed in my prior application cited above. The
of Fig. 1.
?laments are preferably of heavy tungsten and
Fig. 6 is a partial view showing a ?xed elec
tromagnetic feedback usable in the tube of Fig. 1. 55 are arranged to have the outer surfaces thereof
Fig. 7 is a diagram showing how the tube of 1 describe a cylindrical surface. Between central
cathode support Ill and outer cathode support I6
my invention can operate with all but the elec
are positioned a pair of ?lament supply chokes 26
tron interaction ?eld determining elements re
and 21, preferably mounted on support III, the ac
moved from the grid.
—
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken as indicated 60 tion of which will later be described in conjunc
tion with the, action of other, and somewhat simi
by the line 8-8 in Fig. 7.
lar chokes used in the tube.
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 are diagrammatic views
A grid cylinder 36 is provided, enclosing outer
showing modi?cations of resonator choke sys
cathode support I6 and cathode resonator ele
tems.
4
Fig. 12 is a sectional view of a means of meas 65 ment I5, and spaced therefrom by the use of an
outer grid'seal ?ange 3| joined to the cathode’
uring the power output of the tube of my inven
seal ?ange I9 by an insulating glass sleeve 32,
tion.‘
'
using Inetal-to-glass seals. Here again demount
Fig. 13 is a sectional view taken as indicated
able seals may be used, if desired. Grid cylinder
by line 'I3—I3 in Fig. 12.
Fig. 14 is a partially diagrammatic sectional 70 36 is provided ith an inner end 33 spaced from
and surrounding cathode resonator element I5.
view of a modi?cation ofmy- invention.
The grid cylinder is also provided with slots 35
. Referring directly to Fig. 1’ for a-detailed de
milled therethrough opposite each ?lament 25.
scription of my invention, a ?lament support
Other grid constructions providing equivalent
structure is utilized comprising a central cathode '
support I6 having an inner cooling pipe II posi 75 electron interaction ?eld control may be utilized
2,411,299
and are deemed full equivalents. ‘The outer por
tion of the grid 30 and its sealing ?ange 3| and
Consequently, the position of the end plate and
therefore the position of the connected chokes
46 and 41 can readily be adjusted.
I prefer to hereafter refer to the ends of the
resonators in which the choke systems are posi
the portion of the cathode support ?ange IS, in
side of insulator 20 may be apertured for vacuum
communication through the tube.
The ?at or slightly concave surfaces of the ?la
ments 25 are preferably positioned a few thou
sandths of an inch back of the slots in the grid
tioned as the closed or short circuited ends there.
of, as the ?rst-high impedance choke in each
choke system acts as a part of the resonator
‘ which when thus augmented, is really short cir
10 cuited to R.-F. at this extreme end.
The ends of the resonators opposite the closed
ends I prefer to call the open or open-circuited
ends of the resonators, as the resonator spaces
are there continuous over the ends of the resona~
cylinder to permit inserting the ?lament group in
side of the grid. The grid slots 35 are properly
shaped and positioned to distribute the ?eld as
uniformly as practical over the cathode surfaces
at the time of maximum emission, and to direct
these ?elds then toward the anode, with the dis
tance from the emitting surfaces to the sensibly
always uniform ?eld beyond the grid only a small
fraction of the anode-cathode distance.
tor conductors and the conductors are electrically
open-circuited at this extreme end
The cathode resonator is projected by cathode ,
An anode 31 is provided, also a cylinder having
resonator element l5 and grid-end 33, to termi
a domed end 38, and is positioned around the grid,
nate at their open end, and likewise the anode
although in this case the outer end of the anode 20 resonator
is continued to an open end termina
terminates a substantial distance away from the
tion by the portion of the grid extending around
grid seal ?ange 3| in‘order to provide space in
cathode resonator element l5, and the end 38
sulation. An outer anode seal ?ange 40 is pro
of
the anode. Thus, the two resonators have a
vided, joined with metal-to-glass seals to the grid ‘
.common wall, i. e., the grid. The completed
?ange 3| by an exterior relatively long high-volt
resonators are both designed to resonate at the
age insulating sleeve 4|, or, if desired, with a de
same
odd number of quarter wavelengths, pref
mountable seal. The tube may be continuously
erably
?ve in the tube being described, with a
exhausted through a vacuum line attached to the
particular ?lament and grid slot location, as will
grounded anode of Fig. l or through a sealed 01f
glass connection 42 if the tube is to be used as a 30
’
sealed tube.
The anode is provided with a narrow space ,
water jacket 43 surrounding the impact area of
'
be brought out later.
,
The output of the tube is preferably taken
through an output transmission line 6| inserted
through anode 31 at a current loop. The output
line 6| has a central conductor 62 extending as
electrons coming from the ?laments after passing
through the grid slots 35. This water jacket is 35 a loop into the anode-grid space and then re
turning to contact the outer conductor of the
provided with triple inlets 44, and opposite triple
line.
This transmission line may then be used,
outlets 45, so that water may be passed around the
as
is
well
known in the art, to supply any load
anode at high velocity to effectively cool the an
as maybe desirable. The line may be sealed
ode.
from the atmosphere by an insulating barrier 63
Cathode resonator chokes 46 and 41 are posi
tioned serially on outer cathode support l6, and
anode resonator chokes 48 and 49 are ‘positioned
serially on grid 30, to terminate the cathode and
anodes in a high impedance, as will later be ex
plained, with full D.-C. insulation between cath
ode, grid, and anode. Cathode supply chokes 26
and 21, cathode resonator chokes 46 and 41, and
anode resonator chokes 48 and 49 are all anti
resonant systems with the two chokes of each sys~ I
tem joined by quarterwave line sections.
Each comprises, in the tube of Fig. 1, laterally
extended ?anges 5| attached centrally to the sup
porting electrode, carrying outer cylindrical por~
tions 50 spaced from, but positioned close to and
concentric with, the wall of the opposing elec
trade. The positioning and function of these
40 positioned at a voltage node.
Inasmuch as one of the main uses for a tube
of this type is for the production of maximum
quantities of oscillating power at low wavelengths,
the anode may be energized without external
recti?ers, using raw A.-C. I have shown in Fig. 1
one circuit by which the tube has been success
fully operated as a self-rectifying oscillator.
A ?lament transformer 80 is provided, the
secondary 8| of which is attached" to central
cathode support H1 and to cathode ?ange | 9.
Transformer B0 is excited through a primary 82
supplied from the A.-C. main 83. A.-C. mains
also supply a high voltage anode transformer 85
through primary 86, the secondary 81 having one
end connected to the anode ?ange 40 and thus
to the anode 31. The anode end of the anode
chokes will later be described in detail.
.
transformer is grounded, the anode operating at
I may ‘prefer to make the cathode resonator
ground D.-C. potential, providing a grounded
choke systems 46 and 41 movable for tuning
purposes, and therefore mount both of these 60 anode tube in this embodiment of my invention.
The other end of the anode transformer second
chokes On a sleeve 52 sliding on outer ?lament
ary 81 is connected through a resistor 89 to one
support It‘, the inner end of this sleeve terminat
side of the cathode, such as, for example, ?ange
il'lg in the same plane as the'inner end of the
I9. Grid bias for ?eld control is obtained‘ by a
cylindrical portion of choke 46. The two chokes
joined - by this sleeve may be axially moved by 65 connection 90 on the grid ?ange 3| to some point
on the resistor 89 as may be found desirable.
a rod 53 extending axially along the space be
This bias may be from 100-3000 volts negative, '
tween the outer ?lament support l6 and ‘the grid
on the operative portion of the supply cycle.
30, and then bending outwardly to pass axially
Before passing to the geometry of the resona
again through an opening 54 in the cathode seal
?ange [9. The rod is fastened to an end plate 55 70 tors, a discussion of the means and. method by
which I effectively close the resonators to R.-F.
attached to cathode ?ange Is by a metal bellows
with full D.-C. space insulation is ?rst in order.
seal 56, the position of end plate 55 being regu
As a ?rst premise, the outer ends of the ?lament
lated by end plate positioning screws 51. The
supports, grid and anode, can be considered as
vacuum within the tube tends to collapse the
bellows, and the screws prevent this collapse. 75 antennae, ready and willing to radiate if energy
escapes to those ends. Such radiation may be
2,411,299
taken to be a loss load, and should be reduced
to a negligible factor. For purposes of discus
sion, therefore, the outer portions of the chokes
or choke systems can be spoken of as the load
ends thereof, and the‘ inner portions as the input
ends thereof.
Before discussing the physical shape the choke
systems may assume, as these shapes may be
Movement of the position of the choke-line
choke system for the purpose of tuning may be
considered as varying the amount of conductor
existing in the resonant line up to the point where
it is cut for insertion of the low impedance of
viewpoint one, or cut for high impedance ter
mination of viewpoint two.
The voltage across the input choke is as high
as the standing wave voltage at the end 01' the
several, the operation and theory of the choke
systems will be brie?y set forth. The problem is, 10 last quarterwave section of the line, and the anti
resonant impedances are similar. Therefore,
of course, to terminate the transmission lines,
the energy stored in the choke is as great as the
as the anode and cathode resonators are true
energy in the adJacent quarterwave section of
transmission lines, without substantial loss of
line to be terminated.- Thus, the input choke
energy past the terminations, meanwhile main
taining complete D.-C. insulation between the‘ 15 adds an effective quarter-wavelength to the sys
- tem of standing waves in the line. As the stand
walls of the lines or resonators.
ing wave loop appears at the end of the line
Obviously, a transmission line can be termi
the position of the choke system along the line
nated by a conductive barrier connecting the in
can be used to tune the line.
‘
ner and outer conductors, thus providing zero
In the second view, one conductor of the reso
impedance across the line. Such a barrier would 20
nant line is provided with a physical out which
not, of course, permit any D.-C. di?erence of
is bridged by a quarter wave anti-resonant
potential between the line conductors in this ?rst
choke, with the provision of a second out at the
method.
end of an electrical quarter wave continuation of
A second type of termination would be a ter
mination of in?nite impedance, such as if a line 25 either of the line conductors toward the load and
the provision of a similar choke bridging the
conductor were to be completely cut off at the
second cut. Thus, the intermediate quarter
desired point.‘ However, such a cut-off would
wave line section terminates in a high impedance
prevent support between the cut-off portions and
making the input to this quarter wave line have
prevent metallic connection to maintain a D.-C.
very low impedance. This very low impedance
potential.
30 appears in series with the high impedance of the
My preferred and practical method of reso
nator, combines the D.-C. insulation, D.-C. con
nection, and physical support. It will be de
?rst quarter wave choke, and both impedances
are connected directly across the end of the line
which is to ‘be effectively opened. The high im
described as an alteration of type two. Both 35 pedance limits the current which can ?ow
scribed as an alteration of type one, and then
viewpoints are essential.
Viewed as a modi?cation of the ?rst or short
through the low impedance hence very little
power enters the low impedance line to escape
from the resonator. The input side .of the line
circuited termination for preventing the escape
leading to such a choke system is now effectively
of radiation, the conductors are metallically
joined, and D.‘-C. insulation is provided by cut 40 terminated by a nearly in?nite impedance, and
only a standing wave voltage 100p can appear at
ting open one conductor of the line at a current
the end of the line. Thus, from the second view
node and bridging this cut by a very low im
point, I have provided a practical equivalent of
pedance which is formed by the input end of a
a physical open circuited end of the input line,
quarterwave line whose distant open “load” end
terminates in a high impedance. ‘Almost negli 45 meanwhile maintaining D.-C. connection, full
support of the conductors, and D.-C. insulation gible power will ?ow into this line because
between line conductors.
negligible current ?ows through its almost neg
While there are a large number of physical
ligible input impedance. This low impedance is
structures which will provide a choke system op
made of two insulated conductors forming the
as above described, I ?rst wish to describe
quarterwave line, thereby providing D.-C. in 50 erating
a toroidal form of choke system, inasmuch as this
sulation where the low impedance is connected
type of choke system clearly illustrates successive
into one of the resonator conductors. This con
nection occurs one quarter wavelength away from
conductor separations, these separations being
joined by solid choke members.
.
the short circuit that suggested the name “closed”
Referring, therefore, first to Fig. 9, a trans
55 mission line having closely spaced inner and
for this end of the resonator.
The second viewpoint considers the resonator
outer conductors190 and 9| having an input end
line terminating in an open circuit at the same
92 and a load end 93, is diagrammatically illus
point where it was cut to insert the low im
trated with the chokes positioned inside the in
pedance quarterwave line connection of the ?rst
ner conductor, although either conductor may be
method. The quarterwave section beyond this 60 used. Toward the input end, the inner conductor
cut is now considered asa choke in series with
the low impedance quarterwave line, and together
is physically cut to provide a gap 94.
The two ’
physically cut ends of the line are then joined
they act as the high impedance termination of
by a toroidal, anti-resonant high impedance in
the resonator which now ends at the cut and is
put choke 95.
a quarterwave shorter than the resonator in the 65
On the load side of the high impedance input
?rst viewpoint. Thus the short-circuited end
choke, the inner conductor is continued as an
section of the resonator beyond the cut may be
electrical quarter wave line section ending at a
considered as part of the resonator in the ?rst
second gap 96 in the conductor which is bridged
view or as the ?rst choke in the high impedance
by a second toroidal choke 91 similar to the ?rst.
termination of the second view. Its variation of 70 Full physical support, therefore, is given to the
impedance with frequency makes it important
input end of the inner conductor from the load
in the tuning of the resonator. Subsequent de
end through the chokes, with loss toward the load
scriptions will follow this second viewpoint, hav
end reduced to a negligible factor and with the~
ing the open circuited line terminated by a choke
complete D.-C. insulation between the line mem
76 bers, as above described.
line-choke combination.
2,411,299
10
While such toroidal chokes may be used in
conjunction with the tubes herein described,
resistance of the support is greatly lowered, with
a consequent gain in ei?ciency. Under these cir
cumstances, the section of line of increased
diameter would be followed by the choke~line
choke system 46-51‘ to terminate the line, as has
previously been described. A second gain is also
accomplished, in that the voltage to the input
where room for insertion is available, such as
extending outwardly from the anode for example,
I may prefer to utilize other and fully equivalent
forms of choke systems, particularly if tuning of
the associated resonators is desired, as by moving
the choke systems along the line.
‘
choke 46 is now muchlower, and the losses in
this choke are thereby reduced.
resonator terminal systems. In these, the cross 10
However, the increase in diameter of support
section of the concentric lines is changed by ad
Ill may be su?icient to permit the interior of
ditional conductors supported by a continuation
the enlarged portion to be used as the input
of one of the conductors, this continuation no
choke by removing the rear wall 99 of the en
longer forming a part of the standing wave area
larged
portion 98 to provide a choke loll opening
of the line. The line formed by the additional
toward the load, as shown in Fig. 11. The second
conductors may then be cut and the cuts bridged
orload choke ml is then reversed for symmetry _
by chokes, as hereinafter described. These sys
and
for ease of establishing the required quarter
tems are used to terminate the cathode and anode
wave line section I I12 between the chokes. The
resonators of the tube heretofore described.
anode chokes Hi3 and I04 may also be reversed,
In Figs. 1, 10, and 11, I have shown different 20 with
comparable results. The mode of operation
forms of cylindrical choke systems, each com
In Figs. 1, 10, and 11, I have shown equivalent
of the tube in any case is the same, and full D.-C.
prising two anti-resonant chokes, spaced by
quarter wave transmission lines. In Fig. 1, the
cathode choke system 46-41 is shown movable
and with the separate chokes opening toward
the ?laments, While the anode choke system
48-49 is shown ?xed in position and opened in
the same direction. In Fig. 11, all of the chokes
are shown ?xed in position but opening away
from the ?laments. Fig. 10 shows an interme 30
diate step.
First, I wish to discuss the type of choke sys
tem shown in Fig. l where the chokes open into
the associated resonator'spaces, either as movi
able or ?xed systems. In case a ?xed choke sys
tem is desired, the choke ?ange 5| of each choke
may be rigidly attached to the supporting ele
insulation is maintained, with the desired high
impedance line termination accomplished.
Before passing to the discussion of the oper
ation of the tube, it will be desirable to discuss
the geometry of the resonators with relation to
the ?laments. The anode resonator may be di—
mensioned to be exactly ?ve quarter wave
lengths long. Thus, when this resonator is prop
erly energized, there will be standing waves pro
duced on the walls thereof. The ?laments, grid
slots, electron path, and the anode impact area
are all positioned to straddle a standing wave
voltage loop, with the region of maximum volt
age approximately in the plane at a right angle
to the axis of the tube dividing the ?laments in
half. Thus, there will be half of the axial extent
ment by welding, silver soldering, brazing, etc.,
of the ?laments on one side of the standing wave
at a current loop. The free edges of the cylin
loop peak, and the other half on the other side
of this loop peak, thus placing peak voltages in
the region of maximum ?lament emission. A
preferred relationship is to make the ?laments
extend axially somewhat less than a ‘quarter
drical portions areat voltage loops. When ?xed
chokes are used, the connection of the ?ange to
its supporting element at a current loop is not
a disadvantage as conduction between ?ange and
supporting member will be good.
wavelength.
When a, movable system, however, such as sys 45
The ?lament and the grid slots may have their
tem 46-41 in Fig. 1 is utilized, if no sleeve 52
midpoints located one or more half electrical
were to be utilized, there would be a high current
wavelengths distance away from the open end of
density and high resistance between the sliding
the
resonator to obtain fairly accurate registra
contact of the ?ange 5| and the supporting member, particularly at the ?ange closest to the 50 tion of the peak of the standing wave voltage
loop with the central plane of the ?laments. I /
resonator space. However, when sleeve 52 is
prefer,
however, that the central plane of the ?la
used and the sleeve extended along the support
ments be a single half Wavelength away from the
ing member to terminate at the same level as the
open ends of the resonators. Thus, in the de
free edge of the cylindrical portion, the free end
of the sleeve is at a current node and the re 55 scribed tube the central plane of the ?laments
will'be one electrical one-half wavelength away
sistance losses are low.
from the open ends of the resonators and three
It will be noticed that, when this type of choke
electrical quarter wavelengths away from the
system is utilized, there may be, in an extremely
closed ends of the resonators, as it will be re
high powered tube where the inner conductor of
membered that the choke system adds one quar
a line resonator is of small diameter compared
ter wavelength to the closed end of each res
to the diameter of the outer conductor, high
onator.
I
densities on the inner conductor, as for example
I
prefer
to
utilize
the
single
half
wavelength
the outer ?lament support In in the tube of Fig. 1.
spacing of the ?laments from the open ends of
The current has to pass along this support to
the resonators, because under these conditions
reach the ?ange 50 of the input choke. In order 65 the
tube cannot easily operate at any lower fre
to reduce this high current density, it may be
quency than the desired frequency. The only
other frequency at which the tube might readily
oscillate, with the central plane of the ?laments
desirable to effectively enlarge the diameter of
the support I!) at positions of heavy current con
centration.
a single half wavelength away from the open
70 ends, would be a double frequency. However, as
complished, for example, by increasing the size
a practical matter, the possibility of such oper
of a quarter wave section of the support II] with
ation is remote unless the anode voltage were to
a closed end cylinder 98 until the exterior surface
be
properly increased to give the proper electrode
thereof approaches the grid 30, as shown dia
work period for the higher frequency.
This effective increase in diameter can be ac
grammatically in Fig. 10. When this is done, the
75
The open resonator ends are also important in
2,411,999
11
I
that they establish symmetry for the tube, pre
vent parasitic oscillations, and stabilize the
standing wave patterns axially along the res
onators and consequently over the ?laments and
grid slots with equal voltages in planes at right
angles to the axis of the tube.
Tuning of the ?lament resonator by move
ment of the grid choke system is such as to tune
this resonator to provide a low inductive re
-
12
the coupling and still. maintain a ?xed phase
angle of nearly 180° between anode and cathode
voltages, then electromagnetic coupling between
cathode and anode resonators may be resorted to.
In case it may be found desirable to use electro
magnetic feedback between the anode resonators
and the grid resonators t6 increase coupling, I
may desire to provide a variable feedback in the
form of a coupling loop I00, as shown in Fig. 5,
10 this coupling loop being attached to a coupling
actance.
transmission line Ill extending laterally from
If the circuit thus presented be analyzed, a
the anode 31 preferably at a voltage node, the
tuned-?lament, tuned-anode circuit is provided,
central conductor N2 of the coupling transmis
with the anode and the cathode resonators
sion line 56 extending through the space between
coupled only by the anode-cathode capacity and
with the grid as an untuned D.-C. biased struc 15 the grid and anode, through an aperture H3 in
the grid 30, and then returning through this same
ture ?oating at R.-F. potentials induced in it by
aperture to contact the outer conductor of the
the ?elds in the anode and cathode resonators.
line. The coupling loop is tuned by providing a
If, as in the structure shown, the ?lament cir
conductive closure I H to the transmission line,
cuit is made to have an inductive reactance small
in relation to the capacitative reactance between 20 this closure being movable along the central con
ductor through the medium of a bellows H5 and
anode and cathode, we have a condition set up
adjusted by screws “6 as to position along the
where the R.-F. grid and anode voltages, with
line.
.
respect to the cathode, are in phase with re
The standing wave pattern on coupling line
spect to each other when the anode voltage is
adjusted to operate the tube on an R.-F. half 25 I l I can thus be varied by varying the position of
closure Ill and any desired amount of feedback '
.cycle electron work period, or by proper phas
passed through the loop llll.
ing of voltages with a work period of a multiple
If, however, only a ?xed electromagnetic feed
of half-cycles, although a single half-cycle work
back is needed, the device shown in Fig. 6 may
period is preferred. This work period is not nec
essarily the actual electron transit time,'but may 30 be used. Here the opening “3 is provided in
grid 30 with a ?xed loop ll‘! attached to one side
be more truthfully considered as the period
of this opening and entering both grid-cathode ‘
elapsing between the time of maximum emis
and grid-anode spaces. The size of the coupling‘
sion from the ?laments and the time of max
loop willdetermine the amount of feedback.
imum work performed by the emitted electrons
It will be seen from the foregoing description
on the load ?eld. With a half-cycle R.-F. work 35
that the modi?cation of the tube of my invention
period and with the reactances properly relat
just described embodies two resonators having a
ed, the ?laments will be negative when both grid
common wall, 1. e., the grid, and that the grid
and anode are positive. For the next half-cycle
slots are positioned in this common wall with the
this condition will be reversed, so that both grid
and anode will be negative when the ?laments 40 ?lament as a part of a facing wall. It will also
be clearly seen that the operation of the tube as
are positive. Under these conditions, therefore,
an oscillator relies upon the establishment of a
and under this mode of operation, there will be
standing wave pattern in boththe anode reso
extremely high emissions take place from the
nator and the cathode resonator. It follows,
negative ?laments when the grid and anode are
simultaneously positive, and e?icient electron 45 therefore, that the standing waves on the grid
wall facing the cathode elements are actually
cut-offs when .the grid and anode portions are
closely alike and may, in some instances, be actu
both negative with the ?laments positive.
ally alike and register both as to position and
The anode in the present tube and circuit op
strength, with the pattern on the grid wall facing
erating in the manner described, therefore, has
the anode. When such registry occurs, there is
the novel function of effectively performing in
the same manner as an accelerator grid in a
no need for the grid surfaces-other than the ?eld
tetrode, only however when accelerations are de
determining portions of the grid closely adjacent
sired.
the ?laments. When such registry occurs, all
portions of the grid may be removed, except those
Furthermore, this acceleration function
diminishes or disappears during the interval
when accelerations are‘ not wanted. Thus, both 55 portions immediately adjacent the ?laments, to
allow the identical resonator ?elds to merge.
anode and grid cooperate in starting and pre
If, for example, we call those portions of the
venting electron emission. Extremely large
grid 30 adjacent the ?laments utilized for the
amounts of oscillating power are thus produced.
Feedback is entirely capacitative. Consider
concentration of the anode ?eld on the ?laments
the anode and ?lament voltages with respect to 60 25, the control surfaces, and if we call the re:
the grid voltage. The present ?lament and its
support system‘ is completely shielded from the
anode by the grid, except at the grid slots. The
?lament voltage need not be 180” out-of-phase
maining material of the grid 30 the shielding
surfaces, we can see that the presence of the
shielding surfaces between the cathode structure
and the anode is only useful in case the standing
with the anode voltage,‘ as would be the case 65 wave patterns are unlike in strength and position
on each side thereof. When the ?eld strengths
were a skeleton grid to be inserted between the
are alike all along the resonators, the shielding
?lament and anode, as will later be described.
surfaces can be completely removed and the tube
Instead, the ?lament voltage may be given almost
will operate exactly as if such surfaces were pres
any phase angle between zero and 180° with re
spect to the anode voltage, by a suitable choice 70 ent with only a slight change in basic frequency.
However, even if the standing waves along the
of the grid-?lament impedance, which is in series
resonators are not alike, if the standing wave
with the ?lament-anode capacitative reactance
conditions in the neighborhood of the ?laments
and driven by the voltage between the grid and
are alike, then the grid shielding surfaces can be
anode.
If, however, it may be felt desirable to increase
removed and the tube will still oscillate, although
13
2,411,299
under these conditions there will be a more sub
stantial change in frequency.
The removal of the shielding grid surfaces can
be accomplished by the‘ provision of a skeleton
grid, this grid being designed to give the proper
ratio of capacity between grid and the anode and
the grid and the cathode. The grid under these
'
14
cathode as to distribute this ?eld on the ?laments
by virtue of the D.-C. bias placed on the grid.
The second function of the grid is to permit, in
the ?rst embodiment shown, the standing wave
?elds to be unlike in strength inside and outside
the grid conductor, and to permit them to be
deliberately made unlike by tuning to adjust 4-f.
conditions may be considered as an intermediate
voltage relationships. If the standing waves are,
point between two condensers, and the grid may
be shaped to divide the voltage in a. proper ratio 10 however, alike and registered even though only
in the neighborhood of the grids, the shielding
with the anode voltage nearly 180° out~of-phase
portions of the grid can be removed without af~
with the cathode voltage. Obviously, this ca
fecting the oscillation of the tube in any manner,
pacity ratio will be different for different tubes
provided the biasing ?eld remains. Even though
and is ?xed for a given set of conditions.
slightly unlike, the voltages can be adjusted by
The main difference, therefore, between the use 15 proper
grid skeleton disposition.
of the grid-shielding surfaces and the omission
I
would
like to point out, however, that the
thereof, is that when the grid-shielding surfaces
particular means of supporting the grid structure,
are used, the cathode and anode circuits are
shown in the tube of Fig. 7, is only a. preferred
separated and can be separately tuned, thus mak
means.
Other equivalent arrangements may be
ing the tube more ?exible in operation. However, 20
utilized to support the grid within the tube. I,
for any ?xed set of conditions, the grid-shielding
would further like to point out that the use of
surfaces can be completely removed and the tube
parallel
grid wires for determining the bias ?eld
will still oscillate, with the voltages still divided
is also not to be held a limitation, as other types
in the proper ratio and phase.
In Fig. '7, I have shown such an embodiment 25 of grid structure, such as a cylindrical mesh
screen, may be utilized around the ?laments and
of my invention. All of the grid surfaces have
will perform in an essentially similar manner.
been removed except those surfaces which are
The main considerations to be taken into account
necessary for the application of the D.-C‘. bias
in designing a tube of the type shown in Fig. 7,
?eld to distribute the anode ?eld on the ?laments.
are
that D.-C‘. ?eld determining grid elements
In this case, the ?lament supports, the ?lament 30
are to be left within the tube, these grid elements
?anges, the ?laments, and the cathode resonator
properly disposed to divide the standing wave
element I5 are all made exactly as before. The
voltages in the same manner as if the grid
anode is ‘as before, but in this case the R.-F.
shielding surfaces were to be present.
‘
closure of the single resonator remaining is per
Thus, it will be seen that, reduced to its lowest
fected by a single quarter wave choke system I30, 35
terms, the tube of my invention as shown and
this system being mounted on the outer ?lament
described herein is of relatively simple structure,
support It. The choke elements extend out
and, if desired, can be reduced to the basic form
wardly with the cylindrical portions 50 thereof
of a single resonator, this resonator acting‘ as a
positioned concentric with the anode wall in the
coupled
cathode and anode resonators.
proper position to electrically close to R.-F. the 40
In Figs. 11 and 12, I have shown a modi?cation
single physical resonator remaining, at ?ve quar
of the tube of my invention as constructed for
ter wavelengths with, as before, full D.-C. insula~
tion. The grid has been reduced to a mere skele
ton, comprising an outer grid ?ange I3I and an
inner grid ?ange I32 joined by parallel grid wires
I34 with one of these wires positioned on each
side of each ?lament 25 and slightly toward the
anode from the ?laments. These wires take the
place of the slot edges in the previously described
modi?cation. Proper voltage division is provided
by the extent of grid ?anges I3I and I32 toward
the anode.
use in a grounded-grid circuit, and arranged to
be continuously pumped by a vacuum connection
to the grid. Furthermore, this modi?cation of
my invention, as will be more fully pointed out
later, utilizes a lateral rather than axial arrange—
ment of choke-line-choke elements in the anode
grid resonator.
Power may be taken out of the tube without
reducing the effective anode-grid spacing, thus
preventing spark-overs at high anode potentials.
It will be noticed in this regard that in the tube
of Fig. 1, the effective anode-grid spacing is re
I36 in one wall of the resonator. These openings 55 duced by the projection of the inner conductor
62 of the output transmission line into the anode
are surrounded by support transmission lines I31
resonator space. This is eliminated in the tube
in which are positioned quarter wave choke-line
of Figs. 11 and 12. Furthermore, in the tube of
choke systems I38 to prevent radiation losses
Figs. 11 and 12, electrons discharge through the
along the grid arms, exactly as described for the
anode and are picked up by the back of the anode,
resonators. The grid support arms I35 may be
thus preventing the formation of hot-spots on
supported by insulating discs positioned beyond
the anode wall. In these ?gures, all elements not
the outer choke. Thus, the grid bias may be sup
new ‘to the arrangement have been given nu
plied to the grid skeleton through one or all of
merals corresponding to the numerals previously
the support arms.
used for the same parts.
Except for the manner by which the voltages 65
Referring to Figs. 11 and 12 for a more detailed
are established, the tube just described will oscil
description
of this modi?cation of my invention,
late in exactly the same mode as the tube pre
concentric inner and outer ?lament supports I0
viously described, in exactly the same manner as
and I6 are provided, as in the previous embodi
if the shielding surfaces of the grid were present.
ment,
and these supports may be, if desired, water
An analysis of this last-mentioned tube will 70
cooled in exactly the same manner as previously
show, therefore, that the grids in the tubes and
described, except that in this case expansion loops
circuit described in this application have two
I2 may be dispensed with.
'
separate functions. The ?rst important function
The ?laments 25 are supported on one end
of the grid in both tubes herein described, is to
so modify the D.-C. ?eld between anode and 75 thereof by blocks 200 attached to’ the inner ?la
The grid skeleton is preferably supported by
support arms I35 extending through openings
ment support ?ange l4 by a plurality of spaced 7
2,41 1,299
15
16
layers of resilient ?ns 20I, so that the ?laments
can expand and contract during heating without
exerting pressure between ?lament supports I 0
I prefer to terminate the anode resonator in
an inner quarterwave choke and line section A
followed by an annular quarterwave line B; a
choke C followed by a quarterwave line D; backed
up by av quarterwave choke E, line F and ?nal
choke G, these lines and chokes beingannularly
disposed rather than axially disposed as in the
tube of Fig. 1.
and‘ I6.
'
Due to the resilient ?lament connection, inner
and outer ?lament supports can be sealed to
gether by the use ‘of spaced annular insulating
rings 202 and 203, such as of glass or ceramic,
Such a termination of the anode resonator
separated by a rubber ring 204. These rings are
slidably positioned around the inner ?lament 10 permits the power take-off loop GI to be inserted
through the stepped ?ange 220 of the grid at a
support I0 and spaced from the ?xed base of the
region of maximum current in the ?rst choke
outer cathode choke 21 by a short spacing sleeve
A, which is also a part of the anode resonator.
205. A long spacing sleeve 206 is then led out
'Thus, the take-off conductor 62 does not pass
wardly along support I0 and slidable thereon to
contact an outer glass ring 201 spaced from a 15 through the anode wall at any point. The tube
is arranged, therefore, so that it can be used in
second outer glass ring 208 by a second rubber
a grounded grid circuit. Such circuits enable '
ring 209.
the tube to be utilized at high powers with signal
Pressure is applied to force ?lament support I0
modulation, as for example when large amounts
. outwardly, through a glass pressure ring 2I0 out
side of the tube, forced against the end of ?la 20 of signal modulated power are desired.
I have found that great difficulty has hereto
ment support I0 by the usev of screws 2| I threaded
fore been experienced in providing a proper and
through a connection block 2I2 fastened to the
accurate measurement of the absolute power out—
inner ?lament support I0. The pressure applied
put of high power tubes such as I have described
by screws 2I I forces the glass elements of two sets
operating at short wavelengths. I have therefore
of glass rings together, thus expanding the inter
shown in conjunction with the output circuit of
mediate rubber rings against ?lament support I0
my tube, a means whereby the total power out
and a sealing sleeve 2 I4 inwardly attached to
put of the tube may be quickly and easily meas
outer ?lament support I6. An e?’ective and vac
ured. Fundamentally, I provide a high loss
uum tight seal between the inner and outer ?la
ment supports I0 and I6 is thus procured, The 30 branch transmission line which may have, for
inner and outer cathode supports are ?rmly tied
example, a resistive element heated by the power
absorbed in the line, with calorimetric measure
together and, due to the resilient support of ?la
ment of the heat produced. One such means
ments 25, ?lament breakage during tube trans
for high powers is shown in Fig. 14. For this
port is eliminated.
The grid proper is shaped and positioned simi 35 purpose I provide a branch transmission line I50
on output transmission line 6|, having a com
larly to the grid 30 in the tube of Fig. 1, but in
posite normally non-conductive inner element
this case grid 30 is supported on a lateral ?ange
comprising an outer glass tube I5I and an inner
2 I 5, which in turn is supported by a heavy frame
glass tube I52. The branch transmission line
2 I6, this frame being connected to ?lament sup
port ?ange I9 by a glass cylinder 2I'I, thus com 40 I50 may be made any odd number of quarter
wavelengths, preferably one or ‘three quarter
pleting the tie-up between the grid and the ?la- \
wavelengths long, so that when the inner por
ment supports. A choke-line-choke system
tion is made conductive, the power of the tube
26-21 is provided in the space between the outer
output may be absorbed in the transmission line.
?lament support I6 and the grid 30, as in Fig. 1,
I preferably make the inner portion of this
and the space between ?lament support ?anges
branch transmission line resistively conductive
I4 and 2| is shorted to R.-F. by quarterwave
by circulating brine at a known rate through
cylinder 2 I 8.
tubes I5I and I52 from a brine inlet I54 to a
Attached to the outside of the grid 30 above
brine outlet I55, both the brine inlet and brine
the lateral ?ange 25, is a second lateral grid
?ange 220 extended outwardly in steps to support 50 outlet being provided with thermocouples I55 and
I51, respectively, connected in series. Theavail
a cylindrical glass anode insulator 22I, the top
able load power of the tube will be dissipated in
of which is closed by an anode disc 222, through
which pass a plurality of internally looped water
heat in the branch line I50, and will show up
as a current in meter I58. ‘ As this current dif
cooling pipes 224, the ends 224' of these loops
ference is a measure of the heat dissipation in
being welded to anode cylinder 3'! closed by anode
dome 38.v Adjacent pipe loops 224 are connected
the branch transmission line, the absolute power
output of the tube may be readily calculated, as
on one side by anode material, and each con
the volume of water heated will be known, and
nected pair of loops are spaced so that the spaces
come opposite the grid slots and the ?laments.
heat losses from the line-to atmosphere can be
Thus, the electrons emitted from the ?laments, 60 readily calculated or measured.
Such an arrangement need only be used when
afterbeing decelerated, pass between adjacent
loops of the water cooling pipes into the space
checking the power, as the brine may be followed
by distilled water to clean the insulated pipes
225 between the anode 31 and the glass cylinder
The glass charges up and repels the elec
and then removed from these pipes. This will
trons,» which are then collected by the outer sur 65 effectively remove the central conductor from
face of the anode and the pipes themselves. In
the line, and no power will be absorbed.
asmuch as the electrons become widely dispersed
The length of the branch line is dependent on
within this space, no hot-spots can appear on the
anode at any point.
I Anode potential is supplied to the anode disc
222 through connection 226. Inasmuch as it is
‘desired to operate the grid of this tube at ground
the power to be absorbed. It should be of the
proper length, if in quarter wave multiples, to
transfer all the heat dissipated therein to the
brine without boiling the brine.
However, if a continuous check of power out- '
potential, a permanent connection of a pumping
put is desired, the line may be tuned to absorb
only a small predetermined percentage of the
line 221 can be made to the grid structure be
75 load, the brine continuously circulated at a known
tween ?anges 2 I5 and 220;
17
2,411,299
rate and measured as to heat absorbed. Many
variations and combinations of the two methods
will be apparent to those skilled in the art. It
will also be obvious that the power absorbing line
may be attached directly to the tube anode, if
desired, and that the dissipated line may use
high resistance solid material cooled by non
conductive ?uids.
I claim:
18
wherein a transmission line is connected to. the
outer conductor only, with a, central conductor
positioned in said line, entering said outer con
dgctor and re?exed to contact the wall of said
1
e.
10. An electron discharge device comprising
concentric outer anode and inner grid conductors
having adjacent physically open ends and adja
cent physically closed ends, a pair of concentric
1. An electron discharge device comprising 10 cathode conductors positioned concentrically
three substantially parallel disposed walls form
within the grid conductor, one of said cathode
ing a pair of resonators having a common wall,
conductors being longer than the other, parallel
adjacent physically closed ends and adjacent
laterally extending ?anges mounted on said cath
physically open ends, a radio frequency closure
ode conductors, a, plurality of equally spaced cir
‘ mounted on each of two of said walls and ex 15 cumferentially‘ positioned ?laments extending ax
tending toward and spaced from the adjacent
ially to connect said ?anges, said ?laments be
walls to maintain direct current space insula
ing positioned adjacent the inner surface oi.’ said
tion between said walls, said common wall having
grid conductor, said grid conductor having ax
an opening therein, and an electron emitting
ially extending slots therein registering with the
surface on one of said other walls presented and 20 extent of said ?laments, a cathode radio-ire
adjacent to said opening, said opening and said
quency resonator closure ?ange mounted on said
electron emitting surface being positioned to
cathode
conductors, a concentric skirt mounted
straddle a voltage loop between the ends of said
on said ?ange and spaced from said grid con
resonators.
ductor, an anode radio-frequency ‘closure ?ange
2. An electron discharge device comprising 25 mounted on said grid conductor, a concentric
three concentric conductors, the two outer con
ductors having adjacent spaced physically closed
ends and adjacent spaced physically open ends,
skirt mounted on said latter ?ange and spaced
from said anode conductor, and insulating ele
ments joining said cathode conductors, said grid
a concentric skirt ?ange-mounted on two of said
conductor and said anode conductor outside of
conductors, and extending between the inner 30 said ?anges.
and intermediate conductors and between the
11. Apparatus in accordance with claim 10
intermediate and outer conductors to terminate
wherein said ?laments and slots are positioned
said latter conductors as radio-frequency resona
to straddle a voltage loop between the physically
tors with direct-current space insulation, an elec
closed ends of said grid and anode conductors
tron emitting surface mounted on said inner
and the radio-frequency closure of said physically
conductor, said intermediate conductor having an
open ends by said ?anges and skirts carried
opening adjacent and registering with said elec
thereby.
tron emitting surface.
12. Apparatus in accordance with claim 10
3. An electron discharge device comprising
wherein said ?laments and slots are positioned
three concentric conductors, the two outer con
to straddle a voltage loop between the physically
ductors having adjacent spaced physically closed
closed ends of said grid and anode conductors
ends and adjacent spaced physically open ends,
and the radio-frequency closure of said physi
a concentric skirt ?ange-mounted on two of said
cally open ends by said ?anges and skirts carried
conductors, and extending between the inner and
thereby, said voltage loop being one or more half
intermediate conductors and between the inter 45 wavelengths away from said physically open ends.
mediate and outer conductors to terminate said
13. Apparatus in accordance with claim 10
latter conductors as radio-frequency resonators
wherein said ?laments and slots are positioned to
with direct current space insulation, a plurality
straddle a voltage loop between the physically
of axially extending cathodes mounted in con
closed ends of said grid and anode conductors
centric relation on said inner conductor, said 50 and ‘the radio-frequency closure of said physi
intermediate electrode having a plurality of ax
cally ‘open ends by said ?anges and skirts car
ially extending-slots registering in radial spaced‘
relationship with said ?laments.
ried thereby, said voltage loop being one-halt
wavelength away from said physically open ends.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 3
14. In an oscillator circuit utilizing a triode
wherein said inner conductor is concentrically; 55 tube having a cathode completely shielded from
divided to provide paths for conductive heating
an anode by a single grid except for intermediate
of said ?laments.
'
grid openings in said grid, means for supplying
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 3
a D.-C. potential to said cathode with said anode
wherein said concentric skirts form quarterwave
at ground potential, a tuned cathode circuit, a
terminations of said resonators.
60 tuned anode circuit, and a substantially react
6. Apparatus in ~ accordance with claim 3
ance-free grid circuit connected together and to
wherein said concentric skirts form quarterwave
the respective electrodes, the inductive reactance
terminations of said resonators, and wherein each
of said cathode circuit being less than the ca
of said concentric skirts is outwardly backed by
pacitative reactance of the cathode-anode inter
additional quarterwave concentric skirts spaced 65 electrode capacity to provide capacity feedback
by a quarterwave line section.
for self-sustaining oscillations with the grid and
'7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 3'
anode radio-frequency potentials at least par
wherein said slots and said ?laments are posi
tially in phase with relation to said cathode.
tioned to straddle a voltage loop in said resona
15. An oscillation generation circuit compris
tors.
70 ing the tube of claim 10, an ‘anode transformer
8. Apparatus ‘in accordance with claim 3
having a secondary connected to said ?laments
wherein said conductors are joined, positioned
and to said anode with said anode grounded, a
and sealed by connecting insulating-elements out
resistance between said transformer and said
side of said concentric skirts.
?lament connection; and a, connection between
9. Apparatus in accordance with claim 3 7.5 said grid and said resistor means for heating said
2,411,299
19
20
?laments to cause electron emission therefrom,
ance in the circuit cathode small in relation to
the voltage of said anode being controlled to
the capacitative reactance between anode and
cathode thereby causing said tube to oscillate by
the feedback due to anode-cathode capacity only
cause said tube to oscillate on a, half-cycle elec
tron work period when said radio-frequency clo
sures are positioned on their respective electrodes
to dimension the coextensive resonators to sub
stantially an odd number of quarter wavelengths.
16. An oscillation generation circuit compris
ing the tube of claim 10, an anode transformer
having a secondary connected to said ?laments 10
and to said anode with said anode grounded, a re
sistance between said transformer and said
?lament connection, and a connection between
with an electron work period of one or more half
cycles.
20. A self-resonating electron discharge triode
tube having an inner cathode resonator element
and an outer anode resonator element, an elec
tron emittin'g section forming a part of said oath
ode resonator element, and a, singe ?eld modify
ing meansbetween said electron emitting section
and said anode resonating element, adjacent said
electron emitting section only.
said grid and said resistance, means for heating
21. Apparatus in accordance with claim 20
said ?laments to cause electron emission there 15
wherein said resonator elements are substantially
from, the voltage of said anode being controlled
an odd number of quarter wavelengths long.
to cause said tube to oscillate on a half-cycle elec
22. Apparatus in accordance with claim 20
tron work period when said choke ?anges are po
wherein said resonator elements are substan
sitioned on their respective electrodes to dimen
sion the coextensive resonators to substantially 20 tially an odd number of quarter wavelengths long
with said electron emitting section axially strad
an odd number of quarter wavelengths with the
dling a voltage loop position.
peak of a voltage loop between the ends of the
23. Apparatus in according with claim 20
coextensive resonators positioned approximately
wherein said resonator elements are substantially
midway between the ends of said ?laments.
17. An oscillation generation circuit comprising 25 an odd number of quarter wavelengths long with
a triode tube having an anode shielded from a
said electron emitting section axially straddling
cathode by a single grid except for intermediate
grid openings in the same grid, a resonant circuit
quarter wavelength axial extent.
a voltage loop position and of less than one
24. Apparatus in accordance with claim 20
having one end connected to said cathode, a reso
nant circuit connected at one end to said anode, 30 wherein said ?eld modifying elements are con
?ned to the immediate neighborhood of said elec
the other ends of said circuit being connected to
tron emitting part of said cathode resonator ele
gether, a substantially reactance-free connection
ment and have capacity dividing portions ex
from said grid to said connected ends, means for
tending toward said anode only.
impressing a direct current potential between said
25. Apparatus in accordance with claim 20
cathode and anode with said anode grounded, said 35
wherein said resonator elements are substantially
potential being such as to provide a half-cycle
an odd number of quarter wavelengths long with
electron work period, the openings in said grid
said electron emitting section axially straddling
being proportioned to provide an inductive re
a voltage loop position one-half wavelength from
actance in the cathode circuit smal1 in relation to
the capacitative reactance between anode and 40 one radio-frequency end of said resonator ele
ments.
cathode thereby causing said tube to oscillate by
26. In a self-resonating oscillator tube having
the feedback due to anode-cathode capacity only.
inner, outer and intermediate space insulated
18‘. .An oscillation generation circuit comprising
a triode tube having an anode shielded from a
conductors having adjacent physically closed
cathode by a single grid except for intermediate
grid openings in the same grid, a resonant cir
cuit having one end connected to said cathode, a
ends and opposite physically open ends and means
for passing electrons from said inner to said outer
conductors, means for closing said physically open
ends comprising a quarter wave hollow resonator
section mounted on each of two of said conduc
resonant circuit connected at one end to said an
ode, the other ends of said circuit being connected
together, a substantially reactance-free connec
tors and extending toward the facing conductors,
tion from said grid to said connected ends, means
for impressing a direct-current potential between
said cathode and anode with said anode grounded,
said potential being such as to provide a half
said resonator section extending between a volt
age loop and a current node during operation of
said tube.
cycle electron work period, the openings in said -
transmission line having inner and outer con
ductors spaced by direct current insulation, com
grid being proportioned to provide an inductive
reactance in the circuit cathode small in relation
to the capacitative reactance between anode and
cathode thereby causing said tube to oscillate by
the feedback due to anode-cathode capacity only
with a half-cycle electron work period.
19. An oscillation generation circuit comprising
a triode tube having an anode shielded from a
cathode by a single grid except for intermediate
grid openings in the same grid, a resonant circuit
having one end connected to said cathode, a reso
nant circuit connected at one end to said anode,
the other ends of said circuit being connected to
gether, a substantially reactance-free connection
‘ 27. Means for terminating a radio-frequency
prising a quarterwave anti-resonant choke posi
tioned on one of the conductors of said line fol
lowed by a second quarterwave anti-resonant
choke spaced, by a quarterwave line section from
said ?rst choke.
28. Apparatus in accordance with claim 27
wherein said chokes are toroidal chambers bridg
ing a physical cut in one of said conductors.
29. Apparatus in accordance with claim 27
wherein said chokes are cylinders positioned on
one of said conductors by end ?anges, the other
end of said cylinders being open, with said cylin
ders close to and concentric with the other con
from said grid to said connected ends, means for 70 ductor.
‘
impressing a direct-current potential between
30. In combination with a main ‘concentric
said cathode and anode with said anode grounded,
transmission line carrying high frequency power,
said potential being such as to provide a half-cycle
a high loss transmission line connected to said
electron work period, the openings in said grid
main transmission line at a current loop,'said
being proportioned to provide an inductive react
branch transmission line being of an odd number
21
2,411,299
of quarter wavelengths long with respect to the
wavelength of the standing waves in said line to
absorb power therefrom, and means for measur
ing the heat liberated in said branch transmis
sion line.
31. In combination with a main concentric
transmission line carrying high frequency power,
a high loss transmission line connected to said
main transmission line at a current loop, said
branch transmission line being dimensioned to
absorb a predetermined percentage of the power
carried by said line, and means for measuring
the heat liberated in said branch transmission
line.
main transmission line at a current loop, said
branch transmission line being dimensioned to
absorb a predetermined percentage of the power
carried by said line, the central element of said
branch transmission line being a hollow insulat
ing element, means .ior ?owing a conductive ?uid
through said central element at will, and means
for measuring the heat 01’ the ?uid passing
through said central element.
10
34. Apparatus in accordance with claim 33
wherein said branch transmission line is an odd
number of quarter wavelengths long to absorb
all the power in said main transmission line.
35. Apparatus‘ in accordance with claim - 33
'
32. In combination with a main concentric
transmission line carrying high frequency power,
a branch transmission line connected to said main
transmission line at a current loop, said branch
transmission line being dimensioned to absorb a
is
wherein said branch transmission line is an odd
number of quarter wavelengths long to absorb
all the power in said main transmission line, and
wherein said ?uid is a conductive brine.
36. An electron discharge device comprising
predetermined percentage of the power carried 29 three substantially parallel disposed walls form
by said line, the central element of said branch
ing a pair of resonators having a common wall,
transmission line being normally non-conductive,
said common wall having an opening therein, and
means for making said central element conduc~
an electron emitting surface positioned in one of
tive at will, and means for measuring the heat
said resonators opposite said opening, said open
ing and said emitting surface being positioned to
liberated in said branch transmission line while
conductive.
straddle a voltage loop between the ends of said
33. In combination with a main concentric
transmission line carrying high frequency power,
a branch transmission line connected to said
resonators.
DAVID H. SLOAN.
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