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` Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,304
D. D. SYMMES »
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LAPPING DIES
Filed March 6, 1945
Pls. 1-
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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,304
D. D. sYMMEs l
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR> LAPP`ING DIES
Filed‘march e, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORI
Nav. 19,` 1946.5
D. D. sYMMEs
'
2,4ÍL304
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LAPPING DIES
,
Filed March 6, 1945
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Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,304
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE N
2,411,304
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LAPPING
DIES
Daniel D. Symmes, l/Vest Haven, Conn., assignor
to The American Steel and Wire Company of
New Jersey, a corporation of New Jersey
Application March 6, 1945, Serial No. 581,197
6 Claims.
(Cl. 51-58-)
2
The present invention relates to improvements
restricted zone or area, the wire being drawn
in the method and means for lapping wire draw
making contact with a very short portion of the
ing dies or the like.
die.
'
>
Among the objects of the invention are:
Under my invention, as will hereinafter more
To obtain accurate control of the entrance and 6 fully appear, I propose to depart from the prior
practice of relying upon the skill of the operator
eXit angles of the die perforation;
Y
to determine the contour of the die perforation,
To obtain accurate control of the size of the
diameter of the perforation;
and I also depart from the later practice which
heretofore has resulted in producing a die hav
To obtain precision control of the axial length
ing a parabolic contour as viewed in longitudinal
of the bearing or throat portion of the die perfo
section through the perforation. _ As pointed out
ration;
To provide means for readily varying the axial
more fully hereinafter, under my invention I so
control the lapping operation that `the‘lapping
length of the throat or bearing of the die perfo
ration;
'
To obtain rounding in the region where the
entrance and approachangles of the die open
ing merge with the bearing throat portion
thereof;
tool or needle is held or dwells at Va predetermined
angle for a predetermined time interval with re
spect to the longitudinal axis `of the die perfora
tion, and for another time interval Iprovide for
holding the lapping tool or needle and causing it
to dwell in a position substantially coincident
To obtain with great precision any predeter
mined entrance and exit relief angles, diameter 20 with the longitudinal axis ofthe die-perfora
tion. In this way I obtain a die perforation con
of the working throat portion, and length of
said bearing or throat portion;
tour which as viewed in longitudinal section cor
responds to two oppositely flaring straight-walled
To provide precision mechanism for auto
matically performing the operations necessary
to lap the perforation of a drawing die to a con
tour as viewed in longitudinal section, corre
sponding to two oppositely outwardly flaring
straight-walled frusto-conical entrance and exit
portions with a substantially cylindrical bearing
frusto-conical’entrance and eXitvportions sepa
25 rated by a substantially _cylindrical straight
walled throat or bearing portion, and I provide
means for accurately holding the lapping needle
or tool in the desired positions for predetermined
time intervals and also provide means forl mo
portion of predetermined length between them. 30 mentarily oscillating the lapping tool or needle
It has been the common practice in the wire
drawing industry for many years, to condition
wire drawing dies by lapping the perforations
of the dies. In the earlier days the die perfo
rations were conditioned by manually controlled
lapping operations, and expert die makers ac
quired great skill. Nevertheless, the human ele
ment entered into the operation, and the uni
for a short interval of time so as to round off the
angular corners in the transition regions be
tween the ends of the throat portion and the
inner extremities of the outwardly ñaring frusto
conical entrance and relief portions.
For a more complete understanding of the in
vention, reference should be made to the fol1ow~
ing detailed description, the accompanying draw
ings, and the appended claims.
In the drawings:
practically impossible. In other words, with the 40
Figures 1, 2 and 3 illustrate different sequen
manually controlled operations it is diñìcult to
produce a great quantity of dies having identi
tial steps in my improved method of die condi
formity of die conditioning on a large scale was
tioning.
,
cally the same contour of perforation as viewed
Figure 4 is a greatly enlarged view through the
in longitudinal section. As the art progressed,
different types of lapping or die conditioning 45 perforation of a Wire drawing die made by the
improved method and apparatus herein claimed.
machines were proposed. These usually in
volved rotating the die and reciprocating the
Figure 5 is an enlarged detail View of a por
lap through the perforation therein while at the
same time varying the angularity of the lap with
respect to the axis of the perforation. So far
as I am informed, all such prior mechanical
means have resulted in forming a die perfora
tion which, when viewed in longitudinal section,
tion of apparatus 'used in carrying out the >in
vention.
,
Figure 6 is an enlarged view illustrative of the
action of the lapping tool or needle at the com
pletion of the lapping of the oppositely flaring
entrance and exit portions of the die perforation.
corresponded to a parabolic curve. Thus the
l Figures 7, 8 and 9 `are sections similar to Fig
throat or working region of the die was in a 65 ures 1, 2 and 3 but omitting the lapping tool in
2,411,304.
3
4
the interest of clarity in the designation of char
acteristics of different parts of the die perfora«
entrance and exit portions, and the dwell portion
tion.
Figure 10 is a front elevation of a machine in
volving novel features of construction and ar
rangement designed for carrying out the herein
claimed method.
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Figure 11 is a plan view of Figure 10.
Figure 12 >is an end elevation as viewed from
the right end of Figure 10.
34 serves to hold the‘lap for a predetermined time
interval in a position coinciding with the longi
tudinal axis of the die perforation as indicated
in Figure 2. The cam also has an undulated
portion including a rise 38 and a depression 4!!
effective to quickly shift the lap back and forth
from the full line to the dotted line'position of
Figure 3, so as to cause the lap to round oif the
corners I3 at the transition regions where the
Figure 13 is a development of a control cam
entrance and exit portions I2 and I4intersect
shown in Figures 10, 11 and 12, effective to main
the intermediate throat or bearing portion I6.
tain the die lapping tool or needle in predeter
These periodic dwells for the approach and relief
mined positions.
angles and dwell for the throat size and oscilla
Referring more particularly to the drawings, 15 tions for rounding the bearing corners, are re
I have shown in Figure 4 a greatly enlarged view
current throughout the entire die conditioning
of a die having a perforation therein formed ac
cycle, and while such operations are being period
cording to the herein claimed method and by the
ically performed the cam 64 at the proper time
improved apparatus I have devised for carrying
imparts a vertical reciprocating motion to the
out the method. In this figure the die is shown 20 slide 28 which in turn lifts and lowers the lap,
with a 90° beveled portion I0 which may be
thus avoiding ringing or scratching of the wall `of
molded, cast, or formed in any conventional man
ner since it forms no part of the invention. The
the die perforation.
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A tension spring 3| has one end secured to a rib
invention has particular reference to the method
depending from the Vslide 28 and the other end
and means for forming with great precision the 25 secured to a ñxed anchorage, and thus tends to
oppositely flaring straight-walled entrance and
hold the cam follower 36 against the active face of
exit portions I2 and I4 and the substantially
the cam 30. The spindle 24 is conveniently formed
cylindrical straight-walled throat or bearing por
of round tubing having a flattened face portion 25,
tion I6 located intermediate such entrance and
for coaction with the flat face 21' ofthe aperture
exit portions.
Y
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30 21, so as to normally prevent turning of the spindle
As shown in Figure 4, the entrance and exit
24.
portions I2 and I4 form straight-walled oppositely
The die to be conditioned is mounted on a
ñaring jfrusto-conical cavities separated by the
platen 42 and secured thereto in any suitable
bearing portion I6 which is straight-Walled and
manner.
substantially cylindrical, although,> as will herein
after appear, the throat or bearing portion I6
an antifriction bearing 44 and is adapted to be
driven at a high rate of .speed by a pulley 4B and
may have a slight taper` corresponding to that
of the particular lapping tool or needle used.
a belt 48 trained around a pulley 50 carried on
a shaft 52 driven by a motor 54 through a suit
This platen is rotatably supported on
' According to my improved method of die lap
able reduction -gear unit 56. The shaft 52 carries
ping, I start with a die having a roughly formed 40 a worm 58 which meshes with and drives a worm
perforation therein of approximately the shape
wheel 60 secured to a shaft 62 mounted in suitable
shown in Figure 4. This may be a new die, or
bearings as shown. This shaft carries a cam 64
it may be one that has been in use and requires
which is adapted to rock a lever 66 secured to a
refinishing. In carrying out the improved method
rock shaft 68 carrying arms 'I6 which in response
I employ a lapping tool or needle such as indicated
to movements of the cam 64 periodically lift and
at I8, which has a long slender working portion
20 tapered, for example, to a 1° included angle.
In starting the operation the lapping needle I8
is entered through the die perforation at a pre
determined angle, and is charged with a suitable
abrasive mixed with kerosene oil, olive oil, or the
like. The lapping needle is clamped by chuck 22
to a spindle 24 carrying a collar 26 of such di
ameter that when inclined with its lower edge
'resting on top of a, slide 28, the angle a between
the axial center line m-n of the lapping tool
makes >a predetermined angle with the axis o--p
lower the slide 28, the latter‘being mounted in
guide members ‘I2 movable vertically in ways 'I4
formed at the upper extremity of ñxed standards
16. In the machine illustrated the slide 23 is
horizontally disposed and is periodically or inter
mittently shifted in a horizontal direction, under
control of the cam 3IJ, for certain predetermined
distances to correspond with the particular angle
a to suit the desired taper of the entrance and
exit portions of the die under treatment. 'I‘he
cam 64 controls the Vertical lowering and lift-`
ing of the slide 28, and this cam is preferably so
extending longitudinally through the center of
designed that no vertical movement will be im
the die perforation. The die spindle 24 passes
parted to the slide 28 while the lapping tool
through a guide opening 21 in the slide 28. A 60 dwells in the angular position of Figure 5. Prefer
weight 29 is secured to the lap so as to tend to
ably the vertical movement of the slide 28 is
move it downwardly. 'I'he lapping operation is
effected by the cam 64 during the time interval
complete when the collar 26 is moved downwardly
by the weight 29 sufficiently to brin-g the lower
that the axis of the lapping tool I8 and its holder
24 is vertically positioned coincident with the axis
face of said collar flush with the upper face of 65 o-p of the die perforation.
the slide 28', with the lap in the vertical position of
Proper coordination of the action of the cams
Figure 2.
64 and 30 is readily secured, since the shaft which
Reciprocating movements are imparted to the
carries the cam 64 has secured near one extremity
slide at predetermined time intervals through a
thereof a worm 'I8 which meshes with the worm
follower 36 by a control cam 30 having dwell por
tions 32-and 34, as shown by the development in
wheel 80 which is keyed or otherwise secured to
the shaft 82 on which the control cam 3U is
Figure 13. The dwell portion 32 Serves to hold
the lapping tool for a predetermined time interval
in an angular position (for example, that of Fig
ures 1 and 5) to suit the desired angle of the
mounted.
~
From the foregoing it is apparent that the ma'
chine shown and described has been especially
constructed and arranged for carrying out my
'2,411,304
5
improved method of dielapping. In this method
of lapping, a great number of dies can be lapped
simultaneously since the `single control cam 38
will determine the angular disposition of a plu
rality of lapping needles V2li -coacting with a plu
rality of dies _carried by corresponding platens
42. Each die is placed on a corresponding platen
42. A collar -26 of a predetermined diameter is
selected for the bearing length desired. This
collar is slipped over the spindle 24 and is held
thereon bya suitable set screw. As shown in Fig
ure 5, the lower peripheral >edge of the collar
rests on the upper face of the slide 28. Since the
collar is perpendicular to the axis m--n of the
spindle and lapping tool I8, the under face of
the collar ‘makes an angle with the upper face of
the slide 28 which is equal to the angle between
the lines m-n and o-p. In the die illustrated
this anglais 8.5" in each case. Thus theincluded
angle of the entrance portion of the die with the
setting shown will be 17° plus the 1° taper of
the needle, or 18°, and the exit portion will be 17°
minus 1° or 16°, all as indicated by way of example
in Figures 4, and 6. As illustrated by way of
example in Figure 5, the lower face of the collar
26 makes an angle r with the upper face of the
slide 28 which is equal to the >angle a between the
lines m-n and o_p. The length of the side of
the triangle opposite the angle :c is readily deter
mined by `trigonometry from the formula
b=r times tangent of 8.5°
r being the radius of the `collar 25 which corre
sponds to the adjacent side of the angle œ. With
the lap I8 tapered to form a 1° included angle
and extending for a uniform straight distance
as at s in‘Figure 6, it is` possible to accurately cal
tially .cylindrical bearing 4or throat portion lßias ,
shown, which will have the slight taper corre
sponding to that of the tool I8, which is V2° on
each side ofthe center line, as shown, for example,
in Figure 6.
Figure 9 illustrates the result of the oscillating
action of the tool I8 after it has acted to lround oif
the corners at `the region where the approach and
exit angles I2 and I4 meet the substantially cylin
10 drical bearing portion >IIì of the die.
. »The `detailed features of the foregoing Imethod
and apparatus as described andillustrated are to
be ‘interpreted in an illustrative rather than a
limiting sense, since various modiiications may be
made by those skilled 'in the art without depar
ture from `the spiritandscope of the invention as
defined in the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a machine for lapping drawing dies, a
support adapted to carry a die having a perfora
tion to be lapped to a predetermined contour as
viewed in longitudinal section, a lapping needle
whose end is adapted to project through the die
perforation, means `:for effecting relative rota
tion between the support and the lapping needle,
means for causing the lapping needle to dwell
for a determined time interval at a predetermined
angle to the longitudinal axis of the perforation
in the die and then to `move to a position coin
cident with said axis and dwell in said coincident
position for a determined time interval whereby
the perforation in the die is contoured by the ac
tion of said needle to conform to two straight
walled outwardly iiaring frusto-conical entrance
and exit portions separated by an intermediate
straight-walled substantially cylindrical bearing
portion.
`
culate the diameter d, Figure 6, at the plane in
2. In a machine for lapping drawing dies, a
the die where the entrance and relief angles meet.
rotatable support adapted to support a perforated
The spindle axis in the example illustrated in 40 die whose perforation is to be lapped to a prede
Figures 5 and 6 being at an angle of 8.5", a right
triangle y is formed as indicated in Figure 6,
whose hypotenuse coincides with the plane where
the entrance and exit angles intersect. The dis
tance the lapping tool I 8 will finally enter the die
is equal to the distance marked b’ in Figure 6,
which is the same as the distance b marked in
Figure 5. With these angles and lap tapers, the
longitudinal length or extent of the bearing por
tion indicated by the dimension line b2 in Fig
ure 4 will always be the same regardless of the
throat diameter. If a longer or shorter bearing
length b2 is desired, a similar change in the col
termined contour as viewed in longitudinal sec
tion, a lapping needle whose end is adapted to
project through the die perforation, means for
causing the needle to dwell for a determined time
interval at a predetermined angle to the longi
tudinal axis of the perforation in the die and then
to move to a position coincident with said axis
and dwell in said coincident position for a de
termined time interval whereby the perforation
in the die is contoured by the action of said needle
to conform to two straight-walled outwardly flar
ing frusta-conical entrance and exit portions sep
'arated by an intermediate straight-walled sub
lar radius r will accomplish the desired result.
stantially cylindrical bearing portion.
Figures '7, 8, and 9 are longitudinal section 55
3. In a machine for shaping wire drawing dies,
representations of three faces of die perforation
a rotatable support adapted to hold a drawing
as the same is conditioned at different stages of
die having a perforation therein to be lapped to
my improved method.
a predetermined contour as viewed in longitudi
Figure 7 illustrates the result of the first stage
nal section, a holder carrying a lapping tool
of the operation, after the lapping tool I8 has 60 having an end portion projecting into the die
dwelt for a predetermined time interval; for ex
perforation, a slide with which the holder co
acts, a collar secured to the holder and adapted>
to coact with the slide and a cam for shifting
conical entrance portion I2 is formed to an in
said- slide having one dwell portion effective to
cluded angle one degree greater than the lower 55 hold the slide in a position toV incline the tool
ample, at the 8.5° angle illustrated in Figure 1.
In this ligure it is noted that the upper frusto
frusto-conical exit portion I4, due to the one
degree included angle between the opposed faces
of the lapping needle. Obviously if the lapping
needle were truly cylindrical and not tapared, the
entrance and exit angles would be equal.
Figure 8 illustrates the condition of the die
after the lapping tool I8 has dwelt for a prede
termined time interval in a position in which its
axis is coincident with the longitudinal axis of
the die perforation, thus forming the substan
at a predetermined angle t0 the longitudinal
axis of the die opening for a determined time in
tervai and having another dwell portion effective
to maintain the slide in another position to main
tain the holder and the lapping tool carried
thereby in a position for a determined time ín
terval wherein their common axis coincides with
the longitudinal axis of the die perforation,
whereby the die is contoured by the action of
said tool to conform to two straight-walled out
'
2,411,304
7
8
wardly flaring frusto-conical entrance and exit
>portions separated by an intermediate straight
walled substantially cylindrical bearing portion.
tion to the action` of anelongated substantially
cylindrical lapping tool extending through the
perforation and contacting said tapered entrance
and exit portions, causing said tool ñrst to dwell
4. In a machine for lapping wire drawing dies,
a rotatable support adapted to hold a die having
a perforation therein to be lapped to a prede
termined contour as viewed in longitudinal sec
tion, a holder carrying a lapping tool having an
at a predetermined angle to the longitudinal'axis
of the die perforation for a predetermined time
interval and later causing Vsaid'tool to dwell in a
position substantially coincident with said longi
end portion projecting into thedie perforation,
a slide with which the holder coacts, a collar se
10
tudinal axis of the die fora determined’tin'ie
interval, whereby the perforation in the die‘is
cured to the holder and adapted to- coaot with
accurately contoured to conform to two straight
the slide, and a cam for shifting said slide hav
ing one dwell portion effective to hold the slide
in a position to incline the tool at a predeter
walled outwardly Haring frusto-conîcal entrance
mined angle to the longitudinal axis of the die
opening for a determined time interval and hav
ing another dwell portion effective to hold the
slide in another position to maintain the holder
and the lapping vtool carried thereby in a posi
and exitportions separated by an intermediate
straight-walled substantially cylindrical bearing
portion.
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6. In the lapping of drawing dies, the method
which comprises providing a die having a longi
tudinal vperforation including connecting oppo->
sitely tapered entrance and exit portions, rotat
tion for a determined time interval wherein their 20 ing the die about the axis of the perforation
common axis coincides with the longitudinal axis
thereof while subjecting the'wall of the perfora
of the die perforation, whereby the die perfora
tion to the action of an elongated slightly ta
tion is contoured by the action of ~said tool to
pered lapping needle of round v>cross section Yex
conform to two straight-walled outwardly >flaring
tending through the perforation and contacting
frusto-conical entrance and exit portions sepa 25 said tapered entrance and exit portions, causing
rated by an intermediate` straight-walled subr
said tool ñrst to dwell at a predetermined angle
stantially cylindrical bearing portion, said cam
to the longitudinal axis of the'die perforation for
also having an undulated portion eiîective to os
a predetermined timev interval and-later causing
cillate the lapping tool so as to round oft' the wall
said tool to dwell in> a position substantially có
of the die perforation at the region of the inter 30 incident with said longitudinal axis of the die for
sections of said frusto-conical entrance and 'exit
a determined time interval, whereby-the perfora
portions with said intermediate bearing portion.
tion in the die is accurately Contoured` to _con-_
5. In the lapping of drawing dies, the method
form to two straight-,walled outwardlyk Haring
which comprises providing a die having a longi
frusto-conical entrance and exit portions sepa
tudinal perforation including connecting oppo 35 rated by an intermediate straight-walled sub
sitely tapered entrance and exit portions, rotat
ing the die about the axis of the perforation
thereof while subjecting the wall of the perfora
stantially cylindrical bearing portion.`
Y
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L"
l DANIEL D. SYMMES. K
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