éNov. 19, 1946. w. E. TRUMPL‘ER 2,411,347 REéRIGERANT VAPOR SYSTEM Filed Nov. 27, 1940 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. ‘BY WILLIAM E. TRUIPLEB Nov‘. 19, 1946. w. E. TRUMPLER 2,411,347 REFRIGERANT VAPOR SYSTEM Filed Nov. 27, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVE‘NTUR. wmmm r; . mumpww Nov. 19, 1946. w. E. TRUMPLER > ‘ 2,411,347 REFRIGERANT vlAPon SYSTEM Filed Nov.’ 27, 1940 I 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 FEG.3 ‘s2 INVENTOR. WILLIAM E . TRUMPLER ” AIM'2, H777, NOV. 19, 1946. w_ E_ TRUMPLER 2,411,347 REFRIGERANT VAPOR SYSTEM Filed NOV. 27, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ‘ INVENTOR. wiLum ‘E. 'rnuunea BY M12, ATTORNEY. 2,411,347’ Patented Nov. 19, 1946. ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I BEFRIGERANT VA‘POR SYSTEM > , William 'E. Trumpler, Easton, 2a., asslgnor to Carrier Corporation, Syracuse, N. Y., acorpo ration of Delaware Application‘November 27, 1940, Serial No. 367,441 1 10 Claims. (01. 62-115) This invention relates to the use of refrigerants for power supply and refrigeration purposes and more particularly to an integrated system wherein a single supply of refrigerant is employed as a orative condensers are used with applicant’s sys tems as compared to thatrequired for operating , prime moving medium and also as a compressible Other objects and features will also be apparent ‘from the following description of typical forms of medium for the production of refrigerating effect. A principal object of the invention is the pro - vision of ‘ a boiler in which a refrigerant such as evaporati've condensers in prior‘ systems, more particularly steam jet systems.‘ ' the invention to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: _ Fig. 1 diagrammaticallyv illustrates a system Fl I, FI2, or the like, is converted into a vapor at relatively high pressure, which is then utilized 10' employing a refrigerant cycle wherein applicant's for driving an engine or turbine, or utilized in connection with an ejector or jet compressor ar invention is incorporated;. ‘ Fig. 2 diagrammatically illustrates one feature ' rangement. In the form of the invention in which of the invention for recovering refrigerant and the refrigerant as a high pressure vapor is used utilizing oil separated therefrom; . to operate an engine or turbine; the said engine 15 Fig. 3 illustrates a modi?ed form of the inven or turbine may be arranged to compress another tion in which a jet compressor is .used; portion of the same refrigerant, the vapor from Fig. 4 shows another form of applicant’s inven the engine or turbine plus the compressed vapor tion including a novel boiler feed arrangement then feeding into a common condenser or into a and control adapted for use therewith; and . series of condensers, preferably serving a common 20 Fig. 5 illustrates another modi?ed form of the invention. _ liquid receiver. From saidpreceiver the refrig erant, in liquid form, is distributed so that one portion thereof serves to feed the boiler for make Considering the drawings, similar designations referring to similar parts, and ?rst referring more up purposes whereas another portion, under con particularly to Fig. 1 numeral ill designates a trol, serves an evaporator or the like for cool 25 passage through which heating ?uids such as hot ing air or for service in other refrigeration appli gases may be routed, Damper ll operated con cations.‘ ventionally by a heat control mechanism i2 reg Another arrangement utilizes high pressure re ulates the amount of hot gas which flows through passage ID and which is diverted to passage l3. frigerant vapor from a boiler which then serves an ejector. The resulting action is similar as 30 Theheat control device [2 may be located as de in the case of a compressor in that refrigerant sired and may be operated manually or automat from an evaporator is entrained with the refrig ically. In connection with a refrigeration or air conditioning system, device i2 may be located in erant discharged from the elector, the combined vapor then entering a condenser, which may be of the conditioned area. the evaporative condenser type. The resultant, 35 Within passage i3 is located coil. it within condensed refrigerant is then similarly distributed which a refrigerant may be heated and converted into a gas at relatively high pressure. In e?ect, coil it may be considered a boiler. The refrig erant vapor proceeds from the boiler it through tion systems reside in the ability to use much 40 inlet conduit I 5 to prime mover and compressor - smaller equipment for obtaining equal refrigerat it. While it may assume different forms, a ing service; in reduction in size of condenser ap wahble plate engine may serve as an illustration to the boiler and for other service as aforesaid. , The practical advantages ?owingjrom appli cant’s arrangement over conventional refrigera paratus due to e?ciencies attained with appli since it may combine both a prime moving ele- ' cant’s system; in obtaining great savings in steam _ ment as Well as a compressor element. The. high consumption when the system, for example, is 45 pressure vapor will be admitted to the engine to used in railroad applications of air conditioning drive the pistons thereof and then will be ex as compared. with existing steam ejector sys hausted from the engine into exhaust conduit l1, tems; in elimination of water circulating and air enter condenser 2| where it will be lique?ed, then pumps in many applications; in elimination of flow into receiver 22 and be drawn back to the expensive battery equipment, especially in con 50 boiler by means of pump 23. nection with railroad and motor vehicle applica The refrigeration cycle utilizes the compressor tions; and in considerable saving in- space due to of the wabble plate engine It. Refrigerant vapor the compactness of applicant’s arrangement com from evaporator or cooling coil 20 enters the re pared with existing systems; and in great savings ceiving cylinders of engine It and is compressed. in the amount of water required in the event evap 55 The compressed refrigerant will-‘leave the engine 2,411,847 4v also through exhaust conduit l1 and enter con denser 2 I'where liquefaction will take place in the . A jet injector nozzle 44 is fed by the pump to provide an aspiration head. The amount of liq uid refrigerant discharged by pump 4| to the liquid level or ?oat valve arrangement, generally designated 45 is controlled by the liquid level usual manner. The lique?ed refrigerant enters receiver 22 and from there liquid is admitted through line 3| to the evaporator or cooling coil therein. The ?oat valve is so arranged that 20 through expansion valve 84 in the usual man upon an increase in liquid above a certain level, ner. The controls in connection with the refrig port 41 will be opened as port 46 is closed, the eration cycle may be conventional. The refrig port 41 providing the inlet of a bypass for the erant from receiver 22 therefore is routed in two courses, to the evaporator and to the boiler. 10 delivery of refrigerant through conduit “to the evaporator 20. In the event such high liquid level persists in the ?oat chamber, relief valve 49 will open permitting liquid refrigerant to be returned Valve I8 operative responsive to bulb [3 controls bypassing of refrigerant through line 85, the con trol being in the nature of a superheat control. to the condenser. Similarly, when the compres It may be noted that fan 83 for the evapora Itive condenser and pump 23 are both operated 15 sor shaft 40 reaches an excessive speed which provides excessive pressure at the pump, the from the shaft of engine-compressor 13. opening of the relief valve 49, which takes'place Fig. 3 illustrates another form of the inven under such conditions, will relieve the pressure. tion in which heat from any source is admitted Also, it may be noted that a restricted ?ow takes to passage Hi, this heat being supplied by hot place into thrust chamber 50 and this results in gases or may be such waste heat as is available. an automatic pressure compensation against the Damper ll under control of heat regulator l2 thrust of the impeller. ' governs the quantity of heating medium passed The features combined by applicant in the ar-- _ into or bypassed around boiler I4, as indicated. rangement of Fig. 4 safeguard efficient operation Of course, the boiler may be directly served by under all conditions of load, and also provide an 011 burner or the like. There is no limitation for practical refrigerant distribution during shutdown periods. Thus, when the unit is shut down by cutting off the heat supply to the boiler, - with respect to the manner of supplying heat for vaporizing the refrigerant in the boiler. Liquid refrigerant will be maintained at a desired level in boiler i4 under control of a liquid level control 24 which may be of the ?oat type illustrated. the rotor will gradually come to a stop. Since ‘ Refrigerant vapor under relatively high pressure condenser 35 is located above boiler [4, the liquid in the condenser will drain to the boiler through , enters conduit I5 and is then discharged through pump 4 I, which provides an open passage. When Jet compressor 25, the ejector action entraining the boiler level reaches a desired point, the ?oat will cause port 4'! to open and excess liquid will vapor from evaporator or-cooling coil 20, the ?ow through bypass conduit 48 to the evaporator. high pressure refrigerant vapor and the en Substantially no liquid will stay in the pump as trained. vapor entering exhaust conduit I1 and the shaft packing is of the labyrinth type and then condenser 28, which in this case is a water will gradually permit the pump to drain. cooled condenser. Water from any desired The unit becomes operative again when heat source enters the condenser through conduit 21 under control of valve 28 and after its course 40 is supplied to boiler l4. The boiler pressure will gradually rise and as the vapor initially flows through the. condenser, leaves through con through the turbine, condensation occurs before duit 29. the rotor begins to rotate. This results in a fall The condensed refrigerant feeds from con of the liquid level in boiler l4 and a. shifting of _ denser 26 to subcooier 30, where the liquid is re duced in temperature by the low temperature gas 4 the ?oat valves whereupon port 41 is closed and port 46 opened. As the pressure in the boiler leaving the evaporator. The sub-cooled liquid is continues to rise, the pressure in the ?oat valve then admitted to receiver 22 which serves evap chamber will also rise since the pressure is the orator 20 through line 3| and also serves to sup same in both chambers by virtue of the inter ply refrigerant for makeup purposes through line 32. iii 0 connecting passages 5|, 5la. This will cause liq- . 1 High pressure vapor from the boiler also serves boiler feed jet 32A thereby entraining liquid from receiver 22 to maintain the desired liquid level in the boiler. The over?ow from the boiler ?ows through line 33 to the condenser. (.1 Ll In Fig. 4 still another form of the invention is illustrated. Boiler l4 supplies refrigerant va por at high pressure through conduit l5 to tur uid to back up through conduit 52 and ?ll the pump, so that it will be ?lledgwith liquid when the rotor begins to turn over. There will also be enough condensate in the condenser to satisfy _ the pump when the rotor begins to function. In Fig. 5 another modi?cation of the inven tion is described in which the heat for operating the refrigeration unit is supplied from a steam or hot water heating system. This is but one illus 35. The condenser in this case is water cooled 60 tration of the utility of the system in connection bine wheel 34, the vapor then entering condenser and the lique?ed refrigerant ?ows‘ from receiver with building heating systems, or railroad steam supply systems or with other systems in which 36 in one course through line 31 to evaporator or cooler 23. The evaporated gas which leaves sources of heat used for other purposes are also available for providing refrigerating effect. cooler 20 enters compressor wheels 38 which are In Fig. 6 numeral I4A designates a boiler for mounted on the same shaft as turbine wheel 34 65 heating a building. 53 represents the ?re box and and driven thereby. The compressed gas leaves 54 the stack. The system may be of any conven through the same condenser intake conduit 39 through which the gas from turbine wheel 34-is tional type. Assuming this system to be designed also admitted to condenser 35. for use in steam heating an enclosure, some of ' The common shaft 40 also mounts centrifugal the steam will, in the usual manner, be piped to pump 4| which serves as a vboiler feed pump. a series of'radiators 55 through conventional sup- ‘ Liquid refrigerant from receiver 36 in part flows ply and return lines 56_and 51. Another portion over weir 42 for delivery to evaporator 20 as here inbefore described. Another portion of the re frigerant passes through passage 43 to pump 4|. ‘ of the steam supply will be admitted through conduit 58 to refrigerant boiler i4 under control of valve i2 which in this case is regulated under gunner .. the in?uence of a bulb II at the suction side of evaporator or cooler 20 and returned to boiler “A by the pumpt‘lA. The high pressure refill ‘ erant vapor from, the boiler feeds to turbo com pressor ‘ll through conduit Ii‘ and also serves boiler feed jet 62 through conduit 63. The re frigerant vapor discharged from the turbine ex haust enters condenser 64 whereas the compressedv vapor enters condenser II. Both condensers may‘ be arranged in series, as illustrated, the cooling water entering‘ through conduit 66 and leaving ' through discharge conduit 81. The condensate from condenser 04, which is under higher pressure ' ‘ - 8 f ~ xadmittingami‘xtureofiubricantandrefrigerant separator chamber, a collecting chamber in communication with said separator chamber. means providing communication between the sep arator'chamber and a fourth chamber subjected to a different pressure, the mixture ‘of lubricant " and refrigerant in said separator chamber being subjected to heating and evaporation action whereby evaporated refrigerant willbe abstracted from said separator chamber and enter the fourth chamber, and means for withdrawing from the collecting chamber the resultant ,concentrated mixture having a higher lubricant content. ' than condenser 65, will feed through line 88 to 2. A system for utilizing refrigerant for a plu condenser“ and the condensate from condenser 15 rality of purposes comprising a boiler, means for 86 will feed through line‘ 80 into subcooler ‘I0 and ' vaporizing refrigerant in the boiler, a ?rst ‘vapor then into receiver 22. The liquid from 22 will :Iet compressing element, an evaporator asso proceed in one course through line ii to ‘the ciated with said element, means for supplying ‘re evaporator or cooler 20 and through line 32 to frigerant in gaseous form from the boiler to said the boiler feed Jet 62 for makeup purposes. The 20 ?rst iet element, a condenser for receiving re cool vapor at low pressure, from evaporator 20 in its return to the compressor portion of turbo ' frigerant from said jet element and liquefying the same, an interchanger including a conduit compressor 80 passes through subcooler ‘III and ' connecting said ‘evaporator and element, means thereby reduces the temperature of the con ' for routing condensed refrigerant from the con densate which feeds back from condenser 65 to 25 denser through said interchanger, a receiver for receiver 22. Liquid level control ‘II serves to re ' accumulating condensed refrigerant received turn liquid refrigerant to condenser 64 when the level in the boiler rises above a predetermined from the interchanger, a ?rst line connecting said maximum. Lines 12 and 80 serve to feed a small pressing element for receiving refrigerant vapor receiver to said evaporator, a second jet com amount of refrigerant containing a relatively 30 under high pressure from the boiler, and a second . high oil concentration to the compressor for lubri line connecting said receiver and said second jet cating purposes. for supplying liquid refrigerant from the receiver As illustrated in Fig. 2 and as shown applied to the system of Fig. 5, applicant provides a method of recovering oil admixed with or dis solved in the refrigerant, the 011 being concen to the boiler. means for supplying heated gases, a boiler con trated so that although a small portion of re said heated gases for vaporizing under rela tively high pressure a controlled portion of said frigerant may remain in the oil containing resi ‘ 3. In a system for utilizing refrigerant, taining refrigerant, and arranged to utilize refrigerant, an apparatus utilizing another por of the oil containing residue for lubricating mov 40 tion of said refrigerant for refrigeration pur ing parts. The recti?ed refrigerant is made avail poses, a prime mover and compressor unit for able for use in the refrigeration cycle. receiving said refrigerant under high pressure Considering the arrangement of Fig. 2, or in the and refrigerant from said apparatus, means system of Fig. 5, part of the boiling liquid (refrig for condensing the refrigerant received from erant plus'oil) is fed from boiler M into chamber said unit, means for returning from the con , due, this will not materially impair the usefulness ‘I8 of concentrator 13. The concentrator com prises a surrounding pot ‘M which is heated ‘by steam or heating ?uid from the boiler heating means fed through conduit 75. The oil plus re frigerant in chamber ‘i6 is kept in boiling condi tion ‘with the result that the refrigerant is boiled ' ed and proceeds through line ‘H to condenser apparatus of the system, vapor ori?ce ‘l8 con trolling the discharge from chamber in to line ‘H leading to the condenser. The concentrated oil which collects in chamber ‘89 is under pressure and is discharged through conduit W to a line such as ‘it of Fig. him use in lubricating moving partsof the system. Line 85 is a waste connec tion for steam condensate 0r_heating ?uid from pot "Hi. . Since certain changes in "carrying out the above method of operation and in the constructions set forth, which embody the invention, may be made without departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above descrip tion or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting _ densing means to the boiler some of the con densed refrigerant to be again vaporized under high pressure, and means‘for returning from the condenser back to the boiler a. surplus of said last mentioned refrigerant. 4. A system for utilizing refrigerant com prising a, first apparatus for vaporizing refrig erant, a turbo-compressor unit, means for sup plying vaporized refrigerant from said first ’ apparatus to the turbine portion of said unit, means for delivering said refrigerant from said portion to a condenser, evaporator means for vaporizing refrigerant under I low pressure, means for supplying refrigerant from the con. denser to said last mentioned means, means for delivering refrigerant under low pressure from said evaporator means to the compressor part of said unit, a pump connected to said unit, means for feeding refrigerant from the con denser .to said pump, and meansfor delivering from the pump refrigerant to a reservoir and means for controllably supplying refrigerant from the reservoir to said ?rst apparatus and to said evaporator means. I claim: a v5. A system according to claim 4 including 70 1. In a system of the character described, an‘ means operative responsive to an increase in' oil concentrator comprising a heating ‘chamber, pressure beyond a. predetermined maximum in means for admitting heating ?uid to said heat a conduit connecting said, pump and condenser sense. i ' ing chamber, a separator chamber subjected to for admitting refrigerant from the pump to the theiaction of said heating chamber, means for 75 condenser. " 2,411,347 , 7 6. A system according to claim 4, in which the means for delivering refrigerant from the pump » discharges into a liquid level apparatus includ ing said reservoir and means is arranged to 'co operate with the pump for causing refrigerant delivered by the pump to build up a pressure compensating for and in a direction against the thrust of the shaft of said unit. 7. A system for utilizing a refrigerant under high and low pressures comprising a vaporizer 10 mentioned means including a control for admit ting surplus refrigerant from the vaporizer to _ said condenser under higher pressure. 9. A system in accordance with claim 7 includ ing means for controlling a supply of steam to the vaporizer apparatus responsive to changing heat load conditions affecting the vaporization of re frigerant in the evaporator. , 10. Refrigerating apparatus of the character described including as elements thereof a com pressor, a prime mover coupled thereto to drive the same, a boiler and means for supplying heat thereto, a condenser structure, an evaporator, a gaseous form from said apparatus to a prime main conduit system connecting said elements to mover and compressing unit, means for feeding refrigerant from the prime mover part of said 15 form therewith a closed circuit in which a body of refrigerant may drivethe engine and cool the unit to a ?rst condenser, means for discharging apparatus, means for feeding refrigerant. to said apparatus, means for supplying refrigerant in refrigerant from the compressor part of said unit evaporator, said condenser structure receiving the refrigerant and oil entrained therewith from both the prime mover and the compressor, the dis densed refrigerant from both condensersto a re 20 charge from the condenser structure being dis tributed to the evaporator and the boiler, an oil ceiver, ‘means for routing refrigerant from the to a second condenser under lower pressure than the first condenser, means for delivering con separator, a branch system including a conduit arranged to conduct from the boiler to the sepa rator a mixture of liquid refrigerant and oil en other refrigerant from the receiver to said feeding means. 25 trained therein, means for applying heat from receiver to an evaporator forming one element of a refrigeration cycle, and means for delivering 8. A system according to claim 7 including means for delivering refrigerant from the con denser under higher pressure to the condenser said boiler heating means to the separator to evaporate refrigerant from the mixture, means for conducting the resultant vapor from the sepa rator to said condenser structure, and a conduit under lower pressure, means for delivering refrig erant from the condenser under lower pressure to 30 for conducting the concentrate from the sepa rator to. said prime mover. an interchanger including a conduit‘leading from the evaporator, and means for .controlling the level of refrigerant in the vaporizer, said last WILLIAM E. TRUIWPLER.