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NOV. 19, 1946.
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H_ J; BlcHsEL
2,411,358
CONTROL CIRCUIT
Filed Sept. 19, 1944
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HarryfB'c/vsel. _
ATTORNEY
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,358
UNITED ‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE
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2,411,358‘
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CONTROL CIRCUIT
Harry J'.‘ Bichsel, " Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burglnPaL, a corporation of Pennsylvania
. . Application September 19, 1944, Serial No. 554,783
6 Claims. (Cl. 315-274)
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1
2
v
‘This invention relates to an electric discharge
valve of the arc-like type and has particular
relation to control apparatus for rendering the
novel control arrangement for rendering an elec
tric discharge valve of the arc-like type conduc
tive at a desired instant, which arrangement is
valve conductive.
highly reliable in operation. ‘
‘
_
Electric discharge valves of the arc-like type,’
such as thyratrons, include an anode, cathode
.
A further object of my invention is .to provide
a new and improved control arrangement for
rendering an electric discharge valve of‘ the arc
and a control electrode. It is a well known char
acteristic of such valves that they remain non
like type conductive at an instant determined by
conductive as long as the (control electrode-to
the operation of a relay.
cathode voltage is less positive than a predeter_ 10 My invention arises from the realization that
mined critical voltage. If_ an anode-to-cathode
the occasional failures in previous systems as
voltage exists which is greater than the break
described was caused by the bouncing of the con
down voltage of the valve, with the anode posi
tacts of the relay. The contacts of most relays
tive, the valve becomes ‘conductive the instant
other than very special expensive ‘relays, bounce
the control electrode-to-cathode voltage becomes 15 upon closing. This bouncing causes a disconti
more positive than the critical voltage. The
nuity in the voltage impulse which is applied be‘control electrode then loses control of the valve
tween the control electrode and cathode of the
which continues to conduct until the anode-to
valve in the prior arrangements. If the relay
cathode voltage is reduced below the arc drop
contacts bounce at the right moment, the peak
of. the valve. This feature is employed widely
portion of the voltage impulse may be missed
where ‘it is desired to render the valve conduc
completely, so that the valve is not rendered con
tive ‘at a predetermined instant.‘ Often an alter
ductive.
,.
hating potential or other potential having a
In accordance with my invention, a biasing
steep-wave front is impressed between the control
potential is impressed between» the control elec
electrode and cathode so that the instant at which
the; control electrode becomes more positive with
respect to the cathode than the critical voltage
'
) trode and cathode of the valve tending to main-‘
tain the former less positive with respect to the
latter than the critical voltage of the valve.‘ An
energy storage device is connected in parallel cir
may-be accurately predetermined. A peaking
transformer energized from an alternating poten
cuit relation with an impedance, such as a re-»
tial ‘source is frequently used for this purpose. 30 sister, and the parallel storage device and im~
'Such arrangements ordinarily operate quite
pedance are connected in a series circuit with a
satisfactorily. However, under certain conditions
normally closed switch which may be the con
serious di?iculties are encountered. In a num
ber of cases it is desirable to render a valve con
tacts of ‘a relay. A direct current is then, supplied‘
through the series circuit and serves to store up
energy in saidstorage device. When the switch
ductive at the instant that-some other ‘operation
takes place, for, example, when a relay is oper
ated‘. Under such circumstances, it has been cus
tomary. to provide a voltage which is applicable
to the control electrode. and cathode upon the
is thereafter opened, the energy‘ so stored is re
leased to eifect current flow through the impede
ance. Means are provided to make the control
electrode more positive with respect to the cath
closure of the relay contacts. Frequently a pre 4.0 ode than the critical voltage and thereby render
charged capacitor is discharged through a dis
the valve conductive in response to the release of’
charge circuit including‘the primary of a peaking
transformer when relay contacts in the discharge
circuit-are closed, the secondary winding of the
peaking-‘transformer being connected in circuit 45.
betweenthe control electrode and» cathode of the
valve. _Howev,er,.it has been found that such an
the energy. Since the valve becomes conductive‘
arrangement is unreliable in that it occasionally
teristic of my invention are setforth with greater
particularity in the accompanying claims. The
fails to render the, valve conductive at the instant
desired.
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,.,It,is accordingly an object of my invention to
providea: novel control arrangement for an elec
tri dischargefvalve. of the arc-like type for ren
5,0
upon the opening of the switch, the bouncing of
the contacts if the switch is formed by the con
tacts‘ of a relay obviously does ‘not affect the ‘
instant of ?ring of the valve.
‘ The novel features whichI ‘consider charac- '
invention itself, however, both as to the organ
ization and method of operation, together‘with
additional objects and advantages, may be best
der gfbllé; valve conductive at a desired instant.
understood from the following description of a
speci?c ‘ embodiment when read in connection
,qj‘qnnother object of my inventionisto provide a
with the accompanyinaidrawingi in which ‘the.
2,411,358
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zero and the valve 3 becomes nonconductive. If
the push-button switch 9 is then allowed to re
close, the valve may be rendered conductive again
by reclosure of the push-button switch 41.
single ?gure is a circuit diagram of an embodi
ment of my invention.
' As shown in the drawing, an electric discharge
valve 3 of the arc-like type, preferably a thyra
a circuit extending from the anode through a.
The purpose of the adjustable resistor 3| in
circuit with the primary winding 21 is to limit
normally closed pushbutton switch, 9, a load NY
‘the vmagnitude of the direct ‘current supplied
and a source of potential such: as 1a battery [3;
to the cathode. The battery [3 produces a'volté
age between the anode 5 and the cathode ‘i which ,10.
is greater than the breakdown voltage of they '
missible with the particular transformer em
ployed. It is therefore understandable that the
V tron, has its anode 5 and cathode ‘i’ connected in or
valve, with the anode 5 ‘being positive.
The control electrode or grid E5 of the valve 3
is connected to the cathode 'i. in, a‘ circuit which,
extends from the grid through a grid'resistor; H,
the secondary winding it of a transformer 21,
and a source of biasing potential such-as a battery
23 to the cathode. In addition a loading resistor
through the primary winding to the; value per
right end of resistor 34 may be connected to any
point, along the circuit between the contacts 33,
and the right-hand end of primary winding 21
without changing“ the operation of the circuit if
15" the .value of, the‘ resistor is selected properly in
‘accordance with the point of connection.
It is. also to be understood that while switches
25 is connected in shunt across the secondary‘
winding iii. The battery 23 tends to maintain 20
the grid’ 15 less positive‘ with respect to the oath
ode,v 7' than the critical voltage‘ of the valve, and
thus maintain the valve non-conductive.
9 and 4.1, are shown as push-button switches,
various other well known means may be em
ployed to e?ect energization and deenergization
‘of-v the corresponding circuits. 'Contacts33'may
also be replaced with other switch means if de
sired, the valve being rendered conductive upon
the opening of such other switch means. It is
The primary winding 21' ofthe transformer 2!
is connected across a source of direct-current 25 also ‘to be noted that an alternating potential
may be employed in the anode circuit of the'valve
potential 29 through an adjustable resistor 31 and
in place of the battery l3; Under such circum
the normally closed contacts 33 of a relay 35.
stances energization of the relay 35 should be co
Another resistor 34 is connected in shunt across
ordinated with the alternating potential to oc
the primary winding 21.
'
The sourceof'direct-ourrent potential 29 is il
lustrated as a resistor which is supplied from al
ternating potential supply lines 36 and 31
through a transformer 3%, a full wave recti?er Lil
and-"a ?ltering capacitor 43,. Any other source
of direct-current potential of the proper mag
nitude and polarity may, of course, be used.
' The contacts 33 of the relay 35 may be opened
by energization of the relay coil 45. This coil is
cur during the half period in which the anode 5
of the valve is positive.
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While I have shown and described a specific
embodiment of my; invention, I am well aware
that many modi?cations thereof are possible
without departing from the spirit of the inven
tion. It is not my intention thereforeto limit
my invention to the speci?c embodiments'hown.
I claim as my invention?"
'
,1. Control apparatus for an electric discharge
mally open push-button switch 41 across the al 40 valve of the arc-like type having an anode, cath
ternating potential supply lines 36 and 31.
ode and control electrode, comprising a control,
circuit connected from said control electrode to
~ While the relay contacts 33 are closed, direct
said ' cathode and‘ including biasing potential
current ?ows from the source 29 through the con
means tending to maintain the former less posi
tacts 33, adjustable resistor 3!, and the parallel
tive with respect to the latter than the critical
connected primary winding 2'! and resistor 34.
voltage of the valve, an energy storage device,
Since the impedance of’ the resistor 34 is high
impedance means connected in parallel circuit
compared to the impedance of the primary wind
relation with said device, a normally closed’
ing 21, most of the current flows through the
primary winding and stores up energy in the
switch connected in a series circuit with said,
transformer. If push-button switch it‘! is then 50' paralleled device and impedance means, and
means adapted to supply direct current‘ through
closed, relay coil 45 is energized and contacts 33
said series circuit, whereby energy stored in said:
are opened. As a result, the supply of direct cur
device by said direct current is released to ef
rent is interrupted and the energy storedin the
transformer‘is released. Some of the energy so
fect, current’ ?'ow' through said impedance means
released tends to keep the~ current ?owing
when said switch is opened, said control, circuit:
illustrated as connected in circuit with a nor
‘ through‘ the primary winding 2’! in the same di
rection as the current previously supplied from
the source 29 because of the inductive eifect of
the . primary- winding." Consequently, current
?ows in the circuit made vup-of the primary wind
ing 21, and the resistor 34‘.
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being coupled to said device to make said con
trol electrode more positive withrespect to said
cathode than said critical'voltage in response to
the release of said energyf
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2. C‘ontrol‘apparatus, for an electric discharge
valve of“ the arc-like type. having’ an anode, cath
' *
The rapid cha‘n'ge'of ?ux in the transformer
caused by the release ofqenergy stored therein
ode- and control electrode, comprising atrans
former having a primary and'a' secondary wind;
produces a voltage impulse across the secondary
winding 59 which is of such polarity and mag-.
ing, circuit means connecting v"said secondary’
' nitude as to overcom'ethe biasing potential ofthe
batte'ry'i23 and"render the ‘valve 3 conductive.
The magnitude of the voltage impulse may be de
termined bythe size of the resistor 34. ‘
.
After the valve is conductive the push-button
switch 41 may be released, to eifect reclosure of
contacts 33. The valve 3' then continues to con
duct current until the QuSh-buttQn'sWitchQS is
opened; With the opening of-th'e'» push-"button
‘s’witchQ-“the- anode-to-cathode voltage drops to
winding‘ ‘in 'a' ‘circuit between; ‘said control" elec
trode and cathode including biasing potential
.means'tending to maintain the control electrode
less positive with, respect to the cathode than the1
critical voltage‘ of sa'idvalve, impedance means
connected in parallel circuit relation with said
primary winding, a normally closed‘ switch“ ‘con
nect‘ed in a series circuit'with said paralleled‘ im-;
pe-dance means and primary winding, and means
, adapted to supply‘ direct current through said“
series circuitv of such polarity that the'rele'a‘se '
'5
2,411,358
of energy stored thereby in said transformer, as
effected by opening of said switch, causes a volt
age impulse across said secondary winding to
render said control electrode more‘positive with
respect to the cathode than said critical voltage.
3. Control apparatus for an electric discharge
6
5. A control system comprising an electric dis
charge valve of the arc-like type having an
anode, cathode and control electrode, means for
impressing a positive voltage between said anode
and cathode, a control circuit connected from
said control electrode to said cathode and in
cluding biasing potential means tending to main
tain the former‘less positive with respect to the
latter than the critical voltage of the valve, an
valve of the arc-like type having an anode, cath- '
ode and control electrode, comprising a trans
former having a primary and a secondary wind
ing, circuit means connecting said secondary 10 energy storage device, impedance means con
Winding in a circuit between said control elec
nected in parallel circuit relation with said de
trode and cathode including biasing potential
vice, a normally closed switch connected in a
means tending to maintain the control electrode
series circuit with said paralleled device and im
less positive with respect to the cathode than the
pedance means, and means adapted to supply
critical voltage of said valve, impedance means \ direct current through said series circuit, where
connected in parallel circuit relation with said
by energy stored in said device by said direct cur
primary winding, a relay having normally closed
rent may be released to e?ect current ?ow
contacts connected in a series circuit with said
through said impedance means when said switch
paralleled impedance means and primary wind
a is opened, said control circuit being coupled to
ing, means adapted to supply direct current 20 said device to make said control electrode more
through said series circuit, and means for oper
positive with respect to said cathode than said
ating said relay to open said contacts, the polar
critical voltage in response to the release of said
ity of said direct current being such that the re
energy whereby said valve is rendered conduc
lease of energy stored thereby in said trans
tive when said switch is opened.
former, as e?ected by opening of said contacts,
6. A control system comprising an electric
causes a voltage impulse across said secondary
discharge valve of the arc-like type having an
winding to render said control electrode more
anode, cathode and control electrode, means for
positive with respect to the cathode than said
impressing a positive voltage across said anode
critical voltage.
and cathode, a transformer having a primary
4. Control apparatus for an electric discharge
and a secondary winding, circuit means con
valve of the arc-like type having an anode, cath
ode and control electrode, comprising a trans
former having a primary and a secondary wind
ing, circuit means connecting said secondary
winding in a circuit between said control elec
trode and cathode including biasing potential
necting said secondary winding in a circuit be
tween said control electrode and cathode includ
ing biasing potential means tending to maintain
the control electrode less positive with respect to
the cathode than the critical voltage of said valve,
a resistor connected in parallel circuit relation ,
means tending to maintain the control electrode
with said primary winding, a normally closed
less positive with respect to the cathode than
switch connected in a series circuit with said
the critical voltage of said valve, a resistor con
paralleled impedance means and primary Wind
nected in parallel circuit relation with said pri 4.0 ing, and means adapted to supply direct cur
mary winding, a normally closed ‘switch con
rent through said series circuit of such polarity
nected in a series circuit with said paralleled re
that the release of energy stored thereby in said
sistor and primary winding, and means‘ adapted
transformer, as effected by opening of said
to supply direct current through said series cir
switch, causes a voltage impulse across said sec—
cuit of suchpolarity that the release of energy 45 ondary winding to render said control electrode
stored thereby in said transformer, as effected
more positive with respect to the cathode than
by opening of said switch, causes a voltage im
said ‘critical voltage whereby said valve is ren
pulse across said secondary winding to render
dered conductive when said switch is opened.
said control electrode more positive with respect
to the cathode than said critical voltage.
50
HARRY J. BICHiSEL.
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