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Nov. 19, 1946.
w. s. sAvlLLE
2,411,392 A
CONTROL MECHANISM FOR HYDRAULIQALLY' OPERATED DEVICES "
Filed June 26, 4194,3
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Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,392
UNITED STATES A PATENT OFFICE
2,411,392
CONTROL MECHANISM FOR HYDRAU
LICALLY oPEaA'rEn DEVICES
William S. Saville, Fort Worth, Tex., asslgnor to
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, San
Diego, Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Application June 26, 1943, Serial No. 492,430
.
l
5 Claims.
`
(C1. 137-152)
.
The invention relates to a hydraulic system’for
the remote control of lluid under pressure for the
Hydraulic systems are used on aircraft for op
erating tail skids, wheels, and other devices. These
casing on which the seat for the closure-member
systems usually include selective control means .
is formed.
located in the pilot’s cab or house and fluid-pres
sure Operated pistons in cylinders for operating
devices which are located near the cylinders.
control means and the cylinders.
These pipes
Y
closure membe'r of the automatic valve mecha
nism.
Fig. 5 is a perspective of the head in the valve
operation of fluid-pressure operable devices.
This necessitates long delivery pipes between the
2
‘ Fig. 4 is a perspective of the piston and the
'
Fig. 6 is a section illustrating the tlow restrict
ing device which is located adjacent the hydrau
lically operated device and produces a back-pres
10 sure in the delivery line.f - '
Fig. 'l' is a section `taken on line l-l of Fig. 2.
The invention is exempliiied ina hydraulic sys
an enemy or may be broken from other causes.
tem on an airplane ,f which is equipped with a
Such a break may drain the hydraulic fluid from
pilot’s control valve a by which fluid under pres
the control means through abroken delivery line 15 sure may be selectively controlled from a supply
are, in military aircraft, exposed to gun-lire by
in suillcient volume to reduce the fluid-supply for
the proper operationof the remainder Iof the de
vices which are supplied from, or selectively con
trolled from the same source of fluid under pres
y of suitable ñuid, such as a non-freezing solution
or oil,l under pressure an'd the return of the fluid
to a reservoir, as well understood in the art, for
shifting a tail-skid c by a hydraulic jack b. This
20 hydraulic jack is associated with and located in as
One object of the invention is to provide a hy
close proximity as possible to the tail-skid c, and
draulic system for remotely controlled fluid-pres
pipelines 9 and 9' are provided to alternately con
sure operable devices which includes means for
duct iiuid to and from ’said jack for the two-way
automatically stopping'the ilow of fluid from the
operation of the Jack b. The pilot’s control valve
pressure-source or control-means to the delivery , a is usually adapted for the selective control of
line between the control-means and the hydrau
tluid under pressure for all or several two-way hy
lically operated device, so thatA in the event of
draulically operated devices from a common
damage to or breakage in the delivery line, the
source 'of iluid pressure, and is ,located within
supply of fluid to the pipe-line will be auto
convenient reach of the pilot. Pipes 9, 9’ exem
Sure.
~
`
matically cut on', and the supply of fluid under 30 plify conduits for the delivery of high pressure
pressure for operating the other devices willre
iluid from the pilot’s control valve to each hy
main int’a'ct and will not be impaired or incapac
draulic device which is to be operated, and for the
itated.
,
Y
.
' return oi' the exhaust iluidto a reservoir from
Another object o1’ the invention is to provide
automatic means for this purpose which is simple
in construction and eflicient in operation.
Other objects will appear from the detailed de
scription.
-
'
which it is drawn by a. hydraulic pump and de
. livered to the control means. ' The control valve
a and the hydraulic jack b may be of any suit
able construction.
.
.
The automatic means for cutting off the ilow
The invention consists in the several novel fea
of iluid to either ofthe delivery lines 9 or 9' com
tures which are hereinafter set forth and are 40 prises automatic valve mechanisms. d which are
more particularly deñned .by >claims at the con
serially connected into the lines 9 and 9', :respec-- .
clusion hereof.
In the drawing: '
tively, in close proximity to the pilot’s control
_
valve a, and flow restricting devices e which are
likewise connected into the lines 9 and 9' in close
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a hydraulic sys
tem embodying the invention, exemplii'ying its
use on an airplane for operating a tail-skid.
45 proximity to the Jack b.
These mechanisms d
are alike in construction, are similarly connected
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section oi' the .auto
. to the control means a and one of the jacks so
matic valve mechanism, the parts being shown in
that the detail description'- of one is applicable to
the position in which ñuid will ilow to the de
' both. ' Each mechanism d is located as closely as
livery line for the operation of the hydraulically 50 practical to the‘control valve a. The mechanism
operated device. '
d comprises a casing 8 which is provided with a
Fig. 3 is asimilar view of the automatic valve
mechanism, with the parts in the position assumed
cylinder I0. A pipe-section: 9B which leads from
the control valve a is connectedto'one end of
when‘the ñuld has been cut'oi! from the delivery
, the cylinder I0 in casing 8 by a screw-threaded
55
coupling ring. H for delivery oi fluid from the
2,411,392
is to prevent a pressure drop in the lines 9,9'
control valve a into the cylinder III. A head I2 v- esuillcient
to close the valve I1 when the tall skid
is screw-threaded into and closes the opposite end
c is unlatched from its retracted position and is
of casing 9 and- is provided with a cylindrical
allowed to drop by gravity. If there were no4
chamber I4. a valv'e seat I9 at the inner- end of
restrictor valves e, the pressure drop in the lines
chamber I4, an-annular groove I3, and a series
9, 9' 'due to falling ofthe tail skid by gravity
of radial ports I3'I between chamber Il and groove
would
simulate a break in the lines and cause the I3. The delivery pipe 9 is screw-threaded into
valve I1 to close.
.
casing 3 and communicates with the cylinder I0
When it is desired to bleed the pipe 9'L from
around annular groove I3. Packing-rings I3 in
control valve a or to illl the delivery pipe 9 to the
the periphery of head I2 prevent leakage of iluid
device b with fluid from valve a it is necessary to
between the head and the casing. A closure or
hold the closure member I1 open. For that pur
valve-member I1 in cylinder I0 is adapted to
pose a stem 26 is screw-threaded, as at 21, to the
engage the seat I9 in the inner end of head AI2.
A- piston I9 is slidably fitted in'the cylinder I0, _ head I2 so that the stem can be turned and moved
has a bore or cylindrical passage I9“, and is joined 15 longitudinally, so its inner end of stem 26 will
engage' an abutment 28 on the inner end oi' mem
to member I1 by lugs 29 which space said piston
ber
I1 to hold said member away from its seat
from said member to permit fluid to flow around
I6
and
force the pistonv I9 against abutment 23.
member I1 when it is separated from seat I3, ‘
stem 28 is provided with a plunger 29 which
between passage I9l and _chamber I4'. The inner j The
slidably ‘fitted in a socket-39 in the outer end
end of coupling-ring II is extended to form an 20 is
of
head I2. A ring 3I is threaded to a screw 31
abutment 23 yfor limiting the outward movement
on the outer end of stem 26 and is adapted to lock
of piston I9 and closure-member I1. A spring
stem in its normal or operative position.
I3 is interposed between member I1 and the head ‘ the
I2 at the outer end of chamber Il for pressing -. Ringv 3l engages a packing 33 to provide a seal
plunger 29.
‘
the closure-member I1 away from its seat I6 and 25 .around
The operation of the system is as follows:
shifting the piston I9 outwardly toward abutment
23. A nipple 24 is provided with lugs 24B whereby ‘
it may be turned in and out of the piston, for the
use of nipples with ports 25 of different area
according to the rate of -flow of the fluid desired 30
to the delivery pipe 9.
'
The ñow restricting device e comprises a body
e' which has one of its ends connected by a cou
When it is desired to extend „the tail skid c, the
pilot operates the control valve a so that high
pressure iluid is directed through line 9' and its
associated mechanisms d and e to the left hand
side of the hydraulic jack b. The piston in the
jack b is thereby moved to the opposite end of
, the' cylinder, swinging _the tail skid c down to the'
- extended position shown in Fig. 1. Fluid which
pling e2 to the section of the delivery pipe 9 from
is expelled from the right hand end of the cylin- `
the automatic mechanism d and its other end 35 der is returned through line 9 and its associated
connected by a coupling e3 to the section of the
mechanisms d and e to the control valve a whence
it is directed to the reservoir tank» (not shown).
' the casing e’ >and is adapted to restrict the ve- ~ ' Whenv it is desired to retract the tail skid, the
control valve a is operated to direct the high
locity of flow of the fluid under pressure to the 40 ` pressure ñuid through line 9 to the right hand.
delivery pipe 9 which is connected to the hy
draulic jack b. An oriñce e'l extends through
cylinder b1 of the hydraulically operated device b.
end of the jack cylinder b, and the return iluid
travels back to the control valve a through line-
The velocity of the fluid traveling through the
'
y
is directly proportional to the pressure
system
9'. In the event of a break in either of the lines
head and is inversely proportional to the ñuid
friction in the lines, the amount of work done,
Aand the viscosity of the iluid.
The principal function of the restrictor valves
9, 9', the increased velocity of the iluid from the
control means to the broken line will react on the
_
e is to introduce a source of fluid friction which' -
comprises the major portion of the entire fric
tional resistance of the complete system. The
piston I9 and valve I1 against the force of the
spring I8, and cut on now to the broken line.
The invention exemplifies a simple and effi-_
cient device for automatically cutting of! the de
restrictor valves are located at the maximum dis
tance from the check valves` d, hence, a break in
the lines 9, 9' at any intermediate point has the
effect >of eliminating the greater part of the re
sistance in the lines, which results in an immedi
. ate acceleration of the iluid to a much higher
livery of fluid under pressure used for selectively
.controlling a -hydraulically voperated device,
whereby any breakage or defect lin the delivery
line will not cause the iluid from Ithe control valve
, to be dissipated. The invention also exempliñes
a device for this purpose which- is simple'in con
- struction and efficient in operation.
velocity. The spring I8 in the mechanlsmd is
The invention is not to be understood as re
adjusted to hold the valve I1 on its seat I6 against
stricted to the detailsv set forth, since these may .
the pressure oi’ the iiuid at normal velocity, but
be modiiled within the scope of the appended
to yield under the increased pressure of the ñuid 60 claims without departing from the spirit and
impinging against the valve I1 at the higher
scope of the invention.
y
.
velocity resulting from a break in the liliesl caus
Having thus. described the invention, _what I
ing the valve to seat. Once _the valve, I1 has
clatlxin; as new_and desire to secure' by Letters Pat
seated, the static pressure head of the fluid will
en
:
-_
hold it tightly against its seat.
.
Í
1. A valve for controlling the operation of a
Another function ofthe restrictor valves e is to
hydraulic motor remotely located from a >source
regulate the velocity in relation to the viscosity
of iluid under pressure comprising, a casing pro
of the fluid. Thus, when the iluid isrelatively
vided with a longitudinally extendingv chamber
viscous at low temperature and exerts a greater
constituting a cylinder, a pipe connected to one
70
force on the valve I1 for a given velocity, the
end oi’ the casing and in communication _with
Y...restrictors 'e act to reduce the velocity ‘so that the
one end of the cylinder, a second pipe connected
prëîsáúñîexerted cn the valve n 1s maintained
to
one side of the casing and communicating with
substantially constant regardless o1 the teln
the cylinder, a removable head extending into
perature.
'
"
Still vanother' ’.iunction 4oi! the restrictor valve-s» 73 the opposite end ofthe casing and the cylinder
2,411,893
.
5
and ñtting inthe cylinder, and provided with a
longitudinally extending recess and a valve seat
at its inner end, a piston slidable in the cylinder
outer side oi.' the closure and between the bore
and the cylinder, a spring in the recess in the '
head for shifting the closure, and means in the
and provided at its inner end with a closure for
said seat,.and a bore in communication with the
' head communicatively connecting the second
cylinder, ports in the piston between the bore and
the cylinder, a spring in the_recess in the> head
for shifting the closure, and means in the head
communicatively connecting the second pipe and
draulic motor remotely locatedfrom a source of
the recess.
'
2. A valve for controlling the operation of a hy
draulic motor remotely located from a sourcev of
iiuid under pressure comprising, a casing pro
vided with a longitudinally extending chamber
Íconstituting a cylinder, a pipe connected to one
end of the casing and in communication with one
end ofthe cylinder, a second pipe connected to
one side of the casing and communicating with
the cylinder, a, removable head extending into the
opposite end of the casing and the cylinder and
fitting in the cylinder and provided with a lon
gitudinally extending recess and a valve seat at
its inner end, a piston slidable in the cylinder
pipe and the recess.
« 4. A valve for controlling the operation of a hy- '
ñuid under pressure comprising, a casing pro
vided with a longitudinally extending chamber
10 constituting a cylinder, a pipe connected to one
end of the casing and in communication with one
end of the cylinder, a second pipe connected to
' one side of the casing and communicating with
the cylinder, a removable head extending into the
opposite end of the casing and the cylinder and
ñtting in the cylinder, and provided with a lon
gitudinally extending recess and avalve seat at
its inner end, a piston slidable in the _cylinder
and provided at its inner end with a closure for
said seat, `and ports between the bore and the
cylinder and communicatively connecting the
~ second pipe and the recess, a spring in the recess
in the head for shifting the closure, a stem screw
and provided at its inner end with a closure for
threaded to the head, for locking the valve in its
said seat and a bore, a removable nipple in the 25 open position, and a packing and gland around
outer end oi’ the piston providing communication
between the cylinder and the bore, and ports in
the piston between the bore and the cylinder,
a spring in the head for shifting the closure, and
the outer end of the stem.
h
5. A valve for controlling the operation of a
hydraulic motor remotely located from a source
of fluid under pressure comprising, a casing _pro
’ means in the head communicatively connecting 30 vided with a longitudinally extending chamber
the second pipe and the recess.
.
constituting a cylinder, a pipe connected to one
3. A valve for controlling the operation of a
end of the casing and in communicationiwith. one
hydraulic motor remotely located from a source
end of the cylinder, a second pipe connected to
of fluid under pressure comprising, a casing pro
one side pf the casing and communicating with
vided with a longitudinally extending chamber 35 the
cylinder, a removable head extending into the
constituting a cylinder,_a pipe connected to one
end of the casing and in communication with one
end oi' the cylinder, a second pipe connected to
one side of the casing and> communicating with
opposite end of the casing and the cylinder and
fitting in the cylinder, and provided with a lon--v
. gitudinally extending recess and a valve seat'at
inner end, a piston slidable in the cylinder and
-the cylinder, a removable headl extending into 40 its
provided at its inner end with a closure for said
the opposite end of the casing and the cylinder
seat, and a bore in communication with the cylin- =
and ñtting in the cylinder, and provided with a
der, and ports in the piston between the bore and
longitudinally extending recess and a valve seaty
the cylinder, a spring in the recess in the head
at its inner end, a piston slidable in the cyunder
for shifting the closure, and an annular channel
and provided at its inner end with a closure for 46
and ducts in the head for communicatively con
said seat, and a bore in communication with the
necting the‘second pipe and the recess.
cylinder,
and radial ports in the piston at the
S. SAVIILILE.4
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