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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,414
P. COOK
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING FABRIC WEBS
Filed Dec. 19, 1944
6 Sheets-Sheet l
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INVENTOR.
Percy 0o 0 7:.
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Nov. 19, 1946.
P. COOK
2,411,414
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING FABRI c WEBS
Filed Dec. 19, 1944
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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,414
P. COOK
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING FABRIC WEBS
Filed Dec. 19, 1944
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INVENTOR.
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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,414
P.‘ COOK
METHOD OF‘ AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING FABRIC WEBS
Filed Dec. 19, 1944
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Patented Nov. 19, 1946‘
,41 1,414
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,414
~
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR
1
HANDLING FABRIC WEBS
Percy Cook, Waltham, Mass.
Application December 19, 1944, Serial No. 568,883
15 Claims. (Cl. 57-1)
This invention relates to'a method of and ap
paratus for manipulating a longitudinally trav
elling web of cloth in connection with ?nishing
operations such as dyeing, for example, to twist
the web preparatory to the dyeing or other opera
tion, or to untwist the web after the dyeing or
nection with the accompanying drawings of an
embodiment thereof, while its scope will be
pointed out more particularly in the appended
claims.
’
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a front elevation of web manipulating
apparatus embodying the invention;
of this class constitutes the subject matter of
Fig. 2 is a view partly in side elevation and
U. S. Letters Patent No. 2,248,962 issued to me
partly
in vertical section on line‘ 2-2 of Fig. 1;
July 15, 1941. In the apparatus of that patent, 10
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section on line 3-3 of
the web to be twisted or untwisted passes be
Fig. 2;
tween two rollers carried by a frame or turntable
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section on line 4—4 of
which is turned by a reversible electric motor
Fig. 2; and
>
other operation. Web manipulating apparatus
(or its equivalent) to and fro about an axis ex
Figs. 5 to 9, inclusive, are schematic diagrams
tending lengthwise of the web. An attendant, 15 illustrating
the operation of the electrical parts
watching the travelling web. manually reverses
of the apparatus.
the direction of rotation of the motor (and hence
Referring to the drawings and to the appara
the direction of rotation of the turntable as well
tus disclosed therein as an example of the in
as the fabric) from time to time as determined
vention,
and having reference at ?rst to Figs. 1
by his observation of the direction of twist of 20
and 2, there is shown the machine of the afore
the fabric. This naturally calls for his continu
said patent, which it will be convenient to refer
ous observation, and involves a charge for his
to brie?y as the de-twister because it is employed
labor.
chie?y to take the twist out of the previously
The present invention is concerned with a nov
twisted,
rope-like, dyed, fabric web which is to
el arrangement which obviates the need of an 25
be
opened
and ?attened by a machine such as
attendant by accomplishing the reversals and
stoppages of the motor automatically under the
control of the fabric and yet without contact of
the controlling-means with the fabric. This is
important, especially in handling delicate fabrics
which would be likely to be injured by the rub
bing contact of a controlling member or mem
bers. To that end, this invention'contemplates
the provision of appropriate means to create a
stream or ?ow of some sort, or the propagation
of waves of some sort in a path which will be
that which is the subject matter of myapplica~
tion for Web guiding and stretching mecha
nism, Serial No. 440,787, filed April 28, 1942.
To make the present invention clear, it should 7
30 be explained that, as the web travels lengthwise
from the dye vat, there may be, for example, a
twist in one direction with varying degrees of
pitch, then an absence of twist, and then a twist
in the opposite direction with varying degrees of
pitch, and so on. In the aforesaid patent, the
de-twister is arranged with its principal axis dis
posed vertically and the web, after leaving the
intercepted from time to time by the interposi
tion of a portion of the travelling web,_and the,
receptacle, travels upwardly to the de-twister,
resultant change utilized to control the stoppage
and reversal of the direction of rotation of the 40 where it is untwisted, and thence horizontally to
opening and stretching rollers. In the present
motor and the turntable rotated thereby.
case, it is convenient to place the detwister with
One example of the propagation of waves
its'axis disposed horizontally, so that the web
which may be utilized for this purpose, and the
will travel ?rst horizontally to the de-twister and
one which I have chosen as an example for il
then vertically downward toward the opening
lu'strative purposes, is a means for producing a 45 and
stretching mechanism.
beam of light directed in a path which will be
In
Figs. 1 and 2, the de-twister, for the sake of
intercepted by the travelling web from time to
simplicity, is skeletonized and is designated I 4.
time, and a photoelectric cell or "electric eye”
activated by the beam, Thus, when the light
It comprises generally a ?xed frame IS, a rotat
beam is intercepted by the‘ web, the resultant 50 able frame or turntable |8,-a pair of spring
pressed guide rollers 20 carried by the rotatable
change in the condition of the cell (non-activa
frame,
a third roller 22 mounted on the ?xed
tion) brings about the desired reversal or stop
frame, a. driven pulley 24 on the rotatable frame,
page of the twist controlling motor.
a belt 26 connecting said pulley to a. driving pulley
The invention will‘ be understood by reference
28,
and a reversible electric motor 30 to supply
to the following description when taken in con 55
power to the driving pulley, all as disclosed in
2,411,414
e"
my aforesaid patent. A web 32, twisted more or
- ?rst stops and then reverses because the switches
less in one direction or the other travels ?rst be
windings of the motor so as to cause reverse rota
associated with the ?rst cell are wired to the ?eld
tween the guide rollers 28 and then over the third
tion of the latter. De-twisting again begins but
guide roller 22. The twist is removed by apply
ing the power of the motor in whatever direction
and to whatever extent is required to remove‘ the
twist by turning the rotatable frame l6.
After the web leaves the ?xed guide roller 22,
the opening of the web takes place under the in
in the opposite direction as compared with the
?rst'time.
Now, as the cloth starts to widen out, it blanks
out the second cell, but this does, not stop the
motor which nevertheless continues to operate in
that same direction until the cloth has blanked *
fluence of a suitable opener such as that of my 10 out the ?rst cell, whereupon, both cells now being
aforesaid application, and the web gradually
blanked out, the motor will stop.
widens out as indicated, for example, at 21:‘, in
The construction and mode of operation of the
Fig. 1. The location and dimensions of this zone
controls should now be su?iciently clear to enable
will vary from time to time according to the
the- apparatus to be properly assembled and ar
direction and extentoi twist or the absence of 15 ranged employing commercially available elec
twist. ‘The present invention takes advantage of
trical units. However, it may be desirable,
these changes to control the de-twister», and this
though not necessary, to elaborate upon the
is achieved by novel means such as the example
broader ‘and more general aspects of the circuits
now to be described.
'
‘
without going ' to too great and unnecessary
The controlling instrumentalities which I prefer 20 lengths as regards precise details of magnets
‘to employ include two photo-electric relays 25‘ with their ‘coils, armatures, switches and the like,
and 26A associated with two light sources 21 and
as such details are readily available from the
21A which continuously emit beams 28 and 28A
makers of the relays and switches employed for
of light toward the respective photo-electric re
the purposes of the present invention.
lays. For the sake of brevity, it will be conven 25
ient to refer to the relay 26 as the ?rst cell and
the relay 26A as the second cell. A commercially
available photo-electric relay, suitable for this
In the present case, as in my aforesaid patent,
I prefer to employ a three-phase motor. The pat
ent, in Fig. 9 thereof, discloses a switching ar
rangement for controlling the motor, but there
purpose, is the General Electric CR 7505-K2 and
the control is vested in push-button switches
the light source is CR '7 500 of the same make. The 30 which are operated by an attendant, while in
photo-electric unit comprises in a general way
the present case there is a motor switch to con
a photoeelectric tube, an ampli?er tube which
trolled, however, by a forward-reverse relay 38
steps up the feeble current of the photo-electric
subject to the conjoint control of the ?rst and
tube, and a relay switch‘ which, by opening and
second
cells.
,
closing, in response to the energizing and de 35
In each of the photo-electric relays, there is a
energizing of the photo-electric tube, controls a
double-pole, double throw switch, designated .34
forward-reverse relay 38 (see Fig. 5) and that,
in the case of the ?rst relay, and 35A in the case
in turn, controls a motor switch 63, all of which
controls are commercially available and may be,
of the second relay. There are relay coils 36 and
36A operated by known photoelectric tubes.
40
‘for example, also of General Electric manufac
When no light is shining on the photo-cell, the
ture.
-
' These controls, as will presently appear, are so
arranged that the ?rst cell will cause the motor
30 of the de-twister iii to rotate in one direction
(for example, clockwise)v while the second cell
will cause the motor to rotate in the opposite
direction (for example, counterclockwise).
The cells are so placed (see Fig. 1) that when
the web does not obstruct the light rays to the
?rst cell the latter is energized and therefore
holds. in closed position certain switch contacts
which start and maintain motor operation so long
as the second relay is blanked oil" by the web.
' This condition is represented in Fig. 5. Now then.
when the web has becomede-twisted su?ciently,
it will obstruct the light rays from the ?rst light
relay coil is energized and pulls the movable con
tacts (the upper ones) down upon the lower,
?xed contacts. 0n the other hand, when light
shines on the photo-cell the magnet releasesthe
movable contacts and a spring pulls them up
against the ?xed contacts. The showing of these
parts is simpli?ed as much as possible for clarity.
The forward-reverse relay 3B (for example,
General Electric CR 7009, size 0, in practice built
into the housing of the motor switch to) is a
double-pole, double-throwswitch 152 as in the
case of the photo-electric relays. However, it
' has its magnet coil designed to operate for ex
ample on 110 volt, 60 cycle, alternating current.
The motor switch 40 (for example, General
Electric CR 7009 B A0 AD, catalog 5368680 AD)
source to the ?rst cell andv this cell will be de
is a standard three-phase magnetic switch coni- .
energized and cause the motor to stop. This op
prising
a forward switch 44 and a reverse switch
eration may occur over and over again with twists
60 ll?A (see Fig. 9). The magnet coils of these
in the same direction.
switches, like those of the forward-reverse re
When’ a ‘twist develops in the opposite direc
lays, are designed to operate on 110 volt, 60 cycle,
tion, the ?rst light source and cell willneverthe
alternating current.
.
less for a time operate to start the motor in the
The general operation should be clear from
same direction as before and thus start to put
even ‘more twist into the web, temporarily. The 65 the foregoing but will be recapitulated brie?y.
When the cloth is ‘running without twists, both
rope-like zone 33 of the web will then descend
light beams are intercepted by the cloth and the
into the horizontal plane of the second light
movable contacts are held down against the ?xed
source and cell, and the fabric will then no longer I
contacts in both photoelectric relay units. No
cut oil‘ the rays of “light from the second light-v
source to the second cell. ‘Thereupon the second 70 current is supplied to either coil in the motor
cell becomes energized. At this point, it is im- ' switch. The motor is therefore at rest. This
condition is represented in Fig. 5.
portant to note that when the second cell becomes
When a twist occurs in the cloth and this twist
energized, it will act to deenergize the ?rst cell.
passes the ?rst cell, the cloth does not intercept
Up to this point, the motor has been running in
the beam and the latter operates the ?rst cell.
the ‘same ‘direction as before, but now the motor
3,411,414;
5
-
6
The forward-reverse relay magnet releases the
lower movable cbntacts and they are pulled up
against the upper ?xed contacts. Thus, current
interception by the web, to impart to the web
twisting impulses in opposite directions.
verse relay and the upper movable contacts are
termittently. by utilizing the web to intercept
5. The method of handling a fabric web, which
is supplied to the"‘forward” coil of the vmotor > is characterized by moving the web lengthwise,
switch and the motor starts. The motor always 6 utilizing'a beam of rays directed transversely of
starts in the same direction regardless of the di-,
the web at one point in its travel to increase the
rection of the twist in the cloth. However, if
twist, and utilizing a second beam of rays direct
the twist is in the opposite direction to that in
ed transversely of the web at a second point in
which the rotatable frame of the de-twister is
its travel to, remove the twist. ‘
turning, the cloth untwists and cuts of! the beam
6. The method of handling a fabric web, which
of light from the ?rst light-source to the first cell.
is characterized by moving the web lengthwise,
This stops the motor. This condition is rep- . and applying power to twist or to untwist the web
resented in Fig. 8.
.
by utilizing the web to intercept a column of
If the twist in the cloth is in the same direc
radiant energy and utilizing the column, when
tion as that in which the rotatable frame of the
not intercepted, to control the application or non
detwister is turning, the cloth continues to twist
application of said power.
until the light beam which operates-the second
7. The method of handling a fabric web, which
cell is uncovered. The light beam which oper- ' is characterized by the cooperation of the manip
ates the ?rst cell remains uncovered. Thus, cur
ulative- steps of moving the web lengthwise, and
rent is supplied-to the coil of the forward-re 20 applying power to twist or to untwist the web in
pulled down against the lower ?xed contacts.
The circuit through the “forward” coil of the
units of matter directed transversely of the web
toward a responsive target beyond the web and
> intermittently intercepted by the web to control
motor switch is now broken and the circuit
through the “reverse” coil is closed. The motor
reverses its direction of rotation and the cloth
now untwists. This condition is represented in
Fig. 7.
The light beam which operates the second cell
is again covered, and the movable contacts are
pulled down against the ?xed contacts. Two of
the contacts of the “forward-reverse” relay are
connected in parallel with the contacts of the sec
ond cell relay, and therefore the circuit through
the relay coil remains closed until the cloth un
the application of said power.
‘
'
,8. The method of handling a, fabric web, which
is characterized by the cooperation of the manip
ulative steps of moving the web lengthwise, ap
plying power to twist or to untwist the web, di
recting a stream of.units of matter in a path in
termittently intercepted by the web as it twists
or untwists, and utilizing reception of the non
intercepted units of matter to control the appli
cation of said power.
3.": - 9. Apparatus for manipulating a longitudinally
twists ' suillciently to intercept the light beam
moving fabric web comprising,'in combination,
which operates the ?rst cell. This condition is
represented in Fig. 8.
Having thus described one embodiment of the
_ means for applying to and removing from the
web a. torsional-stress tending to twist or to un
twist the ‘web, means 'for propagating energy di- '
invention, what I claim is:
rect'ed transversely of the web and intermittently
intercepted by the web as it twists or untwists,
-
1. The method of hadling a fabric web, which
is characterized by ‘the cooperation of the manip
ulative steps of moving the web lengthwise while
at the same time controlling its twist by direct
ing units of matter transversely of the web, and
utilizing alternate interception and non-inter
ception of the~units of matter to influence the
and means for,receiving said energy, when not so
' intercepted, and applying the same to control the
45
twisting action.
application of said torsional stress.
10. Apparatus for manipulating a, longitudi
nally moving fabric web comprising, in combina
tion, means for applying to the web torsional
stresses in opposite directions, means for prop
agating and directing energy transversely of the
2. The method of handling a fabric web, which
is characterized by the cooperation of the manip 50 web and intermittently intercepted by the web
ulative steps of moving the web lengthwise while
as it twists and untwists, and means for receiv- ing said energy, when not so intercepted. and
at the same time controlling its twist by directing
applying the same to control the application and
units of matter transversely of the web and to
ward a responsive target beyond and covered and
uncovered by the web as it twists or untwists, 55
receiving the column, utilizing response of the’
the direction of said force.
‘ '
11. Apparatus for manipulating a longitudi
nally travelling fabric web comprising, in combi
target to furnish a twisting impulse in one di
nation, means including a motor for applying to
rection, and utilizing interception of the units of
the web torsional stresses in opposite directions,
matter by the web to produce a twisting impulse
in the opposite direction.
.
3. The method of handling a fabric web, which
is characterized by moving the web lengthwise
while controlling its twist by directing a beam of
light transversely of the web, receiving the beam.
60
means for producing a beam of light rays and
directing the beam transversely of the web in a
position to be intermittently intercepted by the
web as it twists and utnwists, a light-sensitive in
strumentality in position to receive and to be
acted upon by the light rays when not intercepted
by the web, and means responsive to the influ
ence ,of said- instrumentality to control said
motor.
utilizing reception of the beam to furnish a twist
ing impulse in one direction, and utilizing alter
date interception and non-interception of the
12. Apparatus for manipulating a longitudi-V
aeam by the web to produce opposite twisting im
nally travelling fabric web comprising, in com
oulses upon the web.
70 bination, means including a reversible motor for
4. The method of handling a fabric web, which
applying to the web torsional stresses in oppo
5 characterized by moving the web lengthwise,
site directions, means for producing a beam of
ind utilizing two beams of radiant energy direct~
light rays and directing the beam transversely
ed transversely of the web at different points in
of the web in a position to be intermittently in
ts travel, and subject to interception and non~ 75 tercepted by the web as it twists and untwists,
2,411,414:
a photo-electric cell- in position to receive and
‘to be actedfupon by the light rays, when ‘not
7 intercepted by the web, and means responsive to
the in?uence of said cell to control the reversals
and the stoppages of said motor.
'
,
13. Apparatus for manipulating a longitudi
nally travelling fabric web, comprising, in com
the two positions being at different points length
wise of the travel of the web, two beam receptors
sensitive to said beams, respectively, when said
beams are not so intercepted, and means respon
sive to the individual and conjoint influence of
said beam receptors to control said reversible
means.
,
15. Apparatus for.manipulating a longitudi
bination, means including _a"‘reversible motor for
nally travelling fabric web comprising, in com
applying to the web torsional stresses in oppo
site directions, means for producing two beams 10 bination, means including a reversible electric
motor for applying to the web torsional stresses
of light rays and directing the beams transversely
in opposite directions, two light sources produc
of the web in positions to be intercepted by the
ing beams of light rays laterally of the axis about
web as it twists and untwists, the two positions
which the torsional stresses are exerted, two
being at diiferent points lengthwise of the travel
of the web, two photo-electric cells in position 15 photo-electric cells disposed laterally of said axis
in positions to be acted upon by said beams, re
to be acted upon by said beams, respectively,
when not so intercepted, and means responsive
spectively, when not intercepted-by the web, the
to the individual and conjoint in?uence of said
cells to control the reversals and the stoppages
position of one light source and its associated
cell being in advance of the other in respect to
20 the lengthwise travel of the web, a forward
reverse relay operated by either cell when acti
of said motor. -
' 14. Apparatus for manipulating a longitudi
vated by the rays from the associated light source,
nally travelling-fabric web comprising, in com
‘and 'a forward-reverse motor switch operated
bination, reversible means for applying to the
by said forward-reverse relay and causing re~
‘web torsional stresses in opposite directions,
means for producing two beams and directing 25 versals and stoppages of said motor.
them transversely of the web in positions to be
PERCY COOK.
intercepted by the web as it twists and untwists,
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