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Nov. 19,- 1946.
T. H. JOHNSTONE
2,411,433
LOCK
Filed April 18, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
40 (17
"'
4r
INVENTOR
74/7’. 034m \; ZLOhZ
BY
'
0&4“
ATTORNEY
Nov. 19, 1946.
T. H. JOHNSTONE'
'
2,411,433
LOCK
Filed April ‘18, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
7
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20
INVENTOR
_
7TH. Jzérm-Zéo?e
BY Mm
ATTORNEY
Nov. 19, 1946-
T. H. JOHNSTONE
2,41 1,433
LOCK
Filed April 18, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
/
INVENTOR
> 2- H, J; 4 nu‘ 76m¢
'BY
‘
.
M0640» '
'
ATTORNEY
Patented Nov. 19,1946
2,411,433 ‘
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ (OFFICE
LOCK
Theodore H. Johnstone, Detroit, Mich., assignor'
to The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company,
Stamford, Conn, a corporation of (Jonnecticut
Application April 18, 1944, Serial No. 531,530
37 Claims.
1
Thisinvention relates vto locks, and more par
ticularly to looks of the‘ type in which tumblers
are‘ set by a :key. Even more particularly, the in
vention relates 'to’locks of the ‘type employing a
key plug that is preferably rotatable to a release
position upon the predetermined setting of turn
blers by akey inserted in the key plug.
The object of my invention. is to provide'a lock
of the: class described in which many different
keys may be provided for opening the lock. Com
mercially, this is known as providing many key
changes without interchange. A second object of
my invention is the provision of a lock of the class
described in which. master, keying may be accom
plished Without interchange. A third object of
my invention islto provide a lock with great pick
resistance.
,
It is of ‘course well known that locks should be
pick resisting, and there is great demand. for an
extreme pick resisting lock mechanism. It is also ,
well: known that locks should be adapted for mas
ter-keying, but that ‘looks that are master keyed,
are more readily picked than looks that are not
master keyed. Thus, in pin tumbler locks, as
an example,v there ‘are more breaks in the pins
where master keys are provided, and therefore,
(Cl. 70-421)
2
- Preferably, each fence ofimy'invention requires
a ‘particular composite alignment of the'tumblers
for the release movement of the fence, and the
composite alignment of the tumblers for one fence
is different from that alignment that is required
for each other fence. Therefore, in picking the
lock, shouldone fence move into the wrong fence
and gating relation with a tumbler, the particu
lar tumbler will be held against movement to
correct alignment, Each fence and each gating
is therefore an obstacle to the setting of the tum
blers into the correct composite alignment ‘by
picking action. Therefore, the more fences that
are utilized, and the more gatings provided to
yield more changes and more master keys, ‘the
more pick resisting does my lock become. This
phase of my invention will later be discussed in
more detail and reference will be had ‘to speci?c
structure.
,
A further detailed feature of my invention re
sides in the control of the lock mechanism by
the fences. More particularly, this feature re
sides in the useof what I term a detent adapted
to be controlled in its action by the fences. 'Pref
erably the detent is predisposed toward blocking
the operation of the look, but is held back by a
tumbler controlled member or fence as I herein
use the term fence. By having a plurality of
that the pick resistance is increased through the
as for instance one for each master key,
provision of more‘ master keys, this feature being 30 fences,
with anyone fence capable of holding the de
inherent and. the very basis of my invention.
tent from movement into blocking position, it is
i Aparticular feature of my invention resides in
possible to provide a considerable number of mas
the utilization of a series of tumblers each hav
ter keys, While simultaneouslyincreasing the pick
ing a plurality of gatings for alignment relatively
resistance
of the lock because of the inherent na
to a plurality of fences. Actually, I prefer one 35
ture of my invention. As a further feature of
fence for each master key, although my invention
my invention, the detent is not moved to block
is capable of being used in other ways as will ‘be
the
lock operation until after some. preliminary
apparent to those skilled in the art. In selecting
operation of the lock mechanism, as for exam
the word “fence” to describe the tumbler con
me, the partial rotation of the key plug forming
trolled parts of my invention, I have considered 40 part of the lock mechanism. ,
the functional characteristics of a fence rather
_ Still a further feature of my invention resides
than the physical features offences known in
in the utilization of this partial rotation of the
the art. Thus, those skilled in the art should
lock mechanism to set the tumblers so that when
consider that by the term “fence” I mean any
more picking lines are available and may be uti
lized. ‘ It is a feature of thelock of my invention,
the detent is released for movement to blocking
Similarly, 45 position,
it may be held fromsuc‘h movement by
any one of the ‘tumbler released ' members or
between the tumblers and fences of my invention,
fences. Av stilli‘further feature of my invention
I allude not to the movement of a lug of a fence
resides in the utilization of the detent for holding
into a ‘slot in a tumbler, but rather to ‘an arrange
the ‘fences or tumbler controlled members away
ment of the tumblers and. fences whereby a par 50 from
'the'tumb'lers, therebyjmaintaining the tum
ticular alignment, of the tumblers will release a
blers released for ‘free and easy positioning,
fence for movement‘. The ‘claims setting forth
I have thus described generally‘ the main fea
member that is tumbler" controlled.
when I call for a fence and ‘gating relationship
the scope of my invention should be‘ read in the
light of
by me".
signi?cance of the language used
tures' of my invention in order that a better un
derstanding' of the‘ relation of my invention to
55 the prior art may be had. There are of course
2,411,433
3
l2.
It will be noted that each of the tumblers I2
is formed with a plurality of gatings 2B, and that
stood from the speci?c disclosure that follows.
Naturally, my contribution to the art should not
be considered as limited by the particular form
of my invention hereinafter set forth.
4,
a particular composite alignment of the tumblers
additional valuable features inherent in my in
vention that I have not, up to this point, out
lined, because those features will best be under
each of the fences is formed with a series of lugs
29.
If the several tumblers are positioned as
shown in Fig. '7 so that each tumbler has a gating
28 in alignment with the plugs- 29 of‘one fence,
shown as fence 2| in Fig. 7, that fence is released
10 for movement toward the detent 25 under the
(pressure of a spring 24. Naturally, the keys K
have their blades l8 so bitted at 26 for coopera
tion with the tumblers that each key will set the
tumblers so that particular gatings thereof will
be aligned opposite ‘one of the fences and so that
‘that one fence, and only that one fence will be
Referring now to the drawings, Fig. l is a per
spective View of my inventionembodied in a cyl
inder lock of the type in which a key plug is ro
tatable in a cylinder upon the proper positioning
of certain tumblers. Fig. 2 is a vertical section
along lines 2—2 of Fig. 1. Figs. 3 and 4 are re
spectively sections along lines 3-—3 and 4-4 of
Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a partial section and end view
of the lock looking at it from the left of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is a perspective exploded view of the key Y urged to release position.
The detent 25 has lugs 36 as shown in Figs. 5,
plug, a tumbler, two fences and the detent. Fig.
6 and '7, adapted to cooperate with shoulders 3|
7 is a view of the parts shown in Fig. 6, but with
the key plug rotated ninety degrees and with the 20 of the key plug || so as to prevent rotation of
the key plugmore than ninety degrees from its
tumblers set to release one fence and with that
position of Fig. 6. Thus, in Fig. 7, were the‘ de
:fence holding the detent against movement to
tent 25 to bereleased for downward movement
blocking position.
7
under the in?uence of its spring 32, one. of the
Referring now more particularly to the draw
lugs 36 would ?t against shoulder 3| andwould
ings, the cylinder portion of my invention is des
ignated by reference numeral l0 and the keyplug
by reference numeral II, the key for the lock
bearing the reference letter K, all as'is probably
best shown in Fig. 1.
prevent further rotation of the key plug H. In
the initial position of the parts in Fig. 6, the de
tent 25 _is maintained in its upward release posi
tion through the cooperation of the roller 33 of
A series of tumblers I2
is mounted in the cylinder Ill, the cylinder being 30 the detent lying against the cam 36 formed as
divided by. walls I3 as best shown in Figs. 2 and '
'3 into a series of compartments l4, two tumblers
l2 sliding in each of said compartments. The
tumblers are formed so as to inter?t, and so as
to cooperate with separate springs l5 and I6 in
each of the compartments, there being one spring
a portion of the key‘ plug. As the key plug I l ro
tates from its position of Fig. 6 to its position of
Fig. '7 and beyond the position of Fig. '7, the cam.
36 will continue to hold the detent 25 in its re
lease position against the pressure of spring 32
until cam surface 31 moves opposite the roller33.
The detent will then be lowered so as. to bring
foreach tumbler. The springs are held in posi
one lug 3|] opposite the shoulder 3| and there
tion‘ by a plate Illa that slides into position to
close the upper ends of the tumbler chambers Hi, 4-0 after'block further rotation of ‘the key plug | |-'. i '
If, during the rotation of the vkey plug'as set
all as best seen in Figs. 1, 2 and 4.
forth, a proper key K has been in the keyway l9
-' In their initial position, each of the tumblers
as shown in Fig. 7, certain of the tumbler gatings
‘|2- rests on the portion ll of the key plug as seen
28 will be aligned relatively to the lugs 29 of one
in Fig. 6. In order to set the tumblers |2, a key.
of the fences 2|. The said fence 2| will ‘there
is inserted into the key plug as shown in Fig. 1,
fore be urged by the spring 24 into one of the
‘the blade l8 of the key moving into the keyway
ratchet-like
slots 26 of the detent 25. Thus, when
|9,- As, illustrated in Fig. 7, the key K and its
the surface 31 of the cam 36 releases the detent
blade I8 act to rotate the key plug H from the
25 for downward locking movement, the end 21
position of Fig. 6 to the position of Fig. '7. This
of
the fence 2| will move into‘the slot 26 and
rotation‘of the key plug and key effects the po .50
will prevent the further downward movement of
sitioning of the tumblers i2 by the bitted por
the detent 25. Therefore,-the lug 30 will not
tions 26 of'the key, all as will be understood by
move into blocking relation to the shoulder 3|,
‘those' skilled in the art.
‘ and it will be possible to continue the rotation of
For coaction with the tumblers I2, I employ
the key plug | | beyond the position of Fig. 7.
a series of tumblervcontrolled members that I
It is interesting to note that between the slots
prefer to'call‘fences. For convenience in de
‘scribing my invention, the fences on the right
26, the detent 25 has ?at holding surfaces 40
as best seen in Figs. 2 and 6. These ?at holding
surfaces 46 coact with the ?at end surfaces 4|
of the ends 21 of the fences 2|, 22 to hold those
6.9 fences
against movement under the in?uence of
the'springs 24. Because of thisrelationship of
in'Figs. 4 and 6 are designated by reference nu
the parts, when the key plug is in its initial lock
meral 22. It will of course be noted that the
ing position of Fig. 6, the fence lugs 29 will not
fences slide in suitably formed openings 23
formed in the cylinder l0 transversely to tum 65 bear against the tumblers l2. " Therefore, ‘the
tumblers l2 will‘mov'e freely of the-lugs 29 when
blers. l2. Springs 24, there being one spring for
set by the blade l8 of the key. This gives a very
each fence preferably, act to project the fences
free and easy operation of ‘the tumblers by the
inwardly of the cylinder and toward what I term
key, all as is considered very desirable in this art.
a detent 25. The detent 25 is mounted for sliding
parallel to the tumblers and has a series of 70 This arrangement of‘the parts also hinders pick
ing because it makes it impossible to applythe
ratchet-like slots 26, into any one of which may
fence lugs 29 against tumblers |2 until the de
enter the end 21 of any one of the fences 2|, 22.
tent 25 has been partially released so as to with
It is of course the function of the springs 24 to
draw the surfaces 46 thereof from the surfaces
press the fences 2| and 22 toward the slots 26
hand side of the lock, looking at Fig. 4, are each
designated by reference numeral 2|, and simi
larly, the‘ right hand fence in Fig. 6 is designated
by reference numeral 2|. The fences at the left
when the ‘fences are released for movement by 1.5. 4| of the fences 2|, 22. Unless the fencesfbear
7
2,451 1,433
‘against the tum‘, le'ri-s it: is impossible to attempt
pickingthe-lock.» '
predetermined (alignment ‘relatively theretdrth'e
' ‘It islfurther well to-indica'terthatlpreferably, the
predetermined alignment to release one iofysaid
fences ‘for movement being diiferentfromithat
required to release .another one of said‘ifencessfor
alignment. of the‘tumblers |2.to release one fence
2t,“ positions soIidl-portionsof at least one of the
tumblers opposite‘at leastone fence lug of each
said movement.
‘
.
>
.
of the-other fences '2-i,>-2‘2‘so as to block‘move
,4; ,In a look, a series‘ of tumblers: ,‘movably
‘merit. of- any of the-other ‘ fences ‘into ‘release po
mounted therein and adapted to“ be key'setpeach
sition; In other words, only ‘one-‘fen‘ceis releas
‘able by “a-‘particularsetting ‘of the tumblers, and
all @thevother fences‘are locked. Because of this
relationship of the ‘parts, pickingis a practical
each adaptedxto- enter aligned gatings ofsaidftum
blersrincidental to movement of said‘ fences. into
impossibility as was earlier outlined; As -a prac
tical ‘example, viewing Fig. 4, it will be noted
that I1 employ ‘in my~lock~ ten ‘fences and that-each 15
tumbler-l Zis formed with ten'gatings. Therefore,
if the key plug |_ I is‘rotated ‘so that ‘the ‘fences
‘2 l, q2l2~may press against thetumblers . I21through
the “partial release of detent ‘25 by cam 3ii,'there
will’ be ten fence lugs 29- pressing against each
tumbler I2' and tending to enter one of the sev~
eral gatingsZB.
If a fence lug 29
enters one gating 28, it will
naturally thereafter hold
the tumbler of that gat
ing against vertical movement. If the fence Whose
lug >29 has'moved into the particular gating is 2.
not thereafter released by‘thev proper positioning
of‘ the gatings of every other tumbler, the fence
will not move to release position. It must be
‘understood that every other“ tumbler willihave _
nine fences ‘other than the right one tending to
a-series of movabletumbers adapted‘to‘ be setbya
enter ten gatings thereof. Similarly, if the par
ticular gatingia ‘of the tumbler #2 into which
the‘fence lug 29 has entered is not the particular
gating to be aligned with the fence that is re~
leased or is to be released by theremaining tum
blers, it is naturally impossible tore-set the tum
bler to the fence that isto be released. The ob
stacles to the picking‘ of a lock thus outlined in
crease as the number of fences increase, ‘and are
3;
moves-‘to release position when said tumblers’ are
properly key set.
further multiplied by the number of tumblers
and gatings, presenting therefore practically in
surmountable difficulties. It is reiterated that
the greater the number offences and the greater
the number of gatings at‘each tumbler to-obtain ‘
more key'change and more master keys, ‘the
greater will be the resistance to the successful
‘picking of the lock of my invention.
I believe that my invention‘will now be ‘readily
understood by those skilled in the art and‘ that r
the‘ manner in which my invention may be uti
lized will be apparent.
'
Inow claim:
1. In a, lock, a' series of tumblers movably
fence means moves to release position,
mounted therein relatively to said cylinder and
8. In a lock of the class described, a key plug,
adaptedito be key set», a plurality of lock control
aseries of movably mountedtumblers adapted for
members ‘movably mounted in said lock, the set
ting of said tumblers in one composite position
releasing one of said lock control members for
movement, while the setting of said tumblers‘in 60
another composite position for releasing another
of ‘said'lock control members positionssaid tum
blers to leave the ?rst lock control memberlocked.
“2. In a lock, a series of tumblers movably
mounted therein and adapted to be key set, a
plurality of fences movably mounted relatively to
said tumblers, and said‘ series of tumblers being
'
gating relationshipiwith
as to require a different
composite setting for, each fence.
3; In a lock, a series of tumblers movably
mounted therein and' adapted to ‘be key set, a
movement, a locking means for eifecting'the lock;
70
ing' of said key plug against release mason
beyond said second position, and means whereby
any'oneof‘said fence means when in release po
sition effects the maintenance of said locking
‘plurality offences movablymounted in saidilock
means out of locking position relatively to said
andleach movable independently toward a release
"
'
position when saidiseries-of tumblers is placed in 75 key plus.
‘9.‘ In a lock ‘of-the class described, a cylinder,
2,411,433
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder, a‘ detent for
cylinder, a series of tumblers ‘movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
limiting the rotation of said key plug from a re
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
lease position to a second position, means whereby
key plug, a plurality of fences movably mounted
said detent‘ is held out of its limiting position
relatively to said tumblers, each of said fences
until after rotation of said key plug toward said
having a series of fence portions, one for each
second position, said detent having a series of
tumbler, and each tumbler having a plurality of
holding surfaces whereby it may be held against
gatings for each fence portion, said gatings be
movement to its limiting position when released
ing so positioned in said tumblers that a par
upon rotation of the key plug, tumblers adapted
ticular alignmentof said tumblers will release
for setting by a key in the keyway of said'key 10 at least one of said fences for transverse move‘
plug, and tumbler controlled elements movable
into holding relation to said holding surfaces. ‘
10. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug movable in a bore formed in said cyl
inder, a series of tumblersjmovably mounted rela
ment relatively to said tumblers.
-
_
_
16. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key ,plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
cylinder, a series of tumblers movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted ,to be
set by a key inserted into a keyway formed in
said key plug, a plurality of fences movably
tively to said key plug and adapted to be set by
a key inserted into a keyway formed in said key
mounted in said cylinder transverselyrelatively
plug, a plurality of fence means movably mounted ’
in said cylinder, and said series of tumblers being
to said tumblers, each of said fences having a
in adifferent fence and gating relationship with 20 series of fence portions, one for each tumbler,
each of said fence means so as to require a dif
and each tumbler having a plurality of» gatings
for each fence portion, said gatings being so po
ferent composite setting for each fence.
, 11. :In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug rotatable in a bore of said cylinder, a
series of paralle1 tumblers mounted for movement
relatively to said key plug and adapted for posi
sitioned in said tumblers that a particular align
ment of said tumblers to position a series of gat
ings opposite the fence portions of one fence to
allow transverse movement of said one fence, will
tioning by a key in a keyway of said key plug, a
not present aligned gatings to the fence portions
pair of fences movable relatively to said tumblers,
of the remaining fences.
each of said tumblers having a plurality of gat
17. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
30
ings, the alignment of one gating of each tumbler
a key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
opposite one of said fences allowing the move
cylinder, a series of movable tumblers adapted
ment or said fence into said aligned gatings and
to be set by a key inserted into a keyway formed
into release position, said gatings when aligned
in said key plug, a plurality of fences movably
relatively to said one fence remaining unaligned
mounted relatively to said tumblers, each of said
35 fences having a series of fence portions, one for
relatively to the remaining fence.
12. In a, lock of the class described, a cylinder,
each tumbler, and each tumbler having a plue
a key plug movable in a bore formed in said cyl
rality of gatings for each fence portion, said gat
inder, a series of tumblers movably mounted rela
ings being so positioned in said tumblers that a
tively to said key plug and adapted to be set by
particular alignment of said tumblers. to position
a key inserted into a keyway formed in said key
a series of gatings opposite the fence portions of
plug, a plurality of fence means movably mounted
one fence to allow movement of said one fence,
in said cylinder and each movable independently
will not present aligned gatings to the fence por
toward a release position when said series of tum
tions of the remaining fences.
blers is placed in predetermined alignment rela
18. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
tively thereto, the predetermined alignment to
a key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
release one of said fence means for movement
cylinder, a series of tumblers movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
being different from that required to release an
other ,one of said fence means for said movement.
.13. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug movable in a bore formed in said
cylinder, a series of tumblers movably mounted
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
tumbler, a plurality of gatings in each of said
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
key plug, each of said tumblers having a plu
rality of gatings, a plurality of fence means
mounted in said cylinder and each adapted to
enter aligned gatings of said tumblers incidental’
to-movement of said fence means into release
position, the composite positioning of said
key plug, a plurality of fences movably mounted
relatively to said tumblers, a series of fence lugs
on each of said fences with one lug for each
tumblers into any one of which said one fence
lug of each tumbler may enter, a spring pressing
each of said fences toward movement into said
gatings, said gatings being so positioned in said
tumblers that a particular alignment of said
tumblers to position a series of gatings opposite
the fence portions of one fence to allow move
tumblers to present aligned gatings to one of 60 ment of said one fence,‘ will not present aligned
said fence means being different from that which
gatings to the fence portions of the remaining
said tumblers must assume to present aligned
gatings to another of said fence means.
19. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
fences.
14. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
‘ a ‘key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
cylinder, a series of tumblers movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
by a key insertedinto a keyway formed in said
key plug, a plurality of fences movably mounted
in said cylinder relatively to said tumblers,’ each
of said fences having a series of fence portions,
zone for each tumbler, and each tumbler having
a‘ plurality of gatings for each fenceportion.
15. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug ‘rotatable in‘a bore formed in said
'
.
.
>
'
-
'
a key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
cylinder, a series of tumblers movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
by a-key inserted into a keyway formed in said
key plug, a plurality of fence means movably
mounted relatively to said tumblers, a, detent for
locking said key plug, a ‘portion of each of said
fence means rendering said detent ineffective to
lock said plug when any one of said fence ‘means
moves to a release position, ‘and means’ whereby
at - least one of "said ‘fence means .moves' to re-;
12,411,433
130
lease .Bposit'ion‘ when sa'd tumblers areaprope'rly
:Jkey set.
‘I predetermined :rotation or said 1'key and key tplug.
'24.‘ In a lock of ‘the classrdescribed; a cylinder,
a key Iplug rotatable in a bore formed insaid
‘20. In a ilock ' of ‘the iclass described, -:a “cylinder,
ma ‘key plug‘rotatable in ‘a bore ‘formed in said
cylinder, ‘a ‘series 'of ‘tumblers rmovably ‘mounted
relatively 'tosaid key plug and adapted to beset
‘cylinder, aseri'es of tumblers "movably mounted
relatively :to "said :key'plug and adapted to, be
,set by‘a key inserted into a 'keywaylform'ed in
said key'plugga plurality of fence means :movably
by a key inserted into a keyway'formed ‘in ‘said
key ‘plug, a plurality :of fence Im'ea'ns ‘movably
mounted relatively ‘to said ‘tumblers, said series
mounted relatively ‘to ‘said ‘tumblers, a ‘detent for
locking said ‘key plug, a portion of ‘each of ‘said 10 of vtumblers being in fence and 'gatingvireliationi
ship with at least 'one ‘of said?fen'ce means to
fence means rendering "said detent ineffective to
release said. fence means ‘for ‘movement 'relatiye
lock-said plug when any one ‘of ‘said fence means
moves to a release position, and said series 'of
rly‘to said tumblers, 1a detent‘for preventing fro‘
'tation ‘of said key plug beyond :a'p'redetermined
position when said detent moves to locking po
‘sitioma spring ‘pressing said ‘detent towardilock
tumblers being in fence and gating relationship
‘with at least one of said fence means whereby
the predeterminedsetting of said ‘tumblers will
--lng',position, 'a portion of 'each Of } 'SaldIfén'Ce
effect the release movement [of at least said ‘one
fence means.
21. ‘In a lock of the class “described, a cylinder,
a key plug rotatable ‘in ‘a bore "formed in said
‘means adaptedito hold Tsaid ‘detent ‘aga'mstlm‘o'va
ment to ‘locking position when any one of ‘said
fence means is in ‘releasepositi'on, said tumblers
being so positioned as to require the'r‘ota'tionfdf
the key plug ‘and key to a predetermined posi
tion prior to the setting of ‘said tumblers to re
cylinder, a ‘series of tumblers'm‘ovably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
key plug, a plurality of fence means movably
mounted relatively to said tumblers and each
movable independently toward a release position
when said series of tumblers is placed in prede
lease one of said fence means.v
25. In a'lock of the ‘class described, acylinder,
a key ‘plug rotatable in’arbo're formed ‘in said
cylinder, a :series of ‘tumblers 'movably mounted
relatively ‘to ‘said key plug and "adapted ‘to ‘be set
termined alignment ‘relatively thereto, the pre=
by akey inserted ‘into a keyway formed
said
determined alignment to release one of said fence
means (for movement being different from that 30 key-plug, locking means for ‘effecting the ‘locking
‘of said ‘key plug against free rotation ‘relatively
required to release another one of said fence
to said ‘cylinder, ife'nce means vfor controlling the
vmeans for said movement, a ‘detent for locking
said locking means, said tumblers having gatings
said key’ plug against release rotation, and‘ a por
into which said fence means 1enter to ‘move into
tion of each of said fence means rendering said
detent ineifective to lock said plug when any ~‘ release position, and ‘means ‘whereby when ‘said
fence ‘means is in release position ‘it ‘effects ‘the
one of said fence means moves to release po
maintenance of said locking means out of look
- sition.
ing relation relatively ‘to said key plug.
22. In a'lock' of the class described, a cylinder,
26. In a lock of the class described-a "cylinder,
9, key plug rotatable in a bore formed‘ in said
‘a key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said
cylinder, a series of ‘tumblers movably‘ mounted 40
cylinder, a series {of tumblers ‘movably mounted
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be set
relatively‘to ‘said key plug and ‘adapted to‘ be
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
set by a key ‘inserted into a keyiway formed ‘in
key plug, a plurality of fence means movably
said: key plug, a plurality offence means ‘mov
‘ably, mounted ‘relatively to said tumble-rs and
mounted relatively to said tumblers,‘ said series
of tumblers being in‘ fenceand gating relation
' each movable independently toward Kairelea‘se
ship with at least one of' said fence means to
release said fence-means for movement relative
ly to said tumblers, a detent for" preventing ro
position when said series of tumblers is‘pla'eed
tation of said key‘ plug beyond a predetermined
position when said detent moves to‘ locking po- '
sition, a spring pressing said ‘detent toward
locking’ position, and a portion of each of said
fence means adapted‘to hold said detent against
movement to locking position when any one of
said fencemeans is in release position‘.
55
in predetermined alignment relatively ‘thereto,
the predetermined alignment to release one» of
said fence means for movement being different
'from that required to release another one of said
fence means for said ‘movement, locking means
for effecting ‘the locking of ‘said key plug against
free rotation relatively to said ‘cylinder, and
means whereby any one of said fence means
when in release position eifects ‘the maintenance
of said locking means out of locking position
23. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug rotatable in‘a‘bore‘ formed in said
relatively to said key plug.
’
cylinder, 3, series of tumblers movably mounted
27. In a lock of the class described, a ‘cylinder,
relatively to said key plug and adapted to be
'set by a key inserted into a keyway formed in 60 a key plug rotatable in a bore formed in said cyl
inder, a series of tumblers movably mounted rela
said key plug, a series of fence means movably
t‘ively to‘said key plug and adapted to be set by a
mounted relatively to said tumblers, said series
key ‘inserted ‘into a keyway ‘formed in said key
of tumblers being in fence and gating relation
ship with at least‘ one“ of saidv fence means to
release said fence'means for‘ movement rela
tively to said'tum'blers, a detent for preventing
rotation of‘ said'key plug beyond a predetermined
positionwlien said detent, moves to locking po
sition, a spring pressing said detent toward
locking position, a portion of each of said fence
‘means adapted to hold said detent against move
ment to locking position when any oneiof said
fence'means is in release position, and means
for holding said detent out of locking position
independently of said fence means until after.’
plug, locking means for‘ effecting the locking ‘of
said key plug against free rotation relatively ‘to
said cylinder, fence means for controlling the
said locking means, said tumblers having gati-ngs
into which said fence means enter to move into
release position, means whereby when said f-ance
means is in release position it effects the main—
tenance of said locking means out of locking po
sition relatively to said key plug, and said lock
ing means holding said fence meansawayfrom
said tumbler gatings until-predetermined rota
‘tlon of said 'key‘plug.
’
, 28; In va ‘lock :of‘ the class-‘described, a» cylinder,
2,411,433
11
a key "plug rotatable in a bore formed in said cyl- ‘
inder, a series of tumblers movably mounted rel
atively to said key plug and adapted to be set
by a key inserted into a keyway formed in said
key plug, a series of fence means movably
mounted relatively to said tumblers, and each
'12
relatively to said key plug and adapted for set
ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation '
of said key plug and key from an initial position
to a second position, each of said tumblers hav
ing a plurality of gatings, a plurality of fences
each adapted to enter aligned gatings of said
tumblers incidental to movement of said fences
movable independently toward a release position
into release position, the composite positioning of
when said series of tumblers is placed in prede
said tumblers to present aligned gatings to one’
termined alignment relatively thereto, the pre
of said fences being different from that which
determined alignment to release one of said fence 10 said tumblers must assume to present aligned
means for movement being different from that re
gatings to another of said fences, a detent spring
quired to release another one of said fence means
pressed into locking position relatively to said key
for said movement, locking means for effecting the
plug to prevent the release rotation of said key
locking of said key plug against free rotation
plug from said second position, means whereby
relatively to said cylinder, means whereby any
said detent is maintained against movement to
one of said fence means when in release posi- ‘
locking position until said tumblers are key set
tion effects the maintenance of said' locking
by rotation of said key plug and key, means
means out of locking position relatively to said
whereby any one of said fences when moved to re
key plug, and said locking means holding said
20 lease position through‘ entry into aligned gatings,
fence means away from said gatings until pre
determined rotation of said key plug.
_
effects the holding of said detent out of locking
position upon continued rotation of said key plug,
29; In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
and said detent itself holding said fences out of
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having
release position until after said tumblers have
a keyway, a series of tumblers movably mounted
been key set.
'
relatively to said key plug and adapted for set
32. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having
of said key plug and key from an initial‘position
a key way, a series of tumblers movably mounted
to a second position, each of said tumblers having
relatively
to said key plug and adapted for set
a plurality of gatings, a plurality .of fences each
adapted to enter aligned gatings of said tumblers 30 ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation
of said key plug and key from an initial position
incidental to movement of said fences into release
to
a second position, locking means for effecting
position, the composite positioning of said .tum
the locking of said key plug against'release ro
blers to present aligned gatings to one of said
tation from said second position, a fence for
fences being different from that which said tum
blers must assume to present aligned gatings to 35 controlling the said locking means, said tumblers
having gatings into which said fence enters to
another of said fences, a detent spring pressed
move into release position, and means whereby
into locking position relatively to said key plug
when said fence is in release position it effects the
to prevent the release rotation of said key plug
maintenance of said lockingimeans out of locking
from said second position, means whereby said
position relatively to said key plug.
"
detent is maintained against movement to lock
33. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
ing position until said tumblers are key set by
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having
rotation of said key plug and key, and means
a keyway, a series of tumblers movably mounted
whereby any one of said fenses when moved to
relatively to said key plug and adapted for set
release position through entry into aligned gat
ings, effects the holding of said detent out of Li ting by a key in said‘ plug keyway upon rotation
of said key plug and key from an initial posi
locking position upon continued rotation of said
tion to a second position, each of said tumblers
key plug.
havingr a plurality of gatings, a plurality of fences
30. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
movably mounted relatively to ‘said tumblers, and
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having a
each movable independently toward a release
keyway, a series of tumblers movably mounted ,
position when said series of tumblers is placed in
relatively to said key plug and adapted for set
predetermined alignment relatively thereto, the
ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation
predetermined alignment to release one of said
of said key plug and key from an initial position
fences for movement being different from that
to a second position, each of said tumblers having
required torelease another one of said fences
a plurality of gatings, a plurality of fences each
for said movement, locking means for effecting
adapted to enter aligned gatings of said tumblers
the locking of said key plug against release ro
incidental to movement of said fences into release
tation beyond said second position, and means
position, the composite positioning of said tum
whereby any one of said fences when in release
blers to present aligned gatings to one of ‘said
fences being different from that which said tum 00 position effects the maintenance of said locking
‘means out of locking position relatively to said
blers must assume to present aligned gatings to
key plug.
another of said fences, a detent spring pressed
34. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
into locking position relatively to said key plug to
a key plug rotatable on said cylinder and having
prevent the release rotation of said key plug
a keyway, a series of tumblers movably mounted
from said second position, means whereby said or; relatively
to said key plug and adapted for set
detent is maintained against movement‘ to lock
ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation
ing position until said tumblers are key set by
of said key plug and key from an initial position
,rotation of said key plug and key, the end of any
to
a second position. locking means for effecting
one of said fences when moved into release posi
the
locking of said key plug against release ro
tion through entry into aligned gatings effect-ing '
tation from said second position, a fence for con
the holding of said detent out of locking position
trolling the said locking means, ‘said tumblers
upon continued rotation of said key plug.
having gatings into which said fence enters to
, 31. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
move into release position, means whereby when
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having
, said fence is in release position it effects the
a keyway, ‘a series of tumblers movably monnted
13
2,411,433
maintenance of said locking means out of locking
position relatively to said key plug, and said lock
ing means holding said fence away from said
tumblers until after said key plug and key have
rotated to set said tumblers.
35. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder and having
a keyway, a series of tumblers movably mounted
position by the key plug until after rotation of
said key plug toward said second position, said
detent having a holding surface whereby it may
be held against movement to its limiting posi
tion when released by the key plug, tumblers
adapted for setting by a key in the keyway of
said key plug, and tumbler controlled elements
movable into holding relation to said holding
surface.
relatively to said key plug and adapted for set
ting by a key in said plug keyway upon rotation 10
37. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
of said key plug and key from an initial position
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder, a detent
to a second position, each of said tumblers hav
for limiting the rotation of said key plug from a
ing a plurality of gatings, a plurality of fences
release position to a second position, a spring
mounted relatively to said tumblers and each
pressing said detent into its limiting position,
adapted to enter aligned gatings of said tumblers
means whereby said detent is held out of its lim
incidental to movement of said fences into re
iting position by the key plug until after rotation
lease position, the composite positioning of said
of said key plug toward said second position, said
tumblers to present aligned gatings to one of said
detent having a plurality of holding surfaces
fences being different from that which said tum
whereby it may be held against movement to its
blers must assume to present aligned gatings to
limiting position when released by the key plug,
another of said fences.
tumblers adapted for setting by a key in. the key
36. In a lock of the class described, a cylinder,
way of said key plug, and tumbler controlled ele
a key plug rotatable in said cylinder, a detent
ments movable into holding relation to said hold
for limiting the rotation of said key plug from
a release position to a second position, means 25
whereby said detent is held out of its limiting
ing surfaces.
THEODORE H. JOHNSTONE.
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