MEASURING DEVICE Filed Feb. 26, 1945 2 90 v 4 65 ' /00 72 ®® _ [l2 ' 63 6 94 77; _Zi-jig. 1H. 32 /40 80 82g a - - “5 l“ ~ 159.13. /V‘ +100 ` lNvENToRs ATTORNEY.v 2,411,513 PatentedNov. 26, 1946 «UNITED STA-rss PATENT OFFICE _ y2,411,513 MEASURING DEVICE Jacques Bergier, Alfred Eskenazi, and André Helbronner, Lyon, France; vested in the Alien Property Custodian Application February 26, 1943, Serial No. 477,311 10 Claims. (Cl. 177-380) 1 2 25, 26, 43, 44, 45 (which can make contact with The present invention relates to an emitter of electrical impulses actuated by an automatic pat a surface connected with the + pole of a. battery) are used to signal the changes of scale in the model, and the inversion points ,of the curve. In this form of the invention, an impulse from tern-following apparatus. The present device produces electrical impulses which are all identical (in duration, voltage and amperage of the ldirect current involved). The the controlled machine 'enters at point 32 and passes through the circuit comprising wires ||5 and I I6 and magnet 4, causing pawl 5 to advance to the movement of a scanning or exploring de the ratchet 5a, the contactor 82, the pattern drum vice with reference to a pattern to be followed. 8|, and the pattern sheet 63a. The contacter 10 The pattern-following devices themselves, of 82 is constructed similar to the contacter 11, dis course, are already well-known and the inven closed in Fig. 1A, and also similar to the con tion consists in a new use of these devices in tactor shown in copending application Serial No. association with electrical contactors. 477,310. In other words, the contact series 82a Fig. 1 shows the use in combination of a photo electric pattern-following device and a contacter 15 of contactor 82 has equally spaced insulating seg ments | |8 inserted in the periphery thereof, the accordance to the `present invention. spaces between the segments being formed from Fig. 1A is a schematic view showing the dif number of said impulses is directly proportional ferent contactor series. conductive material. « electrical pattern-follower disclosed in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 shows the use in combination, accord ing to the present invention, of a pattern-fol lowing device using a curve forming the boundary between a conducting and an insulated area, and of an emitter of electrical impulses. Fig. 1 shows, for instance, the use for the pur poses of the present invention of a photoelec trical pattern-follower. The curve 63 to be fol ' As the contactor 82 is rotated, the circuit com Fig. 1B is an enlarged detail view of the photo 20 prising wire |22, ring- |23, contact series 82a, brush |20, and wire |2| is interrupted each time the brush |20 passes over an insulation insert H8, thereby emitting impulses at point 33 pro portional in number to the movement of the pat ~tern sheet 63a relative to the focaliser. These impulses are associated lwith the longitudinal coordinate axis of the curve. If a spot of light from focalizer 68 falls on the reflecting surface 64 of sheet 63a, the relay lowed separates a reflecting surface 64 from a comprising cell blackened surface 65. The two photocells 66 and 30 `69 will be energized by circuits 61, wire conduit 90, amplifier 10, wires 9| and 61 receive the light from the focalizer 60, which 92 and ground |00,- thereby connecting switch projects a spot of light on the curve 63. For ex contact 93 with 93a, and |04 with |04a, and dis ample, the focalizer 68 may be constructed so that connecting 93 from 93h. At the same time the the light from source 68a (Fig. 1B) will pass relay 1| will be energized by circuits comprising through lens system 68h and be focused into a cell 66, wire conduit 94, amplifier 12, wires 95 and spot upon sheet 63a. The photocells 66 and 61 96, and ground |00, thereby connecting switch may likewise be arranged so that the cells are Contact |02 with.|02a, and disconnecting contact focused upon adjacent halves of the light spot. 91 from 91a. With the relays 69 and 1| thus The curve unrolls under the spot by means of energized, the circuit comprising wire 99, clutch a drum on which it is ñxed and which is driven 40 13, wire 10|, contacts |02, |02a, wire |03, con by a clutch 18 cooperating with a brake 19, said tacts |04, |0411, wire |05, and ground |00 will be clutch 18 being disposed in a circuit designated closed; and the clutch 13 will then -rotate mi by elements |00, |66, |61, |69 and |10. The crometer screw 16 in the proper direction to ad brake 19 is disposed in the circuit designated by Vance focalizer 63 to the right. While the focal elements |65, |66,l |68 and |00. The relay 80, vizer is advancing to the right, the circuit through energized at the .same time as the brake 15, co clutch 14, comprising wires |01, |08 and |09 will ordinates the motion of the focalizer |58` with ` that of the drum carrying the curve 63, in such be broken at 93, 93h, and therefore clutch 14 l will be disconnected. a way that the drum 8| on which the curve is When the focalizer B8 moves to the right far fixed only rotates when the spot is directed upon 50 enough to permit the spot of light to be centered the curve. If the apparatus shown is used to upon the'curve, the relay 1| will be cut off since - control a reproducing metal working machine, light will not. be reflected onto cell 66, and then . it may become necessary to send special signals to cc itacts 91 and 91a will engage each other to put into reverse the organs of the controlled ma chine- when a bend in the followed curve is 55 complete the circuit through the brake 15, which in turn, will prevent rotation of screw 16 while reached, or when the slope -of the tangent to the the spot of light >is on the curve. The brake cir curve inverts itself relative to the path of move cuit comprises wire ||0, brake 15, wire |||, con ment of the followed curve. Otherwise, the curve tacts 91, 91a, wire |12, contacts 93, 93a, wire |09 traced by the reproducing machine would be the reverse of the desired curve. Therefore, brushes 60 and ground |00. 2,411,513 On the contrary, if the spot of light falls on the blackened surface 65, neither of the relays 63 and ‘1| is energized, yand the focalizer 68 is moved to the left by the clutch ‘ld until the light spot is back on the curve. In other words, the circuit designated by numerals |01, |08, 93, 93h, |09 and y|00 for clutch 14 will be in normally closed posi tion, while the previously described circuit for clutch T3 is interrupted at> |02, |02a, and at |06, 4 The latter contacts close the circuit comprising brush |26, ring |21, series Tlc, brush |60, wire |51, contacts |36, |35, wire |36, and thus trans mit the impulses produced by series ‘Hc at point 30. ' . Therefore, it is apparent that a first series of impulses corresponding to the longitudinal coor dinates of the curve is emitted by contactor l‘l driven by the screw ‘i6 through a transmission. |0011. The circuit for brake 15 will also be inter 10 Also a second series of impulses corresponding to rupted at 93, 93a. It is therefore apparent,~ that the other coordinate is emitted by the other con the clutch ‘lfil will rotate the screw i6 in the prop tactor 82 driven by the axle of drum 8|. er direction to move the focalizer 68 to the left Fig. 2 shows a device which is quite similar in until the spot of light reaches the curve. principle, but in which the relays 69 and ll, in When the spot of light from the focalizer is> 10 stead of being controlled by photocells are ener exactly on the curve, the cell 6l receives light, gized by brushes travelling on a surface in which while the cell 66 is in the dark. The relay 59 is the curve to be followed ’forms the boundary be then energized through amplifier ‘.iû, while relay tween a conducting surface 83 connected to the ll is not energized. Such being the case, the cir + pole of a battery and an insulated surface 84|. cuit -for clutch ‘1d will be broken at 63, 33h; and 20 The two brushes 35 and 66 are very near one to the circuit for clutch 'i3 will be broken at |02, another, the distance between them being slight 602e, and as a result the focalizer will.remain ly greater than the width of the boundary line. stationary with the spot centered upon the curve. When the two brushes are on the left of the The micrometer screw ‘i6 actuates a contactor boundary line, the two relays 69 and il are ex 77 for emitting impulses proportional in numberY 25 cited and,~ as has been already explained con to the amplitude of movement of focalizer 68 cerning Fig. l, the brushes are moved to the right along screw 16. Contactor Tl is divided into (by magnetic clutches not shown in Fig. 2). three series lla, 11b, and Tlc (Fig. 1A), and each When the brush 05 is on the insulated area and ` series comprises a plurality of equally spaced con the brush 86 is on the conducting one (i. e. When ductive surfaces arranged> on the periphery of 30 the boundary line is situated between the two the contactor and separated by insulation inserts brushes), the brake stops the screw 'i6 and the || 8. The number of contacts in each series is synchronization relay 80 allows the curve to un different, and impulses are emitted through only roll under the brushes. If this motion brings one series at a time. the two brushes on the insulating surface, then In the position of the focalizer shown in Fig. 1 35 the two relays 69 and ‘il being cut off, the brush the impulses are being emitted through series 'lla es 85 and 86 will be driven to the left until they as the screw '16 is rotated. Each time the brush again straddle the curve. The brake then acts on |25 passes over an insulation insert in series lla the screw 76 and the- synchronization relay 80 a circuit is interrupted and impulses are emitted will again drive the drum 8|. The same devices at point 30, said circuit comprising brush |26, 40 for signalling the change in scale as that shown ring |21, series 11a, brush |25, wire |28, contacts in Fig. 1 are used. |29, |30, wire |32. contacts |33, |36, wire |36 and We claim: point 30. 1. In an automatic curve follower, a curve Where the radius of curvature is sharp, it is following device, means for producing relative often necessary to change the scale of the pattern 45 movement between said device and said curve in this region; therefore it becomes necessary to along one axis, means for producing relative vary at will the number-of impulses emitted per movement between said device and said curve unit of curve length along one axis. _ Under such along an axis transversely of said ñrst named conditions, it is necessary to change-over from axis, means for forcing said device to follow series 'lla to series 'llb or Tlc. Along a length on the pattern sheet 63a cor responding to the place where the number of im pulses per unit length Ais to be varied, conductive 50 said curve during said axial movements, a plu- rality of series of impulse means, each series having a different number of contacts therein and being simultaneously operable at the same speed with relation to the device to emit im are connected to the -positive pole of a battery. The adjacent portions of the sheet which slide 55 pulses proportional in number to the unit of movement of said device along one' of said axes, underneath brushes 25 and 26 are covered with and means operable during the movement along insulating varnish. said other axis for automatically selecting any When the sheet 63a is advanced until area |00 one of said series for operation. is disposed beneath brush 25, a relay circuit com Y areas |60 and lill are provided, and these areas ' 2. In an automatic curve follower, a curve prises, area |40, brush 25, wire |55, relay 2l, and 60 following device, means for producing relative Wire |46 will be completed' to thereby energize movement between said device and said curve relay 21 and thus cause contacts | 30, | 3| to be along one axis, means for producing relative connected, while contacts |29, |30 are discon movement between said device and said curve nected. The connection of contacts | 30, |3| will complete a circuit comprising brush |48, wire |05, 65 along an axis transversely of said ?lrst named axis, means for forcing said device to follow contacts |30, |3I, wire |32, contacts |33, |36, wire said curve during said axial movements, a plu |36 to thereby emit impulses produced by series rality of series of impulse means, each series 11b at point 30. In a similar manner, when area |4| moves be 70 having a different number of equally spaced con tacts and being simultaneously operable at the neath brush 26, a circuit comprising area Ml, same speed with relation to the device to emit brush 26, wire |50, relay 29, and wire |5| will be impulses proportional in number to the unit of completed, and thus relay 29 will be energized. movement of said device along one of said axes, The energized relay 29 will then disconnect con ‘ means controlled by themovement along said tacts |33, |34 and connect contacts |34 and |35. 75 other- axis for'operating at least two of said afname series in succession, and a second impulse means for emitting impulses proportional in number to the movement along said other axis. 3. In an automatic curve follower, a curve following device, means for producing relative movement between said device and .said curve along one axis, means for producing relative movement between said device and said curve contacter for emitting impulses proportional in number to the amplitude of the motion oi the optical system along said iirst named axis, and means controlled by the movement along the second axis for varying the number or’ impulses emitted per unit of movement. '1. A device according to claim 6 wherein sig nal means are provided, said signal means being controlled by the movement along the second along an axis transversely of said first named axis, means for forcing said device to follow said 10 axis and being operable upon said light spot reaching a point on said curve where the slope curve during ysaid axial movements, impulse of the tangent relative to said ñrst axis is in means actuated by said device to emit impulses proportional in number to the movement along one of said axes, and means controlled by the movement along said other axis for varying the number of impulses emitted by said impulse means per unit of movement along said first axis. ’ - 4. In an automatic curve follower, a curve' verted. ' ’ ‘ _ 8. In an automatic curve follower, a sheet having a curve thereon, said curve forming the boundary between a conducting and insulated surface, a rotating drum upon which said sheet is wound, an electrical contact for engaging said sheet and mounted for movement along one following device, means for producing relative 20 axis, means for unwinding said sheet to produce relative movement between said contact and said movement between said device and said curve sheet along a second axis transverse to said along one axis, means for producing relative first axis, means for forcing said contact to movement between said device and said curve. follow said curve during said axial movements, along another axis transversely of said ñrst axis, means for forcing said device to follow said curve 25 means for emitting impulses proportional in number to the movement of said contact along during said axial movements, a plurality of se said ñrst axis, and means controlled by the movement of said sheet along said other axis for varying the number of impulses per unit of device during the movement of the latter aloner j one of _said axes, each of said series having a 30 movement. 9. In an automatic curve follower, a sheet different number of equally spaced contacts to having a curve thereon, said curve forming the emit electrical impulses proportional in number boundary between a conducting and an insulated to the unit of movement along said last-named surface, a rotating drum upon which said sheet axis, means controlled by the movement along ries of electrical contacts actuated simultane ously at the same speed with relation to the said other axis for selectively operating each of 35 is wound, a pair of spaced electrical contacts for engaging said sheet and mounted for movement along one axis, means for unwinding said sheet impulses proportional in number to the move .to produce relative movement between said con ment along said other axis. said series, and an impulse means for emitting 5. In an automatic curve follower, a curve following device, a rotatable'micrometer screw 40 supporting said device for movement back and forth along one axis, means for moving said curve along a> second axis transversely of said Vfirst named axis, means for forcing said device to follow said curve during said axial move 45 ments, impulse means actuated by said mi crometer screw for emitting impulses propor tional ,in number to the back and forth move ment of said device along the first named axis, and means controlled by the movement along 50 the second axis for varying the number of ini pulses emitted by the impulse means per unit of movement along the first axis. 'tacts and said sheet along a second axis trans- À verse to' said ilrst axis, means for forcing said spaced contacts to straddle said curve during said axial movements, a plurality of individually operable impulse means for respectively emitting a plurality of series of impulses differing in fre duency from one another and proportional in number to the unit of movement of said spaced contacts along said first axis, and means con trolled by the movement of said sheet along said other axis for successively operating said impulse means one at a time. lo. In an. automatic curve follower, a curve following device, a rotatable micrometer screw supporting said device for movement back and forth along one axis, means for moving said 6. In an automatic curve follower, a sheet having a curve thereon, said curve forming the 55 curve along a second axis transversely of said ?lrstnamed axis, means for forcing said device 'to follow said curve during said axial movements, a plurality of series of equally spaced electrical system for projecting a spot of light from said contacts cooperating with said micrometer source onto said sheet, a rotating drum upon screw, the number of contacts in each of said which said sheet` is wound, means for unwind series diñering from the other and being simul lng said sheet to produce relative movement be taneously movable at the same speed with rela tween said spot of light and Ísaid curve along tion to the device to emit electrical impulses one axis, means for moving said optical system proportional in number to the unit or“ movement `and associated light spot relative to said sheet along an axis transversely of said ñrst named 65 of said device along said first axis, and means controlled by the movement along the second axis, a photo cell arrangement for receiving the axis for successively operating said series one at reflections of said spot from said sheet, means boundary between a light-reflecting and a light absorbing surface, a source of light, an optical controlled by said arrangement for forcing the spot of light to follow the curve during the move ments of said sheet and system along said axes, 70 a contacter driven by the moving means for said optical systems, means cooperating with said a time. J. BERGIER. A. ESKENAZI. A. HEIBRQNNEP».