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Patented Nov. 26, ‘1946
2,411,580
"UNITED "STATES PATENT);oF-nce1_
Willard. 0. Manor, Monroe, . Mich., assignor to
1 Consolidated Paper Company, Monroe, Mich., a
I _
corporation of Michigan . ,
No Drawing. Application'S'eptember 30,
.
.
I
7
Serial No. 504,383
‘1943,
-
2
for the purposeasought.h
This invention relates to shielding, protecting
and coating walls, more particularly of ?ber-‘like
,
y
.
In thisibuildéup'for the
M Thisinvention.hasutility when incorporated in
solids of the starch and ?lm-forming plastic, such
may be 7# each with say 200# of water. ‘This’
thin gruel direct Water solution, desirably as a
methods of compounding, and applying, and also
in ingredients of compositions and their associ
trait or softness characteristic imparted thereto
ation, especially with‘referenceto ?ber typesfof ‘
containers with an undercoating for a barrier.
by some 20# of glycerine. The pliancy or soft-.
ness in achieving this nondrying factor for this
containers.
‘
.
v
batch, may have a ‘tempering, or water-holding
tough characteristic may be attained for the plasg
between the contents and the wall. The primary
course herein is laying of athin?lm, desirably 10 ticvof the coating composition by the use, in lieu
ofqglycerine, of, di-ethylene glycol, tri-ethylene
of elastic or stretchable properties having tough
glycol, or sulphonated oil, say of the castor type,
This proportion of the tempering agent, when in
the "region of 20# in the 214# proportion sug
The skin andundercoating mayserve as a re
sponsive severing means to effect isolation be 15 gested, is of commercial economy. However, as
there may be longer storage period or other fac-'
tween the wall and- contents. The container
tors, suchxas the character of the calendering or
proper may be, in itsuuse, not primarily for re?ll
facing for the ?ber, variation may be adopted.
service. In such latter instances the material
In fact, as much as 40# of tempering agent or;
may be ?ber developed from rag, paper, grass,
,-; I _
straw, or wood pulp, and compositions therewith, '20 plasticizer has been used. . ,
This composition of starch, plastic and-“tem
in the general class of ?ber board, paper board, ‘
ness in maintaining askinfupon ,a container wall
or undercoating.
’
,
'.
box board, and the like. __
'
"
h
‘
.
'
pering agent, has .but slight absorption proper
v .
As tothe coatings‘ or coating. materials, special
value has been developed in features oftoughnessv
ties as to ‘penetration of the ?ber board or wall 7
to be coated. It has non-crumbling properties of .'
containers. In this blanking, there may be‘scor
ing and marking or cutting. Under this inven—.
hbruslnidipping o'r'roll coating, may be only just
orelasticity. . In this type of compressible ?ber 25 viscosity as well as retained elasticity e?ective as‘
the tempering is a property thereof. In vpractice,
board stock, such . is frequently-blanked out and
it seems to extend as a very thin ?lm or skin.
sent in knocked-down shape to be built up into
The extent thereof in applying, whetherby spray,
tion the coating may be applied at or before the 3.0 sufficient to'e?ect the continuity for. such coating‘.v
blanking operation and be eilicient in the, assem
blyv of the blank into a container even as to the
corners where‘ there has beenvscoring or folding,
.. This ?lm coating continuity is an isolating
' agent effecting dissipating of attack upon the
well due to the ‘contents. . In'the instance of._sev
ering from the contents, ‘iwhenl'of a non-tacky
The purpose of the coating is to isolate the
charged contents ormaterial from attackingthe 35 nature, altho molten or at a'high temperature
as ?lled into the container, thev coating may t'oa
container. The contents may be hygroscopic, a
major extent go with the wall, insteadIof adhering
solvent, vapongrease or oil.
‘
.
>
Additional problems arise in the handling of - with or becoming a part of the contents. In the
instance that the contents are edible,‘ these‘ are
hot substances. The substance to be placed in
the containermay have seemingly no a?inity for 40 matters tobe givenattention,» However, due to
the, very thin character of this ?lm, it is of such
the container, or be ‘readily fracturable there
incredibly minor proportion "as 'to be not in the
from, asparaf?ne wax. Again, it may be a sub- .
realm for consideration as an adulterant or con
stance having tacky or adhesive traits as asphalt.
" tamination of. the (container contents " when, in
The contents of the container as reposing or so
removal,’ this film be'associated with such conev
lidifying may .or may not tend to hold the. con
' tainer to shape. ‘ Should such contents normally
tents.
'.
>>
"
..
'
~
.
.
~
?lm on an undercoating.‘ The unde'rcoating co
its container walls ‘as to be effective for such hold
ins 1.30 Shape- K
-.
El?icient isolation between the container and its
contents is achieved by locating this'stretchable
tendnotto hold to shape, the containeradopted
hereunder maybe} offsuch‘vphysical strength in
50
With 50% starch, as Casava, there may be an
equal‘quantity, or 50% of a ?lm-forming chemi
cal. “These areinthe ?elds of resins, or resin- ‘
like. materials, vandinvthe‘ cellulose group from
operatesv as'a dam oribarrier comprising aV-dis
persion of a powder-like material, preferably very
?ne andto have it effective in continuity. ~ How
ever, .ef?cient results in the non-food ?eld have
been obtained with ?ne clays or silicates, such as
. _. polyvinyl alcohol and’ including methyl cellulose. 55
kaolin. This under-coating is wiped, laid, sprayed
In this-compounding,referredto asequal quan
tities,‘ there 'may. ‘be ayariation in the starchy
or rolled, say in association with Water'or a glue
agent, and thereby anchored through theaction
substancespf as-much as one1-half,5and-;up1to
100%. of the ?lm, forming. material without starch.
The'jtraits to be‘ considered fare'those :of economy.
of this ?lm-carrying overcoating.
» .
Instead of elementally handling engender
coating as merelythe kaolin and thev glue- and.‘
2,411,580
3
4
water vehicle therefor, supplemental traits of ad
vantage may be achieved in e?icient dispersion
thru the medium of a low grade karaya gum of
When an additional or undercoating be desired,
such may be
Kaolin
265#
high viscosity. This gum has been used in quan
titles and range from 5%# to 7#. In fact, in
stead of this karaya gum, gum arabic or gum
tragacanth may answer; but commercially there
has been advantage in the karaya type. This ad
vantage arises from its great rate of water solu
bility. With a charge or quantity of gum, there 10
may be mixed therewith a carbonate. For this
solution there may be 150# of water. The carbonate, when an ammonium bicarbonate, seems
among the carbonates to contribute to a greater
7
extent in smoothing out the mix and holding
such for a maintained high degree of ?uidity.
‘This proportion for the carbonate may be taken
as 13%#. At times there are variations in the
gum, and this quantity of the carbonate has been
increased and decreased as much as 50%.
With this ‘under-coating of viscosity or water
carrying traits established in a degree of sta
bility for smoothness, further advantage arises
from incorporating an adhesive therewith. For
commercial purposes, a low grade animal glue
may be taken, and its proportion may be 13%#,
that is, in the quantity adopted for the am
monium bicarbonate. The glue, dissolved in the
Water _______________________________ __
90#
Gum, as karaya ______________________ __ 5%#
Carbonate, as ammonium _____________ __ 13%#
Glue _______ _l _______________________ __
13%#
and may have
Glycerine ____________________________ __ 511/2#
Sodium nitrate _______________________ __ 51/2#
Pigment, as carbon black _____________ __
8#
Sodium benzoate _____________________ __
1%
Tetra-sodium~pyro-phosphate ________ __
1. 3#
thinned with water to the consistency desired
for applying.
, The clay powder or under-coating in its nature
is porous, as distinguished from the ?lm-form
ing 'overcoatin-g being impervious. Furthermore,
the ?lm-forming overcoating has a property of
adherence. The interposition of the powder ma
terial undercoating thereby provides a support
for the ?lm-forming overcoating and hereunder
is desirably sufficient in the proportions to isolate
the ?lm-forming overcoating from the wall, due
to the continuity of the undercoating.
An instance of ‘practical range for coverage,
water, may have its lplasticizing traits or proper
may betaken as to a container for asphalt. The
ties increased hereunder by the inclusion of say 30 area for one side, say of a ream of ?ber board
51/2# of sodium nitrate therewith. While these
24” x 36”—a total of 2880 sq. ft.—may have
proportions for the adhesive, sodium nitrate, glue
the clay add to the weight of the board as much
and water are suggested as 13%# of the glue
In practice this runs around 184%.
as to like quantity for the ammonium bicar
The ?ber board itself varies over quite a range,
bonate, such may vary with or away from the 35 according to the volume of asphalt. For l0#
carbonate.
'
of asphalt, the container Wall may run .020" to
.040", or say from 2201? to 440# per ream. When
Furthermore, in this primary or undercoating,
there ‘may be adopted retaining .traits against
the container is to carry 400# of asphalt, the
ready fracture. This tempering or water-carry
?ber board thickness may run .050" to .100", or
ing or retaining quality, which may even go to the 40 weigh from 560# to 1120# per ream. The clay
extent of increasing the Water-carrying or mix
undercoating for one side would thus run say 18#
ing values, is attained'thru glycerine, which may
to'the ream, whether for the thin or heavier ?ber
be in the quantity of 511/2#. For such tempering ‘
board._ The ?lm-forming overcoating would run
agent, sulphonated oils, of which sulphonated
l# to '2# per ream.
castor oil may be preferred, may be adopted with 45
The functioning in all instances is to the end
that there is ‘non-adherence and non-contami
nation between the material of the container and
the quantity in the range of 45#.
There may
even be variation ‘up and down of 5% or more,
as well as with the glycerine.
With this gum dispersed thru the carbonate and
nitrate treated adhesive as a vehicle or carrier
including the glycerine or tempering agent, there
may be introduced the clay or kaolin, 265#, even
with an additional 90# of water. The purpose
had with this clay is that such may be the ?ller
or body and be of ?ne particle size or texture.
The quantity of water may have its variation for
the desired degree of spreadability and be suf
?cient in the viscosity range for the ingredients,
as for dip, spraying, brush painting or roll coat
the container walls. In the practice hereunder,
even from heat of the contents, the container
wall is immune from or resistant to attack by
the contents.
The water dispersed clay has such clay run in
solids, say from 40% to 60%, in the suspension
mixture, with ingredients in solution to provide
adhesive properties in body and effectiveness, rel
atively minor as to the clay, but with the adhe
sive traits at least just sufficient to establish a
bonding mounting for the clay. This is in real
ity only a temporary characteristic for the bond
ing.
'
(K) ing or holding action and is possessed as the coat
Upon pouring a charge of hot material into the
ing is at ?rst applied. For speed advantage in
container coated with the barrier or dam and
manufacture, it’ has been found that this single
having thereon for the ?lm substance a resin,
undercoating has its continuity better established
in two applications. These may be in relatively
non-adhesive or di?ering from the traits of as
phalt, the severance may result in approximately
close succession to range for the total clay some
all of each of the coatings or residue thereof go
5# per 1000‘ sq. ft. of surface.
Immediately thereafter, and while this under
ing with the container.
Example of ?lm coating:
coating is still alive in its adherent property;
that is, before any crumbling away has occurred;
Starch material _______________________ __
70 an overcoating is, applied. This overcoating skin
Plastic ?lm-forming material __________ __
7#
or ?lm, in some practice may be complete for the
Water ________________________________ __ 200#
job. However, more efficient results are achieved
in association with the major volume undercoat
and may have
ing. The traits of this ?lm are continuity against
Tempering agent __________________ _l___‘__ 20# 75 rupture. "Commercial advantages as developed
, 2,411,580
5
6
hereunder extend not only to polyvinyl alcohol,
asphalt fOr'SllCll gauge of ?berboard. In such
but to celluloses or" methyl ‘cellulose type, pro
teins of casein and mazein types. In getting away
instance the clay may run from 51;‘: to '7# per
60% methyl cellulose. The proportion has been
I as gum arabic and gum tragacanth, the skin-de
veloping body in the starch association brings
therewith physical problems. A de?nite com
parison is the fact that with methyl cellulose such
may be used in su?icient quantity at 1A.;# per 1000
sq. ft. of surface. For comparable results as to
I the tough ?lm and continuity, the experience
is for up to 2# of the proteins and 5# and more
.
,
.
1000 sq. ft. and the starch-methyl cellulose ll/iyt-t
per 1000 sq. ft. in which the latter ?lm coat is
from the celluloses by the proteins toward gums,
of the gum.
,
used successfully with 5# of clay per 1000 sq. ft.
for‘the undercoating and 1/2# starch-methyl cel
m
inert- clay body as the ‘barrier. In this embodi
ment, the absence of a moisture- or water vapor
Y The ?lm or thin skin overcoating has physical
ing of the wall for inside or outside corner, as
well as scoring. This holding trait and elasticity,
not only are e?ective against its rupture in nor
?lm and adhesives of the character of gum or.
.glue, there remains the undercoating relatively
y
strength for continuity and distortion by fold
lulose for 1000 sq. ft. for the overcoating. With
the'hot asp-halt acting to vaporize or destroy the
barrier, e?lciently permits a sort of vapor breath
15 ing to‘ avoid any entrapment .01" void cluster
regions. The coatings as applied are of ?uidity
tov be ready flowing mixtures or solutions, with
entire absence of tacky or jelling characteristics. v
mal carton handling practice, but the undercoat
From the foregoing, the subject-matter disclosed
ing is anchored against crumbling away from the 20 herein relates to a container wall'comprising an
wall. The overcoating su?iciently seals that its
film strength allows of collapsed carton storage,
outer layer of ?brous material and an inner dual
coating layer impermeable to asphaltum, bonded
even for months, and with evaporation as to -
to but severable from said ?brous layer, said
inner dual coating layer comprising a ?rst major
the undercoating limited to thruthe wall body,
even when such wall be ?ber, it is very material
ly retarded, and may be further slowed down by
25
body undercoating of water-dispersed clay and
su?icient adhesive that this ?rst undercoating
a waterproo?ng coating on the converse or outer
‘ may isolate the second coating from the Wall,
side of a ?berboard wall. The characteristic of
and said second continuous lesser-body-carrying
?uidity in applying the undercoating due to am—'
coating agent thereon of organic resin-like mate
monium carbonate, may be in some measure taken 30 rial, independent of emulsion with water, possess-J
care of by other carbonate, especially of the al
ing a, characteristic for thin ?lm spreading in di—
kali type as sodium or potassium. In the selection
of ingredients or materials, costs, as to ef?ciency,
are factors controlling.
'
The course adopted by applicant has shown
advantages in compensating for, or rather per
mitting volatilizatiom or some vapor escape.
In
those instances where the container is to‘ take
rect water solution over the less thin ?rst under
coating and with such cohesive consistency to
maintain the clay as a dam effectually spacing the
35 ?lm from the ?brous body thruout the extent of
the wall during hot charging thereon of as
phaltum, 'for wall severability thereafter from
the solidi?ed asphaltum. Importance resides in
water solubility characteristics of methyl cellu
a charge as hot ?lled; that is, above the boiling
point of water, as say hot asphalt at 300° F., en 40 lose in its use with starch in providing the or-'
training or trapping, of the vapors would tend to ‘ ganic resin-like material of the second lesser
produce blisters at or in the wall and foaming
'
body-carrying coating.
or voids in the contents. Herein, the starch and
It is to be noted that'the coatings as e?ective
methyl cellulose or other solution of the‘over
to retain asphalt and the like, have oil proof and
coating ?lm or skin, tends to pass off at the high 45 grease proof resistant qualities. However, due
temperature. This it is freeto. do thru the por
to the use of water suspensions and solutions for I
ous clay body of the undercoating. The under
carrier or spreadability traits in applying, there is
coating adhesive is of such minor proportion as
some slight moisture present. The ?lm and wall
not to ?ll or seal the pores of the ?berboard. Ac
tend to slow up drying out. Somewhat di?erent
cordingly, the vapors generated by the hot as 50 rate is developed when hot charge of contents be
phalt do not come back into the asphalt, but
introduced into the container. This speeded up
thru and from the clay body pass into, thru and
drying out is a sort of exhaling from the container
from the ?berboard outer side, at a rate to avoid
bubbling or foaming of the asphalt, and still
This application is a continuation-in-part of
so distributed in the ?neness of exit ways as not 55 myPatent 2,333,023 for Container wall.
to weaken the container wall. Flow of the as
What is claimed and it is vdesired to secure by ‘
phalt is not to contact the wall inner side, for
Letters Patent is:
there is the inert clay barrier or wall.
A container wall comprising an outer layer of
With the container charged with the congeal
?brous material and an inner dual coating layer
ing asphalt, there is the physical strength of the 60 impermeable to asphaltum, bonded to but sever
?berboard wall suf?cient, at least at this setting
able from said ?brous layer, said inner dual coat
stage ‘for the contents, to hold the clay as a
ing layer comprising a ?rst major body under
sort of partition or barrier between the asphalt
coating of water-dispersed clay and suf?cient ad
and the ?berboard, even should the ?lm have ' hesive that this ?rst undercoating may isolate
disintegrated. ' The body of the clay is su?icient, 65 thesecond coating from the wall, and said second
wall.
in this inter-asphalt-and-?berboard compart
ment as to constitute a dam against attack of
'
.
continuous lesser-body-carrying coating agent
thereon of organic resin-like material of methyl
the ?berboard by the asphalt. As the asphalt
cellulose and starch, possessing a characteristic
congeals, the hardness of its solid state is suf
for thin ?lm spreading in direct water solution
?cient reinforcement .05" to .10" thickthat as 70 when applied over the less thin ?rst undercoating.
a drum it may have a capacity of up to 400# of
,
.
WILLARD O. MANOR.
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