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Nov. 26, 1946.
Filed July 16, 1940
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9 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Filed July 16, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Filed July 16, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Nov. 26, 1946.v
Filed July 16, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 4
Nov. 26, 1946.
Filed July 16, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 5
Nov. 26, 1946.
Filed July 16, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 6
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Filed July 16. 1940
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Patented Nov. 26, 1946
,Harold F; Elliott, Chicago, Ill.
’ Application July 16, 1940, Serial No. 345,762
4 Claims.‘ (Cl. 192-142)
I .
This invention relates to control apparatus and
in particular to‘an automatic tuning system for
’ Fig. 1 is a plan view of one embodiment of the
invention with parts thereof broken away for the
purpose of clarity;
Fig. 2 is an end elevational view looking toward
the right as viewed in Fig. 1, with parts thereof
ceiving apparatus.
broken away to show the driving system for the
A further object of this invention is to pro
rotary control means;
vide a physically compact tuning device, which
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary bottom view showing
is simple, inexpensive, efficient in operation and
the frequency changing means and its driving
of preassembled unit construction.
10 engagement with the rotary control means;
Another object of this invention is ‘to provide
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary bottom view of the
an electrical tuning system in which each of a
radio receiving apparatus.
It is an object of this invention to provide an
improved automatic tuning systemv for radio re
driving motor and its associated clutch assembly;
plurality of control units for driving a rotary
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary detailed sectional view
control shaft in operative engagement with fre
quency changing means, is constructed to move 15 of the driving end of the motor shaft;
7 Fig. 6 is a detail view, partly in section,,of the
the frequency changing‘ means through its entire
gear train for the rotary control units. This de
tuning range with a relatively low driving ratio
tail is illustrated as removed from the structure
to effect a precision‘tuning thereof.
of Fig. 1 and rotated toward the reader su?i
Another feature of this invention is the pro
ciently to show the shaft and gear relationship
vision of electrical tuning apparatus in which
more clearly;
the actuating magnets are‘ equally e?icient in
Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the rotary control
means showing the arrangement thereon of the
either A. C. or D. C. systems without the neces
sity of changing the pole structures thereof; the '
rotaryv control units;
structure operated by the magnets being assem
Fig. 8 shows an electric control circuit for the
bled in a manner to eliminate the ‘usual chatter 25 embodiment
of Fig. 1; ,
Fig. 9 is an end view illustrated similarly to
in an A. C. system. Similar magnets may thus
ing action of ‘the unshaded magnets when used
Fig. 2 showing a manually operated clutch unit
be used for‘ both'v types of systems whereby to
for the rotary control units;
further reduce the cost of the tuning apparatus.
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary view of the clutch
Yet ‘another feature of this invention is found 30 unit
in one of its operating positions;
in the provision of a tuning unit in which the
operating parts are arranged to form an integral '
part of the frame means for the unit.
Another feature of this invention is the provi
sion of a tuning device in which a manually ac 35
tuated clutch unit for connecting a rotary. control unit with a motor driven driving member is
arranged to close the energizing circuit of the
motor after its clutching operation,vwhereby to
immediately operate the control unit.
Yet another featureof this invention is the
provision of control apparatus in which a rotary
control shaft is rotated in either direction of ro
tation by a rotary control unit operated by a uni
directional motor.
A further feature of this invention is the pro
Fig. 11 is a view illustrated similarly to Fig. 10
showing the parts thereof in changed position; .
Fig. 12 is a somewhat diagrammatic illustra
tion of a control circuit for the tuning device of
Fig. 9;
Fig. 13 is an elevational view looking toward
theright as viewed in Fig. 9, with parts thereof
removed for the purpose of clarity;
Figs. 14-18, inclusive, are detail ‘showings of
the clutch unit illustrated in Figs. 10 and 11;
‘ Fig. 19 is a plan view of a modi?ed form of
the invention;
Fig. 20 is an elevational view as seen along the
45 line 20-20 in Fig. 19;
Fig. 21 is a fragmentary sectional view as seen
vision of control apparatus in which each of. a
along the line 2 |-2 I in Fig. 19;
plurality of control units for driving a rotary
Fig. 22 is a view illustrated similarly to Fig. 21
control shaft to a predetermined control position
showing the parts thereof in changed position;
is provided with an ‘operating motor, with the 50 Fig. 23 is a fragmentary detailed sectional view
motors being arranged in a common. control‘cir
taken approximately along the line 23—23 in
cuit for selective energization.
Further objects, features, and advantages of
this invention will become apparent from the fol
Fig. 24 is a fragmentary plan view of another
lowing speci?cation when ‘taken in connection 55 modi?cation of the invention;
Fig. 25 is a sectional view taken along the line
. with the accompanying drawings in which: I
,25—25 in Fig. 24;‘
being a gang condenser it is to be understood
that other frequency changing means may be
used with equal satisfaction. The motor 26 is
thus seen to be in driven engagement with the
condenser 63 through the mechanism above de
scribed, the extent of condenser rotation for tun
Fig. 26 is a detail view as seen along the line
26——26 in Fig. 24;
Fig. 21 is an enlarged fragmentary detail view
as seen along the line 21-21 in Fig. 26;
Fig. 28 is a fragmentary elevational view taken
along the line 28-28 in Fig. 21 showing merely
ing purposes being controlled by rotation of the
the pivoted arm and one stop;
control shaft 51 in a manner now to be described.
Fig. 29 is an enlarged fragmentary detail view
The control units 54 are similarly construct~
taken along line 29—29 in Fig. 26;
ed and are mounted in succession axially of the
Fig. 30 is a fragmentary elevational view as 10
control shaft 51 (Figs. 1 and '1).
seen along the line 30-36 in Fig. 29 showing the
pivoted arm at the stop at the opposite end of
the Operating range as compared with the posi
tion of Fig. 28;
Fig. 31 is an electric control circuit for the 15
.modi?ed embodiment of the invention shown in
Fig. 24; and
Fig. 32 is an electric control circuit for the
modi?ed embodiment of the invention shown in
Figs. 19-23, inclusive.
Referring to the drawings, the preselector unit
shown in Figs. 1, 3, and 4, is seen to include frame
larly extending shoulder portions 68. The bush
ings are broached on the inside thereof in con
formance with the ?ats 69 formed on the control
shaft 51, so as to be keyed to the shaft. Gear
65 and washers 1|, three in number, are freely
rotatable on the bushing 66; and gear 65' and
washers 12, also three in number, are freely ro
tatable on the bushing 61. The washers 1| and
12 are similar, the projections 13 and 14, respec
tively, formed thereon extending axially toward
means, having end plates 2| and 22, spaced
apart by lower tie rods 23 and an upper tie rod
Each unit in
clndes a pair of similar gears 65 and 65’ mount
ed on similar bushings 66 and 61 having annu~
each other.
The projections 13 and 14 are of a
25 length somewhat less than the thickness of the
24. A uni-directional driving motor 26 is mount
washers 12 and 13 so that the projections on ad
ed on the end plate 2| by supporting studs ex
jacent washers only are engageable. Thus on ro
tended through the laminated motor ?eld struc
tation of gear 65 the projection 16 integrally
ture 21. The motor is positioned away from plate
formed thereon engages the projection 13 on the
2| by spacers 28 and secured in place by nuts 29.
adjacent washer 1|, with the projections or
End 3| of the motor shaft 32 projects through the 30 ?ngers 13 on the remaining washers 1| being
plate 2| and has mounted thereon a clutch as
successively engaged on continued rotation of the
sembly 33, which includes a steel washer 34, a
gear 65 until a coupled engagement of the gear
spring washer 36, a pinion gear 31, a ?bre fric
65 is made with the radially extending projec
tion washer 38 and an assembly retaining bush
11 formed on a center washer or adjustable
ing 39. The shaft end 3|, as clearly shown in 35 collar member 18 arranged between the bush
Fig. 5, is of reduced section and is formed with
ings 66 and 61. Rotation of gear 65' provides for
a ?at 4| near the outer extremity thereof. The
shoulder portion 42 serves as a stop or abutment
for the washer 34 to de?ne the inner position of
the clutch assembly 33, with the flat portion 4|
frictionally engaging the set screw 46 of the re
a similar operation of the washers 12 into en
gagement with the projection 11, for a purpose
to be later explained. The member 18 is nor
mally freely rotatable on the control shaft 51.
so as to be adjustable to a predetermined posi
tion in correspondence with a particular control
clutch assembly 33 on the-motor shaft 32. Gear
position of the shaft. The adjusted position of
31 is in driven engagement with a gear 43 which
the member 18 is maintained by its frictional en
is mounted at one end of a supporting shaft 45
gagement with the adjacent ends of the bush—
for an elongated pinion .gear 44 (Figs. 1 and 2).
ings 66 and 61, as will be explained. The coupled
taining bushing 39 to positively maintain the
It is contemplated that gear 43 be of ?bre or other
like composition material.
Gear 43 rotates the
shaft 45 through a spring connection with a re
taining bushing 46.
engagement of both gears 65 and 65’ through ,
their respective washers 1| and 12 with the ad
justable collar member 18, de?nes the predeter
The looped end 41 of the 50 mined control position of the shaft, 51, as will be
coil spring 58 is connected to a friction screw 48
(Fig. l) which holds the bushing 46 in a ?xed
position relative to the pinion shaft 45. The op
posite end 49 of the spring is hooked into an ap
erture 5| formed in the face of the gear 43. The
spring connection of the gear 43 to the bushing
46 thus provides a ?exible drive between the mo
tor shaft 32 and the pinion gear shaft 45 and pre
later fully explained.
As shown best in Fig. 7, the portion of the con
trol shaft 51 carrying the pinion gear 58 is of en
larged section to form a shoulder 19 on the shaft.
A spacing member 8| keyed to the shaft 51 and
pressed against the shoulder 19 positions the con
trol units 54 and gear 58 away from the end plate
22 while a similar unit 82 spaces the control units
vents any possible “freezing” together of the
and a clamping unit 88 away from the end plate
clutch gears I I1 and 44 as will be explained later. 60 2|. In assembly, therefore, the spacers BI and
A steel washer 52 holds the gear 44 loosely upon
82 and units 54 are mounted on the reduced sec
hub 46 so that it is free to rotate relative to the . tion of the shaft 51 and strung'over the length
hub within the limit imposed by spring 50.
thereof in a proper assembly order prior to the
The elongated pinion gear 44 is arranged for
positioning of the shaft in the end plates 2| and
driving engagement with gear trains 53, one of 65 22. Conditioning of the units 54 to provide for a
which is provided for driving each of the rotary
control units 54.
The units 54 are mounted on a
rotary control shaft 51 which is rotatably sup
ported in the end plates 2| and 22. A gear 58
mounted on the shaft 51 near its end 59 is in op
erative engagement with a condenser gear 6|
predetermined positioning of the center washers
18 relative to the shaft 51 is accomplished by the
two washers 83 and 84 which have a spring washer
70 86 located therebetween. On separation of the
washers 83 and 84 the spring is released until
the control members 18 for each of the units 54
are permitted to rotate under but slight pressure
which is mounted on the condenser shaft 62 (Figs.
1 and 3). The condenser 63 is supported on the
from the spring 86 on the shaft 51, so as to be
end plate 22 by suitable screw means 64 or the
freely movable to an adjusted position, as will be
like. Although the condenser 63 is illustrated as
On a clamping together .of the,
washers 83 and 84 the bushings .66 and 61 in each
control unit are frictionally pressed toward each
other to engage opposite sides of the member .18, ‘
whereby to clamp theymember in the position
which it has at the time, of such engagement. The
clamping action of the washers .83 and 84 is con
trolled by manipulation of, a set screw 81 (Figs.
.through a distance de?ned-by its angular‘ move
ment between the pole‘ piece I08 and cushioned tie
rod 24 is su?icientto move the gear I" into and
out of engagement with the elongated pinion 44,
which, :as previously explained, iscommon to all
ofthe control units54. >
Each armature ' I06 and its ‘associated ‘pinion
II 1 thus functions asa clutch means for engaging
1 and 7) which is positioned in the thrust mem» » ‘ one of ‘the control-units :54 .withl'the‘elongated
ber or clamp 88. By virtue of the engagement of 10 pinion 44 through thegear train orpinion gears
pin 89 in the tapered slot9I formed in the mem
ber 88, adjustment of the set screw‘ 8‘! acts to
in continuous meshing engagement so- that an .7
move the member 88 away from or toward the
immediate rotation of the gears 66 and 65" is
92 and 93. The pinions 92; 93and III are always
control units 56 to control the action of the wash
ers 83 and 84 on the spring 86 in a manner whic
is clearly apparent.
, I
obtained‘ on engagement of thepinion II‘! with ‘
15 the elongated pinion 44. .A ?bre washer I I9 (Fig.
6) is ‘mounted about the shaft vS'Ibetween the
tie plate IM and adjacent armature I06 to sub
' The gears 65 and 65' are engageable with pin
ions 92 and 93, respectively, which are included in
stantiallyeliminate any vibratoryor chattering
each of the gear trains 53 for the units 54. The
action of this armature from being transmitted
pinions 92 and 93 are engageable with each other 20 into the frame means on operation of the magnet
and arranged so as to rotate the gears 65 and 65'
I09 in an A. C. system. Thisvibration insulating
in opposite directions on turning of either there
means is the only one necessary in the entire
of. The pinions 92 are axially aligned, and freely
assembly of theshaft 91' and its associated pinions
rotatable on a shaft-9|; each pinion 92 (Figs.- 1 : 92 andlarmatures I06. The magnets I09 are
and 6) is self-spacing and is formed with a spacer 25 mounted on a bracket member I23 (Fig. 1) so as
portion 94 and a toothed or gear portion 96, the
tobe substantially oppositeltheir corresponding
portion 94 being of a length to ‘position each of
armatures I06. Member I23 is supported on the
the toothed portions 96 substantially opposite a
end plates2l and 22 by suitable screw means
gear 65 for each of ‘the control units 54. Assem
I20 or the like. A terminal panel I24 is secured
bly of the pinions on the shaft 91 is maintained 30 to the upperportion of the bracket vI23 as viewed
by a bushing 98 which is frictionally engageable ' in Fig. 2, with the panel being suitably insulated
with the shaft through friction screw 99. ‘The
from the bracket. Electrical connection of the
threaded ends of the'shaft 91- are held by nuts
magnets to the operating electrical system is thus
I02 to tie plates IOI and extend through the
directly made in immediate adjacence to the as
frame end plates 2| and 22; the nuts I02 serving 35 sembly position of the magnets in the preselector
to hold the tie plates IOI against the pinion as
sembly and to space the pinions from the'end
In the construction vof the tuning apparatus
plates 2| and 22. Nuts I03 on the outside of the
or preselector unit as thus far described it is seen
end plates 2| and 22 ?xedly mount the shaft 91
that the shafts 91 and I04,_ and the magnet sup- "
40 port I23, while forming component parts of the
The pinions 93 are substantially similar to the
pinions 92 and are axially aligned and freely ro
preselector unit function also as tie rods in sup
porting, the end plates2I and 22 and thus coact
tatable on a shaft I04 having threaded ends which
with the tie rods 23 in providing a unit of simple
are mounted in the tie plates I 0| and the end
and compact, ‘but rugged design. It is seen ‘also
plates 2| and 22 in a manner similar to that above 45 that the correspondingiparts for each unit54 are
described for the shaft 91. The spacer portions
arranged, longitudinally of the preselector unit
95 are arranged substantially opposite the gear
while each control unit 54 and its component
portions 96 of the pinions 92, andthe gear por
‘ parts are arranged transversely of the preselector
tions I00 are substantially opposite the gears 65'
and engageable therewith, The shafts 97 and 50 ~ A relay unit I26 (Fig. 2) including operating
I04 are thus seen to be parallel to each other,
magnets I21 and I28 for armatures I29and I3I,
_ with the pinions 92 and 93 arranged substantial
respectively, is included in the circuit of the mag
ly opposite a corresponding control'unit '54 and
nets I09 and motor 26 and operates to control the
in engagement with the gear members 65 and 65’
starting and stopping of the radio receiving ap
Interposed between adjacent pinions 92 is a
rocker arm or armature I06 for each unit 54 which
is of [substantially L-shape and freelyrotatable
paratus, as will be explained.
As shown in the circuit. diagram in Fig. 8 the
magnets I 09 are arrangedin parallel between
conductors I32 and I33 which are inductively
connected to a suitable supply source I34. The
‘ leg portion I01 of each armature is arranged in 60 motor 26 ‘which is in driving engagement with
an attractable position relative to the pole I08
the elongated pinion 44, as was previously ex
. of a magnet I09. The attraction of the armature
plained, is, connected in series with each of the
I06 by the magnet I09 is opposed by a spring II I
magnets I09 so as to be energized concurrently
which is connected at one end to a projection I I2
’ on energization of each magnet.» It is thus seen
. formed on the armature leg portion H3, and at 65 that rotation of the elongated pinion 44 occurs
its opposite end to a tie rod ,I I4 which extends
simultaneously with the actuation of the clutch
longitudinally of the pre-selector unit and is
means I06—I I1 by the magnet I09 so that selec
mounted in the end plates 2| and 22. Spring II I
tive operation of a control unit 54 is obtained
holds the armature in its normal rest or open po
immediately on closing a push button I35.
sition against the tie rod 24 which is suitably 70
The radio "01?’ button or switch I36 is con-,
on the shaft 91. As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the
cushioned. A pinion or idling gear II‘I isfreely
nected in parallel withxtthe magnets I09 and is in
rotatable on a pin II8 which is supported in the
series connection with the magnet I 28. On actu
ation of the “oif’? switch to its closed position the
leg portion I I3, the pinion II‘I being positioned
so as to be in continuous meshing‘ engagement
'magnet I28 attracts the armature I3I intoa
with the pinion 92. Movement of the armature 75 locked position with an interlock member I31 so
that this initial actuated position of the arma
ture I3I is retained even after the “off" switch
I36 is opened. The armature I3I (Figs. 2 and 8) >
is provided with an arm I38 which is engageable
with contacts I39 and MI, the contact I39 con
trolling the circuit I42 to the radio heaters and
the contact I4I the rectifying circuit I43. The
radio “on" button or switch I44 is connected in
parallel with the magnets I09 and with the “off”
switch I36.
Operation of the button I44 ener
gizes the magnet I21 to release the interlocking
member I31 from its engagement with the arma
ture I3l. This releasing of the armature I3I
moves the contacts I39 and MI in a direction to
close the circuits to the radio heaters and recti?er
so as to condition the radio receiving apparatus
(not shown) for broadcast reception. The ar
the spring 50 to its free untensioned position.
The constantly applied mechanical pressure on
the armature I06 by the operation of the gears
44 and H1 serves further to reduce the chatter
ing action of the armature when the magnet I09
is operating in an A. C. system.
With the-pinions 92 and 93 in continuous en
gagement with each other and with the pinion
92 in engagement also with the gear I I1, the pin
10 ions 92 and 93 are reversely rotated so as to ro
tate their associated gears 65 and 65', respective
ly, in opposite directions on the control shaft 51.
As the gears 65 and 65’ are rotated their respec
tive projections 16 and 16' and the projections
13 and 14 on the washers ‘II and 12, respectively,
are moved into successive engagement in a
stepped relation as is clearly shown in Fig. 1, and
as was previously fully described. Since the gears
rangement of the circuits shown in Fig. 8 is such
65 and 65' are rotated in opposite directions their
that the set may also be turned on by pressing
any of the tuning buttons as I35, energizing 20 coupled engagement with the projection 11 on
the adjustable collar member 18 occurs on oppo
magnet I09 and motor 26. The “on” coil I21 is
site portions of the projection 11. The gear ?rst
connected in parallel with motor 26 in a switch
to be coupled with the projection 11 rotates the
leaf I39A whenever the set is off, and so receives
control shaft 51 by virtue of the ?xed position
energywhenever the motor is energized under
this condition. As soon as the latch I31 is 25 of the collar member 18 on the shaft 51, until
both gears are in coupled engagement with the
stopped and switch I39 moves to the “on” posi
member 18. Since the driving force of the gears
tion, this circuit is broken and coil I21 is de
65 and 65' act on the projection 11 in opposite
directions and since these opposite forces are
In the operation of the preselector unit let it
be assumed that the “on” switch I44 has been 30 equal to each other, the coupled engagement of
both gears with the member 18 will lock the gears
turned on. On actuation of a push button I35,
against any further rotation thereof and hence
which may be located remotely from the tuning
of the control shaft 51. This locked engagement
apparatus, the energizing circuit for a magnet
of the gears 65 and 65’ with the member 18 de- I
I09 is closed through conductors I32 and I33 as
is also the circuit of the motor 26 which is con 35 ?nes the predetermined control position of the
shaft 51 and hence of the condenser 63, which
nected in series with the magnet. Concurrently
is in driven engagement with the shaft 51
with the start of operation of the motor 26 to
through gears 58 and GI, as was previously ex
rotate‘ the elongated pinion 44 through clutch
plained. Although the rotation of the motor is
means 33 and gear 43, the gear I I1 on the arma
ture I06 is moved into engagement with the 40 unidirectional the opposite rotation of the gears
65 and 65’ provides for a rotation of the control
pinion 44. The motor 26 is of uni-directional
shaft and hence of the condenser in either direc
type and the gear train from the motor to the
tion, the direction of rotation being dependent
elongated pinion 44 is arranged so that the pinion
upon which gear 65 or 65' is ?rst coupled to the
44, as viewed in Fig. 2', rotates in a clockwise di
adjustable member 18.
rection, which in turn rotates the clutch gear I I1
in a counter-clockwise direction. This direction
of rotation of the pinion 44 acts to pull the gear
To adjust the various control units 54 to a pre
determined control position screw 81 in the thrust
I I1 into meshing engagement with the elongated
mechanism 88 is Withdrawn ' until the center
pinion so that the gear H1 is locked in mesh
washers or adjustable collars 18 are free to turn
during the tuning operation. Since this meshing
engagement holds the armature I06 in its at
tracted position against the magnet pole face
relative to the shaft 51. Shaft 51 is then ad
justed to a desired control position by a suitable
manual control knob (not shown) for the fre
quency changing means 63. With the shaft in
this position a unit 54 is operated to its locked
position by pushing a button I35, while the op
erator holds the manual control knob and hence
the shaft 51 from turning. The member 18 is
thus adjusted to a predetermined control position
I08, a mechanical pressure urging the armature
toward the pole face occurs concurrently with the
electrical attraction of the armature by the pole
face to aid the magnet in operating the clutch
means I06-I I1. The magnets I09, therefore,
need only be large enough to pull the clutch ar
of the shaft 51. A similar procedure is repeated
mature I06 into its attracted position against the
pole face I08. This utilization of the mechanical 60 for the other control units 54. During this set
ting operation, the members 18 are maintained
reaction between the gears 44 and H1 provides
in adjustment by virtue of the fact that their
for the use of relatively small magnets I09, since
the magnet merely functions as a tripping means
frictional engagement with the bushings 66 and
61 is suf?cient to maintain their relative positions
to initially engage the gear H1 and the pinion
44; the pulling of the gear II1 into meshing en 65 on the shaft 51. Spring washer 86 keeps all parts
on shaft 51 always under pressure for this pur
gagement with the pinion 44 being sufficient to
pose. When all of the units 54 have been ad
maintain the geared or interlocked engagement
justed the screw 81 is tightened whereby to fric
between such gears so long as the pinion is rotat
tionally lock all of the members 18 in ?xed posi
ing. The ?oating or spring connection of the
?bre gear 43 to the pinion shaft 45 assures a 70 tions relative to the shaft 51.
The clutch means Iu6-I I1 are readily adapted
positive disengagement between the gears 44 and
for manual actuation instead of magnetic actua
I I1 on completion of a tuning operation. A tor
tion by the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 9-18,
sional force is built up in the spring 50 so that
inclusive. With reference to Fig. 9 the motor 26
when the motor 26 is deenergized the gears 44
and H1 are thrown out of mesh by the return of 75 is illustrated in driving engagement with the
elongated pinion 44 through gears 31 and 43.
Pinion 44 is placed in driving engagement with
the gear train 53 through a manually actuated
' clutch unit I41, whereby to operate the control
unit 54 in the manner hereinabove fully described
in connection with Fig. 1.
Each clutch unit I41 is comprised of a pair of
?at ?ngers or arms I48 and I49 of unequal length,
the-gears 31 and 43 in a
anner to provide for a
44 as viewed in
clockwise rotation of the fiinion
Fig. 9. This direction of rotation of the pinion
'44, after engagement thereof with the rotarygear
I51,-serves to mechanically i terlock the gear I 51
with the pinion 44 even after \release of the lever
portion I6I. However, since the lever I6I di
rectly controls thecircuit of the motor 26, as above
explained, it is readily apparent \that this inter
which are pivotally supported at\/their ends I5I
and I52, respectively, on the pi'nionshaft 91; the 10 locked engagement of the gears after release of the
lever I6I would result in a continued energization
arms being assembled with ten ?at sides to
getherand spaced between the pinions‘ 92 in a
of the motor circuit. In the movement of the
lever I6I into engagement with the switch plate
manner similar to that above described in con
I 66, the engagement. of the gear I51 with the
nection with the armatures I86. As shown in
Figs. 14 and 15 the arms III and I52'are'formed 15 pinion 44 prior to a, closing of the motor circuit
serves to maintain the arm I49 in a held position
with corresponding grooves I53 and I54 which
are adapted to have a continuous tension mem
while the arm I48 is moved intoits motor operat
ing position. This relative pivotal movement be
ber I 56 such as a spring or the like seated there-_
in. The member I56 functions normally to main
tween the arms I 48 and ‘I49 occurs by virtue of
tain the arms I5I and I52 in transverse align 20 the tension means I56. On release of they lever‘
ment, while providing for a relative slidable
I6I, thespring means I56 permits the lever I6I to
be pulled upward by spring I64 to permit'the gate
movement therebetween. -The small arm I52 in
termediate its ends has mounted thereon a rotary ‘ I66 to swing upward to open the contacts I68 and‘
gear member I51 which is spaced from the arm
I69, as shown in Fig. 11,v whereby to deenergize
I52 by a spacer I58; the spacer and gear being 25 the motor 26. On deenergization of the motor the
. mounted on a pin I59 supported in the arm I52
torque on pinion 44 ceases and hence the rotary
(Figs. 16-18) .
Arm I48 is formed with an actuating or lever
portion. I6I which extends through a slot I62
gear I51 is released, the clutch unit I41 being immediately returned to its idle position by the
spring I64. A cushion spring 50 interconnecting
formed in a panel member or bracket I63 which 30 gear 43 and hub 46 provides a kick back action
is supported at its ends to the end plates 2| and
to assure release of gear I51 from pinion 44 as al
22 (Fig. 13). The rotary gear member I51 is
ready described.
positioned on the arm I49 so as to be in continu
In some instances it may happen that the gear
ous meshing engagement with the pinion 92. A
I51 will not immediately mesh with the pinion
spring I64 connected at one end to the top of the 35 44 because of an abutting rather'than a meshing
bracket member I63 and at its opposite end to
engagement of the gear teeth, as indicated in Fig.
the arm member I48 serves to hold the arm
10. The arm I49 is thus held in a position above
against the upper end‘ or the slot I62. This lim
that normally attained on a meshinggengagement
iting position of the arm I_48 holds the gear I51
of the gears 44 and I51. Should this occur the
out of engagement with the elongated pinion 44, 40 ?exible connecting means I56 between the arms
since the arms I48 and I49 are normally pivotally
I48 and I49 permits the arm I48 to be moved into
movable together. Engagement of the rotary
its engaging position with the switch plate I66 to
gear member I51 with the elongated pinion 44 ~ close the contacts I68 and I69, this'relative posi
to provide for a rotation of the pinions 92 and 93
tioning of the arms I48 and I49 being shown in
is obtained by moving the lever portion I6 I down 45 Fig. 10. Immediately on closing or the contacts
wardly in the slot I62. This engagement is nor
I68 and I69 the pinion 44 is rotated by the motor
mally completed while'the pinion “is in an idle
~26, this rotation of the pinion 44 breaking the
or stationary position.‘ The slot 62, however, is
abutting engagement of the teeth portions, as in
of a length to provide for a continued downward
dicated in Fig. 10, and permitting a, meshing en
movement of the lever I6I, after engagement of 60 gagement between the‘ rotary gear I51 and the
the gear I51 with the pinion 44, to permit its en
pinion 44 as shown in Fig. 9. Since the operation
gagement with‘a switch or gate plate I66, which
‘of the tuning apparatus illustrated in Figs. 9 to
extends longitudinally of the frame means 20
18, inclusive, is similar to that previously described
and is pivotally supported as at I61 to/the end
in connection with Fig. 1 except for the manually
plates 2| and 22. A contact I68 is provided on 55 actuated clutch unit I41, it is believed that a, fur
the lower side of the switch plate I66 and is are
ther description of the operation is unnecessary.
ranged for engagement with a contact arm I69,
It has been noted that three washers 1| and
the closing of these contacts e?ecting a closing
three washers 12 are used in each of the control
of the motor circuit and a consequent operation
units 54. The number of washers, however, may
of the ‘motor 26. Downward movement of the
be changed in accordance with a particular tuning
lever I6l thus functions both to move the‘ gear
structure, a larger number of washers providing
I51 into its engaging position with the pinion
for an increased driving ratiobetween the control
gear 44 and also to close the circuit of the motor
unit 54 and shaft 51. ' This drivingratio provides
26 to operate the pinion 44. The switch plate I66
. for a relative free motion of the gears 65 and 65',
is normally tensioned by‘suitable spring means
65 between their locked positions, which is com
(not shown) so as to keep open the contacts I68
m'ensurate to the driving ratio between the shaft
and I69. As shown in Fig. 12 the motor circuit is
51 and condenser shaft 62. A free motion of this
inductively connected with a suitable source of
degree in each unit 54 conditions each unit to
electric supply such as I16 and includes conduc
move the condenser through its complete tuning
tors HI and I12 connected in series with the mo 70 range, which in the case of the usual gang con
tor 26. Conductor I1I is connected with contact
denser is a movement of about 180°. It is readily
I68 through the switch plate I66 and conductor
apparent, therefore, that as the driving ratio be
I12 is connected to the contact arm I69.
tween the rotary control shaft 51 and condenser
As previously mentioned, the motor 26 is of uni
'63 is increased, the accuracy of the control unit
directional type and is in driven engagement with 76 54 in moving the shaft 51 to a predetermined con
trol position is increased, since the error of tuning
is decreased in proportion to the increase in the
driving ratio. /In other words, the angular dis
placement ofthe condenser 63 is only a predeter
mined portion of that of the shaft 51, for any
tuning operation, In the embodiment of Fig. 1,
a driving ratio of about 31/2:1 between the shaft
51 and condenser 63 has been found to give very
satisfactory tuning results. Where a connection
are of similar construction, the sleeves I14 are
arranged with their reduced sections I16 facing
each other and with the adjustable member 18'
positioned between such facing portions. Since
the mounting portion on each member I14 for
the gears I65 or I65’ is of a greater length than
the thickness of such gears, the pressing together
of the control units during their assembly on the
control shaft 51' does not bind the gears I65 and
such as a ?exible cable is used as a mechanical 10 I65’ relative to the shaft 51' but serves merely to
transmission means between a control knob and a
frictionally engage the adjustable member 18'
condenser an appreciable angular displacement
between each pair of sleeve members I14, The
occurs in the cable so as to impair the precision
frictional engagement of the member 18' in a
of the tuning operation. In one commercial em
particular adjusted position corresponding to a
bodiment of the invention a driving ratio of 12:1 15 predetermined control position of the shaft 51' is
has been satisfactorily employed to reduce the de
gree of error in the tuning resulting from the use
of a ?exible cable.
obtained by manipulation of the clamping mech
anism 88, previously explained.
The adjustable collar member 18’ is formed
A modi?cation of the invention permitting 12
with a radially extending abutment I11 of round
free revolutions of each of gears 65 and 65' is 20 ed gear tooth contour. This abutment is formed
shown in Figs. 19-23, inclusive. This modi?cation
and arranged so as to be engageable with pinions
of the invention is similar in many respects to
I16 and I18’ which‘ are rotatably supported on
the embodiment shown in Fig. 1 and similar nu
pins I19 and I19’ mounted in the face portion of
merals of reference, therefore, will be used to
each gear I65 and I65’, respectively. In the as
designate similar parts.
25 sembly of each pinion I18 and I18’ a spring
The driving motor 26 is in driving engagement
washer I8I (Fig. 23) is arranged on the pin I19
with the pinion assembly including pinions “a,
between the pinion and the pin head I82 so as to
through clutch assembly 33 and gear 43, the
effect a slight drag or frictional pressure on the
pinion assembly in turn being connected with the
pinion. This pressure is just enough to prevent
pinion gear trains 53 by the clutch means 30 the pinions I18’ and I18 from moving out of a
I06'—I I1’, The shaft 45’ (Figs. 21 and. 22) is >
meshing position with the abutment I11 on rota
formed with opposed ?at portions I13 for keyed
tion of the gears I65 and IE5’. The toothed con
engagement with the pinions 44A, mounted on
tour of each of the pinions I18 and I18’ is formed
the shaft 45', which are internally formed with
with a blank portion I83 which is equivalent sub
mating ?at portions, there being a pinion “A 35 stantially to the width of two gear teeth. With
for each control unit 54'. Armatures I66’ are
rotatably supported on the shaft 45' and ar
the adjustable collar member 18’ ?xed relative
to the control shaft 51', and the shaft 51' in a
ranged between adjacent pinions “A, Each pin
stationary position, it is seen that each complete
ion 44A is in continuous engagement with a pin
rotation of gear I65, as shown in Figs. 21 and 22,
ion II1' which is freely rotatable on a pin I I8’ 40 rotates the pinion I18 about the pin I19 a dis
mounted in the armature I06’. The armature is
tance equal to one tooth, by reason of its engage
attractable by a magnet I09’, the magnets being
ment with the projection I11 on the member 18'.
vertically arranged in the unit as shown in Figs.
The progressive rotation of the pinion I18 about
21 and 22. The action of magnet I09’ on its cor
the pin I19 continuesuntil the portion I83 en
responding armature I06’ is opposed by the action 45 gages the tooth I11, this coupled engagement
of a spring III’ which is connected at one end to
serving to lock the member 18’ and the gear I 65
a projection I I2’ and at its opposite end to a tie
rod or rail I I4’ supported between the end plates
2| and 22. The armature I 06' in its open posi
tion is held by the spring III’ against a non
magnetic rest rail II6' which is also mounted
between the end plates 2| and 22, A brass stop
or magnetic separator S (Figs. 21 and 22) is se
cured to the armature I06’ in a position such that
it engages the core of the magnet I89’ when the
armature is attracted thereto, so as to eliminate
any possibility of the armature freezing to the
The pinions 92 and 93 are engageable with
gears I65 and I65’ of the control units 54', re
spectively. Besides the gears I65 and I65’ each
unit 54' includes an adjustable collar member
18' and a pair of sleeve members I14. The flat
portions 69 formed on the shaft 51' are adapt
ed for keyed engagement with corresponding
broached ?at portions formed internally of the
sleeve members I14. Each sleeve member I14
is formed with an enlarged section and a’reduced
section, the reduced section I16 being adapted to
relative to the shaft 51' so that any further rota
tion of the gear I65 also rotates the shaft 51'.
With the pinions 92 and 93 in continuous en
gagement with each other and arranged to rotate
the gears I65 and I65’ in opposite directions the
blank portions I83 on the pinions I18 and I18’
will engage opposite sides or portions of the tooth
I11. A locked engagement, therefore, of each
pinion I18 and I18’ with the tooth I11 thus locks
the gears I 65 and I65’ relative to the control
shaft 51’, this locked engagement de?ning the
predetermined control position of the shaft 51'.
The gear I65 or I65’ ?rst engaged in a coupled
60 connection with the adjustable member 18' by
the locking action of its associated pinion with
the tooth I11 serves to rotate the shaft 51’ in a
given direction until a position is reached which
brings about a coupled connection between the
member 18' and the uncoupled gear, thus look
ing both gears I65/and I65’ against any further
Although the pinions I18 and I18’ are indi
have a gear I65 or I65’ freely fully rotatable 70 cated as providing for a relative rotational move
ment of six revolutions between the gears I65
thereon. It is thus seen that although the sleeve
and I65’ to correspond with a desired 12:1 driv
members I14 are keyed relative to the shaft 51',
ing ratio between the control shaft 51’ and con
that the gears I65 and I65’ are freely rotatable
denser 63', it is to be understood that the gears
relative to the shaft 51'.
In the assembly of each control unit 54', which 75 I65 and I65’ and pinions I18 and I18’ can be
altered in size to provide for a wide variation of
‘ the ‘free motion in the ‘control unit 159’.
The structure ‘of each control unitf?' provides 91
for a high driving‘ratioibetween the'control'shaft
>51’ andcondenser '89’; without increasing the
bulk of the tuning device as‘ might occur with
the washer assembly inv the control units 58 of
I Fig. 1.
ing apparatus is .thus provided which isareadily
‘on"a-'shaft”?I98."'\A pmranty “motors I99 ‘are
‘provided,- one for eachbontrol‘unit I92I>tojdrlve
"the ‘gear I91 therein, the ‘stationary shaft,_l98,,
' ‘and motorsr’l99 being ‘at-‘ranged below and be
f-twee‘n the shafts I8_8_an'd I89," The ‘shaft I98;is
,Darallel withl'the' shafts I88 and I89 'and'is suit
ably supported in the frame means‘ for the tuning
apparatus. * The rotors I91A‘of the motors rotate
A very compact and highly efficient tun-'
' applicable to a variety of ‘tuning requirements.‘
“onfshaft I98 which may be'statio'nary'. “ . j
10 1
Each driving gear-191 i.'=.'_"alsov in"engagenient
Theoperationiof embodiment in. Figs. 19-23,
with’a ‘gear 20I - whioh'iisf freelyfrotatable on ‘a
is substantially similar to the operation of the
“sleeve or bushing 202" mounted on'an‘d' splined
with the rotaryadrive shaft I89. v‘The gear 20I
- . embodiment of Fig. 1; the circuit diagram-of Fig.
32 being applicable. ‘ On energization of a mag-v
is in operative‘ engagement with an adjustable
net I09' by a push button I95’ the motor 26 is 15 element 203 of gear form, by means of a coupling
also energized through the double set of contacts
unit 204, to be later explained.’ The adjustable
H0 and “0' whereby the pinion assembly 44'
element 203 is normally adjustably ?xed on the
is rotated substantially simultaneously with the
shaft I89 and is in continuous engagement with
actuation of the clutch means I08'-II1'. That
the gear I 92 mounted on the shaft\l88., The
is, upon pushing a button I35’, the corresponding 20 spacer ‘or bushing member 202 is formed with a
magnet I09’ is first energized by engagement of
shoulder portion 206 and a reduced section for
button contact with battery contact “0'. Con
carrying the gear 20I. A spacer 201 is mounted
tinued pressure upon the button brings the con
on the reduced section of the bushing 202 be
tact “0' into engagement with motor contact
tween the gear 20I and the adjustable element
H0. The contacts IIO'> are in a common circuit. 25 203. The gear 20I and element 203 of each con
The pinion assembly 44’ is arranged to rotate in
trol unit I93 is separated from the next adjacent
a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in Figs.
control unit by spacers 208, the control units ad
21 and 22, so as to rotate the pinion H1’ in a
jacent the end plates I81 and I88 being separated
clockwise direction. This direction of rotation of
therefrom by collar or spacer members 209. Ad'
the pinion assembly 44' aids in bringing the pin 30 justment of the element 203 in a fixed position
ion 93 and gear “1' into meshed engagement.
relative to the control shaft I89 is accomplished
Since the mechanical action of the pinions “A
by its frictional engagement between the reduced
and 93 aids the operation of the magnets I09’ in
section of the bushing 202 and one end of a spacer
effecting the meshed engagement only relatively
member 208, as is clearlyindicated in Fig. 24.
small magnets I09’ are needed. Rotation of the
The frictional pressure on the adjustable ele
pinion gears 92 and 93 to oppositely rotate the
ments 203 is controlled by the clamping unit 89
control unit gears I55 vand I165’ actuates the pin
and the spring washer unit 83—86, which were
ion or coupling means I18 and I18’ to couple the
I hereinabove fully described.
gears I65 and. I85’ with the adjustable member
As shown in Figs. 26-30, inclusive, each ad
18’. ' On rotation of the pinions I18 and I18’ into 40 justable element 203 is press formed with a cor
their respective locked positions relative to‘the
rugated face portion 2“ which is spirally ar
ranged to provide for the traversal thereof of a
the control shaft 51', the controlshaft 51' being
lever or traversing arm 2I2, which is pivotally
rotated to its predetermined control position
supported on the face of gear MI. The arm
prior to such locking engagement in the manner 45 2I2 is formed with a pointed follower 2I5 which
tooth I11, the gears I85 and I85’ are locked on
previously explained. In practice the push but
ton I35’ may be held closed until the shaft 51'
has turned the condenser 83’ to its predetermined
tuning position.
rides in the spiral corrugations of the portion
2I I. It is to be understood that this corrugated
structure is applicable to all of the adjustable
elements 203 indicated in Fig. 24, it being appar
The adjustment of the members 18' to a de 50 ent that this structure could not be readily shown
sired setting of the control shaft 51-’ is obtained
in Fig. 24 because of the comparative size thereof.
in a manner similar to that previously described
As illustrated in Fig. 25, each of the gears I92 is
for the members 18 in Fig. l the frictional look
also formed with a’ corrugated face portion 2| I'
ing of the members 18' being controlled by the
of spiral arrangement‘while each of the corre
cooperative action of the clamping mechanism 88
sponding gears I!“ is provided with a pivotally
and the releasable spring 86 positioned between
supported traversing arm 2I2’.
the washers 83 and 84.
the traversing arm 2I2, in one direction‘of ro
tation of the gear 20 I ,‘is limited by an inn-"r abut
ment Or stop 2I3 while the limit of its travel in
The travel of
Yet another modi?cation of the invention is
illustrated in Figs. 24-31, inclusive. As shown in
Fig. 24 this embodiment includes a stationary 60 the opposite direction is de?ned by'an outer abut
or ?xed shaft I88 which is mounted in end plates
ment 2“, the abutments 2I3 and 2“ .being in
I81 and I88. A rotary control or drive shaft I89
tegrally formed in the adjustable element 203 by
for a frequency changing‘ means ‘(not shown) is
bumping ‘out portions thereof. The travel of the
arranged parallel with the shaft I88 and is ro
traversing arm 2I2’ is similarly de?ned by abut
tatably supported in the end plates I81 and ‘I88. 65 ment membersi2l3’ and 2"’, which are inte
A pair of gears I 9‘I and I92 for each control unit
grally formed in the gears .I 92. I
I99 are freely rotatable on‘ the stationary shaft
‘on rotation of a driving gear I91 there occurs
I88. Each adjacent ‘pair of gears I9I and I92 ‘ a vrotation of the gears I 9I and .20I, to provide
are separated 'by spacers I94 while the gears HI
for a traversal of the arms 2I2,' ,2I2’] over the
and I 92 in each pair are separated by spacers I95. 70 corrugated portions 2“ and 2| I' of the gears 203
Spacers I94 and I96 are'also freely rotatable on»
and I92, respectively. The gears I9I and MI are
the shaft I 88 so as not to interfere in anyway
rotated’ in the samesdir'ect'ion‘ since they are both
with the free rotation of the gears I!" and I 92. r ' driven by the same rotating gear I91. " Gear
Each gear I!“ is in meshing engagement with a
motor driven driving gear I91 which is mounted
I92 will remain in a stationary or idle position
until coupling engagement thereof with the gear
Isl occurs by the abutting engagement of the
which are within the full intended scope of the
traversing arm 2I2' against one of the abut
ments 2I3' or 2"’. When thisengasement oc
curs the gear I92 will be rotated in the direction
invention as deiined by the appended claims.
I claim:
of rotation of gear I9I. By virtue of this driving
engagement and the continuous meshing engage
1. Electrical rotary‘ control apparatus adapted
to be operated to predetermined stop positions in
cluding in combination unidirectional rotary driv
ment of the gear I92 with the adJustable element
203, the element 203 will be rotated to drive the
ing means, reversibk: rotary driven means, and a
plurality of rotary coupling units operatively con
- rotary control shaft until the traversing arm 2I2
necting said‘ two means and aligned axially rel
engages one of the abutments 2I3 or 2“. The 10 atively to one another in said apparatus, each of
continuous engagement of the gears I92 and 203
said plurality of rotary coupling units having
provides for opposite relative rotation of these
movable interconnected structure including a
driving rotary gear portion, rotatable toothed re
versing means operatively connected ‘with the
two gears. On the occurrence of a stopped en
gagement of both of the traversing arms 2I2
and 2I2' the adjustable element 203 and its as
sociated gears I9I, I92, and 20I are locked in
?xed positions relative to the shafts I96 and
I89, which locked position de?nes a predeter
mined control position of the drive shaft I89.
It is to be understood that the adjustable ele 20
ment 203 is not always rotated by the gear mem
ber I92 since a coupled engagement between the
gear 20I and the element 203 might occur before
a coupled engagement between the gears I9I and
I92, in which case the gear I92 will be rotated by 25
the adjustable gear or element 203 and the cou
pled engagement of the gear 20I and element 203
will provide for the rotation of the control shaft
driving rotary gear portion, and means includ
ing adjustable means and lost motion means op
eratively connecting said reversing means and
said reversible rotary ‘driven means, with all of
the movable structure in each coupling unit in
terconnected in a manner so that such structure
always moves to the same relative position at each
predetermined stop position for the apparatus.
2. Electrically driven rotary control means in
cluding in combination, rotary driving means
motor means and a rotary
gear portion, a rotary shaft, a rotary control unit
corresponding to said rotary gear portion, said
control unit including a. member on said rotary
I89 to its predetermined control position, prior
shaft and gear-toothed means including a pair
to the locking of the gears I92 and 203. It is to 30 of rotating gears, lost motion coupling means op
be understood further that the amount of rela
eratively connecting the member and said pair of
tive free motion of the gears before looking is
rotating gears, with said rotary gear portion be
readily provided by varying the extent of the
spiral portions 2H’ and 2“. The control units
I93 are thus readily adapted to be made in con
'formance with a particular driving ratio between
the rotary control shaft I09 and its associated
frequency changing means (not shown).
A control circuit for the embodiment of Fig.
24 is shown in Fig. 31. The motors I99 for each 40
control unit I93 are arranged in parallel between
conductors 2I6 and 2", which are inductively
connected to a suitable source of electrical sup
ply 2I9. The radio receiving apparatus (not
shown) is conditioned for operation by the “on" 45
switch 2I9 and the “oil” switch 22I, which con
trol the energization of the radio circuits through
relay coil I21’ and I28’as in Fig. 8. A muting
relay, including magnet 220 and armature 220',
is indicated at 222. With the radio set turned 50
on a push button 223 which may be remotely lo
cated is closed.
The corresponding individual -
motor I99 is immediately energized‘whereby gear
I9'I is driven to operate the control unit I93 in'
the manner above fully described. Since
tuning operation is of very short duration,
push button 223 is held closed manually for
duration thereof.
In the adjustment of the control members
the 55
the Z
the clamping unit 88 is released so that all of‘ 60
the control elements 203 are free to turn on the
control shaft I39. The control shaft I 89 is then
rotated to a predetermined control position and
held in such position while a control unit I93 is‘ 65
operated by the push button and motor to its
locked position. This procedure is repeated for
the remaining elements 203 until all of them have
been adjusted. The clamping unit 30 is then
tightened to maintain the control units in their 70
adjusted positions.
ing in meshing engagement with gear teeth in
said control unit, and means for selectively op
erating the rotary gear portion and the rotary
control unit.
3. Electrically driven rotary control means in
cluding in combination a rotary driven shaft, a.
plurality of rotary control units each including a
pair of gears oppositely rotatable relative to one
another and including an engaging member, with
said engaging member and at least one of the op
positely rotatable gears mounted on said rotary
driven shaft, rotary shaft means having gear
means thereon operatively connected with said
pair of gears and said pair of gears being rela
tively and oppositely rotatable upon rotation of
said shaft and gear means, rotary drive means,
means including said. plurality of control units
operatively connecting said rotary drive means‘
and said rotary driven shaft and said means ad
ditionally including a plurality of rotary gear por
tions corresponding to said plurality of control
units and each gear portion operatively meshing
ly connected with a rotary gear member in the
corresponding control'unit, and means for selec
tively operating a rotary gear portion and its cor
responding rotary control unit.
4.. Control apparatus including in combination
supporting means, a driven member rotatable
relative to the supporting means, two driving
members journalled for opposite rotation relative
to one another and for rotation relative to the
supporting means and the driven member, lost
motion coupling means coupling the driven and
the driving members, rotary means journalled for
rotation relative to the supporting means and in
terconnecting the driving members, and selec
tively operable means including a rotary member
for providing a. driving force for the driving
members for accomplishing ' rotation
of said
It is to be understood that only preferred em
driving members and‘ said driven member to a
bodiments of the present invention have been il
predetermined position relative to the supporting
lustrated and described herein and that modi?
cations and alterations thereof can be made 75
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