close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
NOV. v26, 1946.
'
I
'
w. T_ JONES v
STEAM
HEATING
'
2,411,731
SYSTEM
Filed May 25, 1942
mm
:3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 26, 1946.
’
w. T. JONES
.
STEAM ‘HEATING
2,411,731
SYSTEM
Filed May 25, 1942
h..
T
.
3 Sheéts-Sheei 2
Nov. 26, 1946;
w,’ T_ JONES
1
2,411,731‘ -
STEAM HEATING SYS TEM
Filed May 25, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
72,411,731
Patented Nov, 26, 1946
UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE f '
~William T. Jones, vNewton, Mass, assignor to
' , Barnes & Jones‘, Incorporated, Jamaica Plain,
Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts
Application May 25, 1942, Serial No. 444,313 > '
11_ Claims. ,
1
{crest-9)
V
This invention pertains to heat exchange sys
' tems,'for instance, heating or cooling systems
wherein a hot or cold ?uid gives up or receives
heat during the operation of the system, ;In
many such systems, the fluid is condensable ‘and
is condensed, during the operation, from vapor
ous or gaseous form in order that its heat units
may be available as a source of heat; or,‘ in other
instances, the fluid, in vaporous or gaseous form,
is exposed to the action of a refrigerant merely
to convert the ?uid to liquid form, and some
times, as a concomitant to suchconversion, to
e
2
.
>
,
amount of steam supplied may be varied in ac
cordance with therate at which the’same steam
is condensed to‘ water by the ‘action of a refriger
ant ?uid such as water or. atmospheric air.
While the invention is of broader utility as
just above suggested, it is herein speci?cally dis
closed for purposes'of illustration andby Way of
example as employed in a novel and improved
method of controlling the amount of steam sup~
plied to the radiator or radiators of a steam heat
ing system, and to novel apparatus for use in the
practice of such a method.
,
In the early days of steam heating one of the
most urgent problems. was to devise e?icient
As examples of the utility of the present in
means for transferring the heat from the steam
vention may be mentioned its application to in
generated in the boiler to the air in theroom to
dustrial kiers wherein material, for instance tex
be heated, but that early problem has been so
tile' goods, is heated for chemical or other treat
well solved that the heating engineer is now con
' ment and usually‘ under pressure, by the direct
vfronted with the problem of controlling the
admission of hot 'steam;' textile tenter-frames,
cloth or. other drying apparatus or the like where 20 emission of heat from the radiators so as to avoid
steam is admitted'to a; bank of pipes constituting
In heating systems for buildings the radiators
a single large‘ ra'diatorjsteam heating systems
are customarily of such capacity as to warm the
for heating ‘buildings where many radiators’are
room to‘approximately 70° F. during the coldest
usually employed; condenser apparatus for con
densing steam in steam ‘power plants; and stills 25 weather which may be ‘expected in the locality
in which the system is installed. However, such
for alcohol, petroleum products, etc. In certain
extreme ‘cold, weather ‘prevails for only a few
morenspeci?c applications of the invention, for
days during the entire‘ heating season, and thus
example in drying apparatus, heating systems
produce reduction in'pressure.
,
overheating;
'
‘
,
the rooms will be overheated most of the time un
and ‘some types of power-plant condenser, the
rate of condensation may depend to a substantial 30 less some means be provided for restricting the
heat output of the radiators during the milder
degree upon some‘ variable and, ‘in some in
weather. For example; in Boston, Massachu
stances, wholly uncontrollable condition, ‘for in
setts, it is customary to design the heating sys
stance, the temperature or the outside atmos
tem to have sufficient radiating capacity to warm
phere; and for ‘such conditions the present in
vention contemplates" a dual type ‘of control 35 the building to approximately 70° F. inside when
the outside temperature is 0°, although the aver
whereby, if desired, the supply of ?uid to be con
age outdoor temperature in that locality for the
densed or’ the amount of refrigerant employed
season between October '1 ‘and May 1 is 38.1°
may be varied automatically in response to such
(American Society of Heating and Ventilating
conditions, thereby producing a ‘substantially
uniform amount of condensate regardless of such 40 Engineer’s Guide for, 1941). Since the heating
capacity of the systemremains constant, it is
varying
factors,
I
‘
‘
'
'
'
I
"
obvious that the building will be very much over
heated most of the time unless the heat output
from the ‘radiators can be controlled proportion-'
vapor'vorgas or from the burning of a liquid'or
gaseousfuel), is varied in accordance with the 45 ately to variations in-‘heat loss from the building;
Several continuous-flow systems now commer
effects produced. ‘Thus the amount of one of
In accordance with the present invention the
supply of heat (which may be derived from a hot
wherein one ?uid-is condensed by loss of heat to
another, is so varied in' accordance with varia
cially available regulate the amount of steam
admitted to‘ the system so as to vary the heat
output from the radiators, but all such systems,
to maintain a substantially predetermined ratio
between the quantity ‘of available heat delivered
(for instance, in the form of a hot' fluid) and the
amount of condensate produced per unit of time;
radiators or- in the steam mains and risers; to
the?uids delivered to heat exchange apparatus,
tions in the amount of‘ condensate produced as 50 so far as known to. me, depend upon‘ the accurate‘
control of pressure differential between the sup
ply and return sides of the radiator.
Such control systems make use of ori?ces in the
for ‘speci?c instance, in'a steam condenser the 55 balance distributionfand also to; maintain _the_
2,411,731
4
3
requisite pressure di?erential between the sup
ply side and the return sides of the radiators.
By varying the steam pressure in accordance with
the demand (for example as determined by a
thermostat outside of the building), a controlled
differential is maintained and steam in varying
amounts is supplied to the radiators. Some such
would be sufficient. It is thus highly desirable to
provide some variable control of the amount of
steam supplied to the radiator in order not only
to avoid overheating and discomfort to the occu
pants of the building, but also for economy in
operation.
One object of the present invention is to pro
vide a very simple, inexpensive: and Je?fective
steam at a subatmospheric pressure and thus at
method and means whereby, in a steam heating
a reduced temperature, thereby restricting the 10 system, the proper output of heat to maintain
heat output of the radiators. However, in all
a predetermined and healthful temperature con
systems use a variable vacuum to circulate the
such systems as just above referred to it is nec
dition in the‘ room is automatically attained.
essary to control the pressure differential for any
A further object is to provide a novel method and
de?nite condition, within very narrow'limits, and
apparatus whereby, in a steam heating system,
this is sometimes very di?'lcult. This is particu-‘ 15 a substantially constant supply of heat units is
larly the case where a vacuum pump forms a part
delivered to the room for any given outdoor tem
of the heating system. Electrically driven vac- .
perature. A.f_urther object of the invention is
uum pumps start on a low limit control and stop
to provide a novel method and apparatus where
when the vacuum reaches the high setting of
by, in a_ steam heating system, the proper amount
the control device. A common setting for the 20 of radiation for any given outdoor temperature
vacuum pump controls causes the pump to start
is automatically maintained regardless of vari
automatically when the vacuum drops to four
ations in the steam supply pressure or in the
inches of mercury and to stop when the vacuum
pressure differential between the inlet and deliv
reaches eight inches. This four-inch variation
ery sides of the radiator, even though the pres
equals about two pounds per square inch gauge 25 sure inthe supply conduit drop below that of
pressure, and any such variation will destroy
the atmosphere. A further object is to provide
the effectiveness of a continuous-?ow steam heat
ing system based on the principle of constant
differential.
a novel method and apparatus for use in a steam
much to be preferred to the intermittent or
or other adjuncts and appliances.
In accordance with vthe present invention the
heating system which is readily applicable to and
can be installed in existing systems even though
-> The above discussion has reference to systems 30 they employ vacuum pumps, without necessitat
of the continuous-flow type. Such systems are
ing expensive alterations in the existing piping
o?-and-on type of system since they not only
provide more uniform temperature within the
building but the heating system itself is less
exposed to mechanical strains due to expansion,
etc, than when the steam is intermittently turned
‘on and shut off.
In a steam heating system all of the heat
emitted from the radiators must necessarily come
from the steam which is supplied. While initial
pressure of the steam may a?ect the velocity of
flow of the steam in the supply mains, it has
but little direct effect upon the number of heat
units emitted by the. radiator, the latter de- ~
pending, in any given case, almost entirely upon
the quantity, that is to say, the number of pounds
of steam which condenses in the radiator and
from which the heat units are obtained. Thus
it is obvious that by varying the quantity of .
amount of condensate from a key radiator or a
group of radiators is metered and the amount of
steam admitted to the system may be varied in
substantially exact proportion to the amount of
steam which condenses in this key radiator or
group of radiators. The improved system of
the present invention will automatically adjust
itself to such an extreme condition as results
from the starting or stopping ‘of a vacuum pump.
It is‘ thus very desirable in buildings where it is
customary tostart the vacuum pump early in the
morning to hasten circulation of steam through
a heating system from which the steam has been
shut off during the night, for after the building
has been warmed the vacuum pump may be set
to operate only as a condensate pump without
creating any vacuum. Furthermore, the ar
rangement of the present invention permits de
steam supplied to the radiators, the amount of
livering the steam at three or four pounds gauge
heat emitted may be controlled. In calculating
pressure, for example, into the steam mains,
radiation, it is customary to consider that radi
ators will condense one-quarter pound of steam
while at the same time the vacuum pump is
creating from four to eight inches of vacuum
per square foot, per hour, in a room where the
in the return mains in orderthereby to warm
temperature is ‘70° F. Thus a radiator having
the building rapidly, since the operation of the
forty square feet of radiating surface will con
control device of thepresent invention is en
dense ten pounds of steam per hour when it is
entirely unaffected by such a pressure di?eren
hot all over. Manifestly if only live pounds of
steam per hour were admitted to the radiator, 60 tial. Thus after the initial warming of the
building in the morning and as the sun reaches
only one-half of the capacity of the radiator
a higher altitude, the heat loss from they build
would be required to condense it, or, in other
ing will .decreaseand under these circumstances
words, the original radiatorv would be only half
the device of the present invention automatically
heated. Thus, for example, considering a forty
reduces the amount of steam admitted to the
foot radiator, if the entire radiator is necessary
to heat a given room, on a zero day, then one~
supply pipes but its proper functioning is not
quarter pound of steam per square foot of-radi
ator will be condensed each hour or, in other
words, ten pounds of steam per hour must
besupplied to the radiator to keep it hot all
over. On the other hand, when the outdoor
temperature is 35°, only one-half the capac
ity of radiator is required to maintain the same
aifected, even if, as the result of such reduction
in the steam supplied, the inlet pressure at the
radiator drops to subatmospheric. Likewise as
the sun declines and more heat is needed, the
arrangement of the present invention auto
matically admits more steam to the radiators
without requiring the adjustment of any valves
or other ‘part by an operator.
inside temperature of 70°, and the admission of
Other objects. and advantages of the invene
?ve pounds of steam per hour to the radiator 75
2,411,731
6
the other, the arm 6 of the potentiometer like
tion. wil1 be pointed out-hereinafter: in the fol
lowing moredetailed description and by refer
ence to the accompanying drawings, wherein
wise
swings.
“
' ‘
'
The steam which condenses in the radiator
"flows out through the delivery pipe 8. (Fig. 1)
. .Fig. 1 is a fragmentary elevation showing one
which. leadsto a casing 9_, of any suitable ma-'
preferred embodiment of the invention asso
ciated with heating units, for example radiators,
terial, for example, cast iron, which provides the
certain elements of the apparatus being diagram
matically indicated;
?oat chamber “1.: Within this chamber I0 is ar
rangedv a?oat ll mounted on an arm l2 which
is ?xed to a rock shaft I3. One end of this shaft
13 vextends to the outside of the casing and has
?xed thereto the swinging control arm l4 of a
potentiometer or voltage-divider 15. Thus, as
Fig. 2 is a sectional view illustrating a pre
ferred form of ori?ce valve employed for con
trolling the discharge of condensate from the
apparatus;
Figs. 3 and 4 are electrical wiring diagrams
illustrative of certain features of the invention;
and.
.
*
'
the ?oat H rises and falls within the chamber III
in response to variations I in the ‘level of liquid
15 within said chambenthe' arm M of potentiom
eter l5 likewise swings; '
Fig. 5 is a diagram, showing in elevation and
I'As diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 3, both
partly in section a modi?ed arrangement wherein
of the potentiometers v'I‘and I5 are connected as
pneumatic valve-actuating motors are employed.
voltage-dividers across the same source of poten
In accordance with that embodiment of the
invention herein speci?cally disclosed, the 20 tial." For any given position of the arm l4 of the
potentiometer 15 there will be a corresponding
amount of heat emitted by the radiator is con
position of the arm 6 of the‘potentiometer 1 at
trolled by gradually closing a‘ steam-admission
valve in direct response to increase in the amount
which the two arms will be equipotential. ‘When
this condition is attained by the turning of the
of liquid condensed per unit of time in the ra- \
diator and gradually opening the steam-admis '25 arm 6, no current will ?ow through the‘ coils of
sion valve in direct response to decrease in the
amount of liquid condensed per unit of time in
the radiator, and automatically varying such
unit of time in response to some other selected
the polarized relay 35 and the contacts of the re
lay 35 will be open so that no power will be de
livered to the motor. However, until this condi
tion is reached, there will. be ‘a current flow
controlling factor, for example, the temperature 30 through-the relay 35, whose contacts willbe closed
in such a way that the motor will move the arm
outside of the building which is heated.
6 toward a position corresponding to that of the
Referring to the drawings; the numeral I
designates a steam heating radiator which is
arm 14, that is to say, to a position such that cur
assumed to be located within a building or por- ,
tion of a building to be heated. It is contem- ~ '
plated that the control apparatus herein dis
rent will no longer ?ow through the relay to the
motor. Thus the motor will stop and the admis
sion vvalve will have been ‘properly set in accord
closed may be associated with one or a plurality
ance with the position of the ?oat.
of radiators.
When hereinafter reference is
vmade to a “radiator,” it is intended by this term -
‘
-
From the lower part of the casing 9 a delivery
pipe I6 extends downwardly and preferably de
to designate» heating means of the ?uid con 40 livers the liquid into a strainer or ?lter IT. This
densing type, whether such heating means be a
strainer or ?lter may be of any desired construed
single radiator, or aplurality of radiators or
tion and is designed to remove solid particles‘
other. steam-condensing appliances connected in
a bank to receive steam through the same ad
mission valve.
r
As here illustrated (Fig. 1), the radiator I is
from the liquid in order that such solid particles
may not clog the control ori?ce. While as here
shown it is below the casing 9, it may, if preferred,
be placed above casing» 9. However, this strain
the “key” or controlling radiator of a heating
system and receives steam from the supply main
er is not an essential feature of the invention
voltage-divider, .1 which is preferably built into
than 360° and usuallyonly approximately 180°.
the motormcasing'the arrangement being such
As illustrated in Fig. 4, the shaft 25 has ?xed
and ‘may be omitted if desired. The strainer
2. Steam is supplied to this radiator (and to
discharges the liquid into a pipe [8 whose lower
the other radiators associated with this key ra 50 end is connected to the ori?ce valve [9. This
diator) by the admission valve, 3 having the
ori?ce valve may be of any appropriate type op
actuating stem 4. This valve may be of any de
erative accurately‘to control the ?ow of liquid
downwardly through it. A valve appropriate for
' sired type, although it is contemplated that it
the purpose is disclosed in the patent to Jones
will be so devised that less than a 360° turn of
the stem 4 wil1 move the valve from full open to 55 et al., No. 2,247,090, June 24, 1941. As illustrated
in Fig. 2, this valve l9 has the valve head 22 com
fullclosed position and vice versa. The stem 4
prising the ‘conical plug portion 123 which is lo
is turned back and forth by a reversible electric
cated within a control ori?ce formed in the ori
motor 5, preferably of a type commonly em
?ce member 24. The valve head is moved ax~
ployed for actuating dampers or the like and
wherein the motor shaft rocks through an arc 60 ially by means of a rotary stem 25. From the
of less than360° and usually only approximately‘ - valve casing IS a pipe 20 extends downwardly
and is connected into the return main R of the
180°. While as illustrated in Fig. 1, the valve
heating system. A pressure equalizing or bal
stem 4 is directly connected to the motor shaft,
ancing conduit 2| leads from the upper part of
it is obvious that motion-transmitting means 65 the casing 9 to a point in the pipe v20 beyond the
of conventional type, for instance gears or cams,
valve 19, thereby to maintain substantially equal
may be interposed between the valve stem and
‘pressures in the chamber I 0 andin the pipe 20.
motor shaft ,if, it bev desired to turn the valve
The valve stem 25 is connected, preferably di-. stem in other‘ than a one-to-one ratio relative to
rectly, to the vshaft of a reversible motor'26 which,
the'turningof the motor shaft. As indicated in 70 may be of the same type as the motor ‘5 above
Fig. 3, the, shaftr4, of this motor carries the
referred to, that is to say, an electric motor hav
ing a shaft which rocks through an angle less
swinging control arm '6 of a potentiometer or
that astheinotor shaftturns in one direction or 7:5‘ thereto the movable control arm 21 of a poten~
2,411,731
7
tiometer or voltage-divider 28, and thus when
temperature outsideof' the‘building should drop,
the motor shaft is rocked on one direction or the
then the thermostat 29, 3-!) would movethe arm 3!
of the potentiometer 32 in such adirection as to
cause-current to flow through the leads of the
relay 34 andthus energize the motor '26. .The
motor shaft 25 and potentiometer arm'Z'I would
then turn in such-a direction, as gradually to
open the ori?ce valve I9, thus establishing a
other, the arm 2'! is likewise rocked. As above
suggested with reference to the motor'5 and stem
4, suitableratio-varying connections ‘of conven
tionaltype may, if desired, be interposed between
the valve stem 2-5 and the shaft of motor 26.
The control bulb 29 (Fig. 4) of a thermostat
device (typical of any secondary control) is pref;
faster rate of discharge of liquid from the ?oat
erably located outside of the building which is
chamber II]. In practice these changes are suffi
heated by this system, and this bulb is;c0nnected
ciently frequent so that the water level ‘in the
to the motor element 30 of the thermostat. , This
?oat chamber actually varies but slightly in
motor is here ‘shown as a metallic bellows and is
height, the apparatus being very sensitively re
designed to move the control arm 3| of a poten
sponsive to such changes in ‘level and ‘thus con;
tiometer or voltage-divider 32. The potentiom 15 stantly maintaining substantially the exact steam
eters 32 and 28 are connected through the polar
supply proper to provide the necessary heat under
ized relay 34 so that the position of arm 3| de
varying conditions of outside temperature.
termines that of arm 21 in exactly the same way
Obviously the twoicontrols, that is to say, the
that arm 6 controls arm I4, as above described.
?oat control and the outdoor thermostat, while
The valve I9 is located at a distance below the
independent of each other so far as their control
normal liquid level in the chamber I0 such as
of the motors 5 and 26 is concerned, nevertheless
thereby to provide a predetermined ?uid head at
cooperate automatically to maintain a substan
the valve ori?ce under normal conditions. For
tially uniform temperature‘ within the building.
instance, the ori?ce may be located at a dis
It is further obvious that both of these devices
tance of approximately 27.68" below the hori 25 may be operating at the same time and that
zontal plane of the shaft I3, thereby providing
under certain conditions the action of one may
substantially one pound pressure head at the
neutralize that of the‘ other so that there is no
valve ori?ce when the ?oat arm I2 is horizontal.
actual variation in the amount of steam delivered
Assuming that the system is totake care of
to the radiator. ‘While the thermostat bulb 23
outdoor temperature variations between 0° and 30 will usually be placed outside of the building, it
approximately 70° F., and assuming that the in
may be otherwise located if desired,
'
' '
terior of the ‘building is at the desired temper
It is to be understood that a secondary control,
ature while the temperature outside is 35° F., and
for example an indoor thermostat, may be pro;
that under these conditions the water level in
vided for controlling the admission of steam to
the ?oat chamber I0 is such that the ?oat. arm
I2 is horizontal, the potentiometer arm I4 will be
at such a point that no current is supplied to the
motor 5 and the valve 3 is partly open. Just
enough steam is now being supplied to the ra
diator to equal the condensate which is dis 40
charged through the ori?ce valve I9 under the
normal pressure head.
>
‘ If it now be assumed that for the above tem
perature conditions the valve 3 has not yet been
properly set and that moresteam than necessary
is entering the radiatonthus causing over-l1eat-'
ing and waste, more condensate will be delivered
to the chamber 9 than will pass through the
ori?ce valve I9 under the above head and in
consequence the water level in chamber 9 will rise
and the ?oat II will rise with the water, thus
moving the potentiometer arm I4 to a new posi
tion, thus energizing the relay 35 and supplying
current to the motor 5.
This causes the motor
5 to turn the valve stem 4 andthus close the
steam admission valve to some further extent.
As the valve stem turns, the arm 6 also is moved,
and this movement continues until the arms I4
and 5 are at the equipotential point, thus deener
gizing the relay, cutting oifv current from the
motor 5, and leaving the admission valve 3 more
nearly closed. This restricts the flow of steam
to the radiator and less condensate therefore
reaches the chamber 9 per unit‘of time and the
Water level gradually drops. '
If, on the other hand, insu?‘lcient steam is being
supplied to the radiator than is proper, under
the system, for instancefdu'ring' the early part
of the day when it is necessary rapidly tovbuild
up the temperature in the room, and that such
secondary control may be of any usual 'type'
and may be cut in and out of action by the
engineer in charge at the proper time, or auto
matically, for example, by such a well known
device as a program clock.
In Fig. 3 there is
indicated diagrammatically at 33 a‘ manually
actuable switch device which may be employed
{for cutting out of actionand fully'op'ening the
?oat-controlled valve, if desired. Obviously other
usual 'adjunctive features of "a heating system
may be supplied, such, for example, as vacuum ‘or
condensate valves or the like, all in accordance
l with usual practice and which have no neces
sary relation to the control device of the present
invention. One desirable adjunct is a manually
operated rheostat whereby to modify, at will,
the setting of valve I?! as called for by the auto
matic control. In ‘order to‘ permit of the use of’
alternating current for actuating the valve
motors, and to permit a simple type of reversible
motor to be employed, the controlling circuit in
cludes the polarized alternating current relays 34
and 35 above described, but since the type of motor
here suggested is well known, and the electrical
circuits used in controlling such motors are well
known, it seems unnecessary herein to describe
such circuits in greater detail.
It may again be noted that in accordance with
this arrangement the ‘control of the admission of
steam to the radiator is wholly independent of
the assumed temperature conditions, the water
the pressure in the steam supply main or in the
level in the ?oat chamber will drop and the lower
return main but is dependent only upon the
ing of the ?oat will move the potentiometer arm 70. amount of condensate whichis produced by the
It to such a setting as to energize the relay-35
radiator under any given conditions of use.
and permit current to ?ow to the motor 5 in a
direction such as to turn the motor shaft 4 so
as to open the valve 3.
While the ?oat control of the potentiometer
device I5 is desirableand is herein speci?cally
g
'
-_
illustrated, such float control responding to varia- ‘
-. .If under. .~ the ~9Qndi?9ns- above. suggested - the 75 tions "in. the. volume of. condensate delivered; it is.‘
2,411,731
' to be understood that equivalent means respon
sive to the quantity of condensate delivered may
be substituted for such ?oat control.
For ex
ample, suitable means for actually weighing the
condensate delivered may be substituted for the
?oat control within the purview of the present
invention, as well as other and equivalent means
for measuring the volume of the liquid. ,
10
kier or still is a, condenser, and when herein ref
erence is made to a “condenser” without quali?
cation, the term is to be regarded as broadly in
clusive of any heat-exchanger which functions to
reduce a'relatively hot vaporous or gaseous sub
stance to a relatively cooler liquid state.
While certain desirable embodiments of the in
vention have herein been disclosed by way of ex
ample, it is to be understood that the invention
Fig. 5 illustrates .a heat exchange system of
modi?ed construction wherein pneumatic motors 10' is not necessarily limited .to these precise embodi
ments but is to be regarded as broadly inclusive
replace the electric motors in the system here
of any and all equivalent constructions falling
inabove described. Ascshown in Fig. 5, the con
within the scope of the appended claims.
densable ?uid, for example hot steam, is supplied
through the supply main 2 tothe admission valve
3. i This admissionvalve controls the delivery of 15'
thehot steam to the distributing main 2a from
which pipes 21’, 2c, etc., lead to radiators or banks
of radiators suitably arranged in the structure
I claim:
_
‘
1. In a steam-heating system having a radiator
and an adjustable steam-admission valve for
varying the quantity of steam delivered by the
radiator, a receptacle for the collection of liquid
condensed in the radiator, a ?oat in the recep
whichisto be heated.’ As here illustrated the
pipe 2° leads to a radiator I? which is a “key” or 20 tacle, a reversible electric motor for adjusting the
steam-admission valve, means controlled by the
control radiator and which may be located at any
?oat for determining the direction in which the
suitable point in the'structure which is to be
motor shaft turns, an ori?ce-valve operative to
heated, in particular ,at a point where it will be
determine the rate of escape of liquid from the
subjectedto typical or selected conditions of ex
posure. From this key radiator I81 a return pipe 25 receptacle, a thermostat remote from the radiator
and exposed to outdoor temperatures, and a re-v
8 leads to a ?oat. chamber ,9 such as hereinabove
versible electric motor controlled by the thermo
described, , Within this ?oat chamber is a mov
stat for setting the ori?ce-valve.
able ?oat ll carried by a swinging arm I2 ?xed
2. In a steam-heating system having a radiator,
to a shift l3a to which is also secured gear Me.
an
adjustable steam-admission valve, a receptacle
This gear- Ma- mesheswith a gear l5‘,1 which may
for collecting liquid condensed in the radiator,
be of the same or different diameter, as desired,
an ori?ce-valve for determining the rate of es
and which is mounted upon the actuating shaft
cape of liquid from the receptacle, a reversible
or, stem of an, air control valve V. The system
electric motor for actuating each of said valves
comprises an aircompressor Cor other source
and circuits for supplying current to each mo
of compressed air- and, from this source, pipes,
tor, respectively, each of said circuits including a
including the pipe I5”, leadthe compressed air to
polarized relay and a potentiometer, each po
the valve V. From this valve an air delivery pipe
tentiometer comprising a control arm operatively
Lif= leadsto a pneumatic motor 5a of any conven
connected to the respective motor shaft, a mov
tional or appropriate typepperative to open and
able ?oat within the receptacle, one of said cir
close-the steam admission valve, 3.
v
cuits also including a potentiometer having a con
_. ,I'I‘he condensate which, collects in the ?oat
trol arm operatively connected to the ?oat, and
chamber}! is. drained off through the pipe I8 into
a thermostat, the other circuit including a po
the casing of the ori?ce valve l 9 which discharges,
tentiometer having a control arm actuable by
through arpipe 20 to the condensate return main
the thermostat, the parts being so constructed.
R. A pressureequalizing or. balancing conduit 2|
and arranged that movement of the last-named
extends from the pipe 20 to the upper part of the
potentiometer
arm by the thermostat in one di
?oat chamber ,9.‘ A thermostat 29, preferably
rection or the other causes the ori?ce-valve motor
mounted outside of the structure to be heated, is
to turn in one direction or the other, while move
arranged to actuate anair control valve 30‘1 which
receives air from the ‘source Cand which de 50 ment of the ?oat-actuated potentiometer arm in
one direction or the other causes the steam-sup
livers air throughthe, pipe SUP-to, a pneumatic
ply valve motor to turn in one direction or the
motor 26a of conventional type which isarranged
toposition the ori?ce valve 19.
3. In a steam-heating system having a radiator,'
' Since this apparatus functions‘in substantiale
other.
' ~
'ly the same wayand with the same object in view 55 an adjustable steam-admission valve, a recep
tacle for collecting liquid condensed in the radi
as thatabove described, it is apparently unnec
ator, an ori?ce-valve for determining the rate
of escape‘ of liquid from the receptacle, a reversi-‘
controls the ori?cevalve l9. by means of pneu-.. Y vble electric motor for actuating each of said
valves, and circuits for supplying current to each
matic motor 26% in accordance. with variations in,
sary to describe its mode of operation speci?cally,
other than to pointv out that the thermostat 29,
outsidelatmospheric conditions, while the pneu
matic .motor 5?, controlled by the ?oat, deter
motor, respectively, each of said circuits includ
ing a potentiometer comprising a control arm
?xed to the respective motor shaft, a movable
?oat within the receptacle, one of said circuits
also including a potentiometer having a control
densate in the chamber 9.
' 65
arm operatively connected to the ?oat, and a ther
- When several radiators are included in the sys
mostat, the other'circuit also including a poten-l
temyall being supplied by valve 3, each radiator
tiometer having a control arm actuable by the
should be provided with an inlet ori?ce in order
thermostat, the parts being so constructed and
tobalance distribution and to insure that each
70 arranged that movement of the last-named‘ po
radiator receives its proportionate amount.
tentiometer arm bythe thermostat in one direc
In ‘the above discussion of the embodiment of
tion or the other causes the ori?ce-valve motor
the invention in a steam heating system, the
to turn in one direction or the other, while move-H
heat-exchange element of the system is referred
ment of the ?oat-actuated potentiometer arm‘ in
to‘in terms vof'that particular art as a “radiator,”
one direction or the other causes the steam-sup-l
but, broadly speaking, a radiator, heating-coil,
mines the admission of.‘ steam by valve 3 in ac
cordance with variations in the level of con
2,411,731
ii
12
ply valve motor to turn in one‘dire'ction or ‘the
other, each of said circuits including a polarized,
alternating current relay.
-
4. In a steam-heating system having a radi
ator, an adjustable steam-admission valve, a re
ceptacle for collecting liquid condensed in the
radiator, an ori?ce-valve for determining the
rateof escape of liquid from the receptacle, a
reversible electric motor for actuating each of
said valves and circuits for supplying current to
each motor, respectively, each of said circuits in
cluding a polarized relay and a potentiometer,
the latter comprising a control arm ?xed to the
respective motor shaft, a movable ?oat within
the receptacle, one of said circuits including a
second potentionieter having a control arm oper
atively connected to the ?oat, and a thermostat,
the other circuit including a second potentiome
ter having a control arm actuable by the ther
mostat, the parts being so constructed and ar
ranged that movement of the last-named po
tentiometer arm by the thermostat in one di
rection or the other causes the ori?ce-valve mo
tor to turn in one direction or the other, while
movement of the ?oat-actuated potentiometer
arm in one direction or the other causes the
steam~supply valve motor to turn in one direc
tion or the other,v one at least of said circuits
including a switch whereby the delivery of cur
rent to either motor may be manually controlled
at will.
5. In a steameheating system having a radi
ator, a steam supply main, a steam-admission
valve operative to control the delivery of steam
from the supply main to the radiator, a pneu
matic motor ‘for closing and opening the ad
mission valve, a source of compressed air, a re
ceptacle for collecting liquid which condenses in
the radiator, an ori?ce valve for determining
the rate of escape of liquid from the receptacle,
a pneumatic motor for closing and opening the
ori?ce valve, an air control valveoperative to
determine the flow of compressed air from the
source to the admission valve motor, a movable
supply ‘main for said fluid, a plurality of radi
ators one of which is a, key radiator, pipes lead
ing to and from the several radiators, a main
admission valve operative to control the passage
of the ?uid from the supply main to the pipes
which lead to the radiators, a motor for closing
and opening the admission valve, a source of
energy for driving the motor, a receptacle for
condensate from the key radiator, an ori?ce
valve for determining the rate of escape of liquid
from the receptacle, a motor for closing and
opening the ori?ce valve, control means opera
tive to admit energy from the source to the ad
mission and ori?ce valve motors, a movable float‘
in the receptacle, means actuated by the ?oat
for operating the control means which admits
driving energy to the admission valve motor, a
thermostat, and means actuated by the’ thermo-.
stat for operating the control means which ad
mits driving energy to the ori?ce valve motor.
8. In a heat exchange system including a ra
diator, a steam supply conduit, a steam admis
sion valve operative to control the amount of
steam admitted to the radiator from the supply
conduit, a reversible motor for' actuating the
steam admission valve, a receptacle for collect
ing the liquid which condenses in the radiator, 21
motor-actuated ori?ce-valve operative to deter
mine the rate of escape of the liquid from the re
ceptacle, means operative to energize the ori?ce
valve motor to open or close the ori?ce-valve in
proport1on to variations in outdoor temperature,
and means operative to energize the steam ad
mission valve motor to move in a direction to
close the steam admission valve whenever the liq
uid level in the receptacle rises above normal and
to move in a direction to open the steam ‘admis
sion valve whenever the liquid level in the recep
tacle drops below normal.
9. In a steani~heating system having a radi-‘
ator and an adjustable steam-admission valve
for varying the quantity of steam delivered to the
radiator, said valve having a casing de?ning in
?oat within the receptacle operatively connected
to said air control valve for actuating the latter,
let and delivery chambers, a second casing hav
ing therein a condensate chamber for the collec
tion of liquid condensed in the radiator and in
a thermostat, an air control valve operative to
determine the how of air from the source to the
livery end ofthe radiator, a pipe for conducting
ori?ce valve motor, and means actuated by the
thermostat for operating said latter air valve.
6. In a heat-exchange system wherein radi-—
ators are supplied with a condensable ?uid, a
supply main for said ?uid, a plurality of radi
ators, one of which is.a key radiator, pipes lead
ing to and from the several radiators, a main
admission valve operative to control the passage
of the fluid from the supply main to the ‘pipes
which lead to the radiators, a pneumatic motor
for closing and opening the admission valve, a
source of compressed air, a receptacle for con
which the pressure never exceeds that in'the de
steam from the delivery chamber of the steam
admission valve to the supply end of the radiator,
a pipe for conducting condensate from the deliV-'
ery end of the radiator to the condensate cham'
her, the radiator providing the only path for the
flow of ?uid from the delivery chamber of the
admission valve to the ‘condensate chamber, a
float in the condensate chamber, a reversible
electric motor for adjusting the steam-admission
. valve, means controlled by the ?oat for deter
mining the direction in which-the motor shaft
60 turns, an ori?ce-valve operative to determine the.
rate of escape of liquid from the condensate
chamber, a thermostat remote from the radia-,
tor and exposed to outdoor temperatures, and‘
densate from the key radiator, an ori?ce-valve
for determining the rate of escape of liquid from
the receptacle, a pneumatic motor for closing
and opening the ori?ce-valve, air control valves
means controlled by the thermostat for setting
operative, respectively, to admit air from the 65 the ori?ce-valve.
source of compressed air to the admission and
10. In a heat exchange systemwherein radi
ori?ce-valve motors, a movable ?oat in the re
ators are supplied with ‘a condensable ?uid, a
ceptacle, means actuable by the ?oat for oper
supply main for said fluid, a plurality of radia
ating the air valve which supplies air to the
tors one of which is a key radiator, pipes leading
admission-valve motor, a thermostat, and means, 70 to and from the several radiators, a ‘main admis
actuable by the thermostat for operating the air
sion valve operative to control the passage of the
valve which supplies air to ‘ the‘ ori?ce-valve
?uid from the supply main to the'pipes which,
lead to the radiators, a motor for closing and
7. In a heat exchange system wherein radi
opening the admission valve, a'sour'ce of energy
ators are supplied with a condensable fluid, a 75 for driving the motor, a casing remote from the
motor.
-
1
2,411,731
1'3
-
admission valve and having therein a condensate
chamber for the collection of condensate from
the key radiator, one of said pipes conducting.
14
amount of steam admitted to the radiator from
a supply conduit, a reversible motor for actuat
ing the stem of the steam-admission valve, a cas
steam fromthe steam-admission valve to the
supply end ‘or the key radiator and another of
ing independent of the valve casing de?ninga
condensate chamber forv collecting the liquid
said pipes conducting condensate from the de
livery end of the key radiator to said condensate
chamber, the key radiator providing the only
which condenses in the radiator, a pipe for con
pressure in the condensate chamber never ex
radiator providing the only path for the ?ow of ,
ceeds that at the delivery end of the radiator, an
ori?ce-valve for determining the rate’ of ‘escape
?uid from the supply conduit to the condensate
chamber whereby the pressure in the condensate
ducting steam from the casing of the admission
valve to the supply end of the radiator, a pipe
fOr conducting condensate from the delivery end
path for the flow of ?uid from the steam supply
main to the condensate chamber whereby the 10 of the radiator to the condensate chamber, the
of liquid from the condensate chamber, a mo
chamber never exceeds that at the delivery end
tor for closing and opening the ori?ce valve, con
15 of the radiator, a motor-actuated ori?ce valve
operative to determine the rate of escape of the
liquid from the condensate chamber, means op
erative to energize the ori?ce-valve motor to open
a movable float in the condensate chamber,
or close the ori?ce-valve in proportion to varia
means actuated by the float for operating the
control means which admits driving energy to the 20 tions in outdoor temperature, and means oper
ative to energize the steam-admission valve mo
admission valve motor, a thermostat, and means
trol means operative to admit energy from the
' source to the admission and ori?ce-valve motors,
actuated by the thermostat for operating the
tor to move in a direction to close the steam-ad
control means which admits driving energy to
mission valve whenever the liquid level in the
condensate chamber rises above normal and to
the ori?ce-valve motor.
,
11. In a heat exchange system including a ra
25 move in a direction to open thesteam-admission
diator, a steam supply conduit, a steam-admis
valve whenever the liquid level in the condensate
sion valve having a casing and a movable valve
chamber drops below normal,
WILLIAM T. JONES.
stem, said valve being operative to control the
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 335 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа