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Nov. 26', 1946.
I
‘M, M MORA'CK
2,411,742
nm-zc’mzc VALVE SYSTEM
Filed‘ Sept. 1’, 1942
Figl.
2 Sheets-sheaf 1
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Marvin M. Mohack,
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Noir. '26, 1946.
M, M, MQRACK
2,411,742
ELECTRIC VALVE SYSTEM‘
File‘d Sept. 1,‘ 1942
_
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
PHASE
JHIFTER
CIRCUIT
Inventor:
Marvin M. Morack;
7 His Attorney.
1' 2,411,742
"UNITED, STATES rArENroFrica "
nate; niece, 1m
' ELECTRIC VALVE srs'rrm
Marvin M. Morack, Scotia, N. Y.l,'assignor to Gen;
eral Electric Company, a‘ corporation of New
York
Application September 1, 1942, Serial No. 456,887
13 Claims. (Cl. 115-7363)
1
2
For a better understanding of my invention,
My invention relates to electric valve
and-more particularly to control or' excitation,
reference may be had to the following description
taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in the
circuits for electric valve translating apparatus. '
Electric valve means of the type employing
self-reconstructing type cathodes. such'as mer
cury pool cathodes, have found rather wide ap
plication in many fields where it is desired to
transmit relatively large currents due to the fact
appended claims. ' Fig.v l ofthe accompanying
drawings diagrammatically illustrates in detail
the improved excitation circuit as applied to an
electric valve means employing an immersion
ignitor control member, and Fig. ,2 represents
operating characteristics of the arrange
plying relatively large currents. In accordance 10' certain
ment ‘shown in Fig; 1. Fig. 3 diagrammatically '
with the teachings of my invention described
illustrates the manner in which the excitation
hereinafter, I provide a new and improved con
circuit shown in Fig. 1 may be applied to electric
trol or excitation circuit and translating-appara
' that cathodes of this nature are capable of sup- .
valve‘translating apparatus as, by way of ex
ample, to an electric'valve‘inverter for trans
mitting energy from a direct current supply cir
tus wherein electric valve means of. this type
are accurately and precisely controllable.
‘
It is an object of my invention to provide new,
"cuit to‘an alternating current load circuit.
and improved electric valve apparatus.
Referring now to Fig. l :of the accompanying
It is another object of my invention to provide
drawings, 1 have there illustrated my invention
new and improved electric, valve'translating ap
as applied to an arrangement for controlling
paratus and animproved control or excitation 20 the
operation of an electric valve means i. The
circuit therefor.
a
electric valve means i is connected to a circuit
[It is a further object of my invention to pro
includingv conductors '2 and 3, and the, current
vide ‘a new and improved control or excitation
circuitfor electric valve means of the type'em- ,
flow through the electric valve means I controls
25 the energization of circuit 2, 3. The electric valve
ploying self-reconstructing cathodes and‘ arc
means i may be connected in an ‘electric trans
ignition means, ‘such as an immersion-ignitor.
vcontrol member, and'wherein auxiliary control
means or control electrodes are energizedT'in a
lating system such as that shown in Fig. 3 ex
‘ plained hereinafter.
Electric valve means i is preferably of the type
manner to assure and obtain precise initiation
employing an ionizable medium capable of sup
of current conduction between the anode and 30 porting
an arc discharge and includes an anode
cathode of the electric valve means.
.
1
4-, a cathode 5 which may be of the self-recon
Brie?y stated, in the illustrated embodiment
structing type such as a mercury pool cathode,
and includes arc-ignition means such as an im
of my invention 1 provide a new and improved
control or-excitation circuit for an electric valve
mersion-ignitor control member 6 which when
means of the type which includes an immersion
ignitor control member associated with a mer
properly energized initiates an arc discharge >
within the electric valve means by establishing
a cathode spot. The immersion-ignitor control
cury pool cathode, and which is provided with
auxiliary control means which may comprise a
pair of auxiliary grids or electrodes which are ' member. 8 may be constructed of a‘ material such
boron-carbide or silicon-carbide having an
energized in a manner to obtain precise and re 40 as
electrical resistivity which .is large ‘compared with .
liable initiation of current conduction between
that of the mercury of the associated pool. Elec
tric valve means I also includes auxiliary control
the anode and cathode after the proper energiza
tion of the immersion-ignitor control member
which initiates the arc discharge; I provide
means for transmitting impulses of current to
the immersion-ignitor control member having a
timed relationship or predetermined ‘phase rela
means. such as a pair of auxiliary electrodes or
grids 1- and 8 which are spaced between anode l
and cathode 5 ‘and may be spaced from each
other.
These grids, upon‘proper energization
in the manner explained hereinafter, assist in
tionship with respect to the voltage of an asso
the propagation of the arc discharge from the
ciated source of alternating current or an‘ alter
cathode 5 to‘ the anode 5, thereby precisely con
I
also
provide
50
nating current supply circuit.
trolling the time of initiation ,of current ?ow
means for impressing" impulses of voltage of
through the anode-cathode circuit of the elec
peaked wave form on the auxiliary control means
tric valve means. I also provide in the electric
or the control,‘ electrodes having a constant pre
valvemeans a holding-anode 9. and a relievingv
determined lagging phase relationship with re
anode l0 which serves to relieve the duty im
spect tov the times of energization of the im 55 posed
on immersion-ignitor control member 6.
mersion-ignitor ‘control member, thereby assist
I
provide
excitation means for periodically
ing in the propagation of the arc discharges from
transmitting impulses of current to the immer
the cathode to the anode and obtaining ‘precise
sion-ignito'r control member 6. The excitation
control of the instant at which current conduc
means may be energized from a source of alter
tion is initiated in the anode-cathode circuit.
60
2,411,742
nating current Ii and may include a capacitance
l2 which is charged from the source H through
apparatus including transforming means or a
transformer i 3 having secondary winding means
l4 provided with connections or taps i 5 and i6.
Capacitance I2 is charged from the upper portion
of secondary winding means l4 through a circuit
including a unidirectional conducting device, such
as an electric valve l1, and a resistance l8. Al
though the electric valve I‘! is shown as being,
of the type having an enclosing receptacle, it will
be understood that rectifying'units or devices of
the dry type may be employed if desired.‘
Capacitance i2 is periodically discharged to
transmit unidirectional impulses of current to
the control member 6. The discharge circuit may
include an electric discharge device l9, prefer
4
vide means for simultaneously impressing on the‘
5
grids ‘I and 8 of the electric valve'means i only
unidirectional impulses of voltage of peaked wave
form. Referring to the circuit connected be
tween grids ‘I and 8 and the saturable inductive
peaking device 33, I provide electrical impulse
generating and transmitting means, such as a
capacitance 34 or a pair of capacitances 34 and
35, which are connected in circuit with secondary
winding means 36 of the inductive device 33
through a‘ unidirectional conducting device such
as an electric valve 31. An impedance, such
_ as a resistance 38, of relatively large value may
beconnected across the anode-cathode circuit of
r the electric valve means 31 so that in the event
the electric valve 31 fails the circuit will never
theless serve to impress impulses of voltage on
ably of the type employing an ionizable medium,
grids 1 and 8. It will be noted that the common
and includes a control member or grid 20 which
juncture 39 of capacitances 85 and 36 is connected
determines the time at which the discharge of 20 to the cathode 5 of electric valve means I through
the capacitance I2 is initiated. An inductance
a conductor 40, and that grid ‘| is connected to the
2| may be connected in series relation with the
electric discharge device l9 and the discharge
‘device 19 is connected to the immersion~ignitor
upper terminalv of secondary winding means 36
through a conductor 4| and resistances 42 and
43. Grid 8 is also connected to the upper tercontrol member 6 through a resistance 22 and a 25 minal of secondary winding means 36 through
conductor 23.
a conductor 44 and resistances 43 and. 45. Due
Resistance 22 serves as ,a transfer resistance
to the fact that the interconnection between con
and is connected to the relieving anode in through
ductors 4i and 44 is nonreactive, it will be ap
a conductor 24. Due to the increased current ?ow
preciated that the impulses of voltage impressed
through resistance 22, upon initiation of the arc 30 on grids 1 and 8 are in phase. / '
discharge, the potential of the relieving anode
A voltage protective means, such as a resist
I0 is raised to e?'ect transfer of the greater por
ance 46, is connected across the output circuit
tion of the excitation current to anode I0.
of the impulse generating means to‘limit the volt
I provide means for impressing on grid 20 of
age thereof. The resistance, 46 may be of the
electric discharge device IS a periodic voltage of
type having a negative nonlinear impedance
predetermined phase displacement relative to the
current characteristic, such as of the material
voltage applied to the-charging circuit for ca
disclosed and claimed in U. S. Patent N0. 1,822,742,
pacitance l2, thereby controlling the time of ini
granted September 8, 1931, upon an application
tiation of current conduction. This means may‘
of Karl B. McEachron; and which is assigned
comprise a phase shifting circuit 25 including 40 to the assignee of the present application. Fur
a transformer 26 which is energized from trans
thermore, I provide means for limiting the mag
former l3 and may be connected across that por- L ' nitude of the voltage appearing across capaci
tionv of the secondary winding means l4 between
tances 34 and 36, and-,this protective means may
taps I5 and IS. The phase shifting circuit also
comprise a resistance 41 constructed of a mate
includes a reactive element, such as a capacitance . rial similar to that used for resistance 46.
21, and may include self-biasing means such as
I may also employ means for indicating the
a parallel connected capacitance 28 and a re
condition of the impulse ‘generating means, such
sistance 29. The phase shifting means may be
as glow discharge devices 48 and 48, which a?ord
of the type in which a non-reactive element, such
one luminescent condition for normal operation
as a resistance 30, is used in conJunction with 50' and a different luminescent condition for abnor
the reactive element to produce a desired con
mal operation in the manner disclosed and
stant phase displacement between the voltage
claimed in U. S. Letters Patent No. 2,130,440,
impressed on grid 20 and the voltage supplied
granted September 20, 1938, upon application of
to transformer 26.,
C. H. Willis et al., and which is assigned to the
.
I provide means forimpressing on the holding 55 assignee of the present application.
anode 8 a voltage of predeterminedpolarity and
I provide means for controlling the‘ phase of
magnitude in order to maintain an arc discharge
.the ‘impulses of current transmitted to immer
within the electric valve means I for a prede
sion-ig'nitorcontrol member 6 and for maintain
termined interval of time after the initiation of
ing a predetermined constant phase displace
the arc discharge. More particularly, I connect 60 ment, such as a lagging phase displacement, be
the holding anode 8 to a source having 180 elec
tween the voltages supplied to grids l and 6 and
trical degrees phase displacement relative to the
holding anode 8 and the impulses of current
voltage applied to the charging circuit of capac
transmitted to control member 6. This means
itance 12. For‘ example, the holding ‘anode 6
may include a common phase shifting device 68
may be connected to the lower portion of the
which is connected between the source of alter
secondary winding 13 of transformer l4 by means
nating current H and the transformer l2 and
> of a- conductor II‘ and a resistance 32.
In order to impress on the grids 1 and 8 of the
- electric valve means I periodic voltages, such as
voltages of peaked wave form, thereby assist
'lnginthe propagation of are discharges between
the anode and cathode after the initiation there
the phaseshifting circuit 26.. By these means,
a constant degree of accuracy in the initiation
of current conduction between the anode and
cathode of electric valve means I is assured, ir
respective of the time during the cycle of voltage
applied tothe anode-cathode circuit at which it
is desired to initiate currentv conduction.
The operation of the system of my invention
gized from transformer l3. Furthermore, I pro 75 shown in Fig. 1 will be explained by considering
of, I provide means, such as a saturable induc
tive peaking device 38, which may also be ener
2,411,742
tion current ‘to control member 3 in the order
the system when-it is desired to initiate current
conduction through the anode-cathode circuit 01
‘of 5-15 electrical degrees.
electric valve means I. If the circuit 2, 3 is an
alternating current circuit, it will be appreciated
that in orderto obtain currentv?ow during each
cycle or applied anode-cathode voltage it will be
necessary to effect energization of the immer-f '
sion-ignitor control member 8 during each cycle.
Excitation circuit including capacitance 12
operates to transmit an impulse of current to 10
the immersion-ignitor control member 6 during
each cyclev of voltage of source ll. Capacitance
1! is charged through the portion of secondary
winding means it between the upper terminal
and. tap l6 (through the electric valve l1 su?i 15
ciently prior to the time when itvis desired tov
. discharge the capacitance.
At the predeter
In Fig. .3 I, have-illustrated in schematic form
the manner in which my improved excitation cir
cuit may be applied to an electric valve trans
lating apparatus, such as an electric valve in
verter for-energizing an alternating current load
circuit 5| .from a direct current supply circuit
including a positive conductor 52 and a negative
conductor 53. A pair of electric valve means la
and lb may be connected to the system through _
a transformer 54. It a’ su?‘icient commutating
voltage is not available in the alternating cur
rent load circuit 5|, commutating means, such as
a capacitance 55, may be connected in the man
ner illustrated to perform the commutating oper
ation.
,
Excitation circuits 58 and 51 are similar in con
mined time established by the phase shifting cir
struction and arrangement to the excitation cir-v
cuit 25 and the adjustment of phase shifting
cuit shown in detail in Fig. l, and corresponding .
device 50, electric discharge device 19 is rendered 20 elements and connections have been assigned like
conducting by the periodic voltage impressed on
reference numerals. It will be appreciated that
grid 23 so that capacitance l2 discharges through
since it is desired to initiate arc discharges within
a circuit including inductance 2|, discharge de
electric valve means la and lb at times displaced
vice l9, resistance 22, conductor 23, control mem
substantially 180 electrical degrees relative to the
25
ber 6 and cathode 5. The transmission of cur
voltage of the load circuit 5|, the excitation cir
rent through control member 6 establishes a cath
cuits will be arranged'to transmit impulses of
ode spot and initiates an arc discharge within
current to the immersion-ignitor control mem
the electric valve means, whereupon the greater
bers 6 at times displaced substantially 180 elec
portion of the excitation current or the discharge
trical degrees.
ac
current of capacitance I2 is transferred to the
While I have shown and described my inven-,
relieving anode ill. The holding anode 9 there
tion as applied to. particularsystems of connec
upon conducts current, serving to maintain the
tions and as embodying various devices diagram
medium in an ionized condition by virtue of the
voltage applied thereto by the lower portion of ‘
'
winding means It.
The impulse generating means including sate
matically shown, ‘it will be obvious to those skilled
35 in the art that changes and modi?cations may
be made without departing from my invention, ‘
and I, therefore, aim in the appended claims to
' urable inductive reactance' 33 impresses simul
cover all such changes and modi?cations as fall
taneously onv grids ‘I and 8 impulses of voltage
within the true ‘spirit and scope of my invention.
of peaked wave form, thereby assisting in the 40 vWhat I claim as new and desire to secure by
discharge
from
cathode
5
propagation of the arc
Letters Patent of the United States is:
'to anode 4 and accordingly controlling precisely’
1. In combination, an electric valve means of.
the time at which current ?ow'in the anode
- the type employing an ionizable medium capable
cathode circuit is initiated.
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
Due to the presence of the capacitances 34 and 45 anode, a cathode, an arc-ignition control member
35 and unidirectional conducting device 31, it
associated with said cathode and having a con
will be appreciated that the impulses of voltage a
trol grid, a source of alternating current,.excita-v
will
be
of
distinct
or
impressed on grids ‘I and 8
tion means energized from said alternating cur
sharp wave form. Furthermore, due to the
rent circuit for transmitting impulses of current
‘ transmission of current through this circuit, 'cae -50 to said control member and impulses of voltage to
and
35
will
be
charged
to
the
po
pacitances 34
said control grid, ‘phase shift means interposed
larity indicatedso that after the initiation of
between said alternating current circuit and said
current conduction between the cathode and
excitation means for controlling the phase of said
anode excessive current will not be transmitted , impulses, relative to the voltage of said source,
,
will
be
further
‘through the grid circuits. It
means independent of said phase shift means and
noted, that ‘by virtue of the connections provided,
interposed between said excitation means and
the impulsesof voltage impressed on grids "I and.
said control grid for maintaining a predetermined
8 lag the time‘ of occurrence of the impulses of
‘constant lagging phase displacement between the
current transmitted to control member 6.
The operation of the excitation circuit shown
in Fig. 1 may ‘be more fully appreciated by refer
ring to the operating characteristics shown in
Fig. 2, where curve A represents the voltage ap
pearing between the upper terminal of secondary
winding means l4 and tap l6 of transformer 13.
The broken wave B represents the voltage or
capacitance l2. Curve C represents the voltage
applied between the holding anodev 9 and cathode
5 and which is derived from the lower portion of
secondary winding means I‘. The peaked curve
D represents the impulse oilv current transmitted
to immersion-ignitor control member 6, and
curve E ._represents the impulses of voltage im
pressed on grids ‘I and 8. I have found that
satisfactory operation is obtained when the volt
ages impressed on grids ‘I and 8 lag the excita
impulses of current to said control member and .
60
65
the impulses of voltage to said control grid, and
means including an auxiliary electrode within
'said valve means for maintaining the ionization
initiated within said valve means by said control
member until said impulse of voltage is impressed
on said grid.
-
v '
2. In combination, electric valve means of the
‘type employing an ionizable medium capable of
supporting an arc discharge and including an
anode, a cathode, an arc-ignition control mem
70 ber associated with said cathode and having a
control grid for assisting in the propagationvof
the arc discharge between said cathode and said
anode, a source of alternating current, excitation
‘means energized from said source for transmit
76 ting impulses of current to said control member '
to initiate arc discharges, means for controlling
said capacitance from said source and means for .
the phase of said impulses relative to the voltage -
discharging said. capacitance through said control
member, means interconnecting said immersion
or said source, means interconnected with said
. last mentioned means for impressing on said grid
ignitor ccntrol'member, and said’ means for dis
charging said capacitance ior impressing on said
grid impulses oi‘ voltage having a predetermined
constant phase displacement with respect .to the
impulses of current transmitted to said control
a voltage having a predetermined constant lag
ging phase displacement relative to the impulses
of current supplied to said control member and
including a saturable peaking?eyice energized
from said source, and means including an auxil
iary electrode within said valve means for main
member and comprising a saturable inductive
peaking device connected to said source and said
control grid, and vmeans including an auxiliary
electrode within said valve means for maintain
ing the ionization initiated within said valve
taining the ionization initiated within said valve
means ‘by said control member‘ until said voltage
is impressed on said grid. -
I
'
3. In combination, an alternating current cir
by said control member until said‘ impulse
cuit, a direct current circuit, electric translating 15 ‘means
of voltage is impressed ‘on and grid. ,
'
apparatus connected between said circuits and
6. In combination, an electric valve means of
comprising an electric valve means employing an
the type employing an ionlzable medium capable
ionlzable medium capable of supporting an arc
of
supporting an arc discharge and comprising
discharge and including an anode, a cathode, an
an anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor con
immersion-ignitor control member associated 20 trol
member associated with said cathode and a
with said cathode and a control grid, excitation
means forgcontrolling an electrical condition of
one of the ?rst mentioned circuits and including
phase shift means energized from said alternating
current circuit for transmitting impulses of cur 25
rent to said immersion-ignitor control member
and voltage impulses to said control grid for con
trolling the phase relation oi said impulses rela
control grid, at source of alternating current, a
phase shifting device connected to said source
and having an output circuit, means connected
to said output circuit for transmitting impulses
of current of predetermined phase relation to said
immersion-ignitor control member and impulses
of voltage to said control grid, means independent
of said phase shifting device and energized from
tive to the voltage of said alternating current " said output circuit for maintaining on said grid
circuit, means interposed between said control 30 impulses of voltage having a predetermined con
member and said control grid and independent
stant phase displacement with respect to said
of said phase shift means for maintaining a
impulses
of current, and means including a hold
predetermined constant phase displacement be
ing anode within‘ said valve means for maintain
tween the impulses oi current transmitted to
ing the ionization initiated within said valve
said immersion-isnitor control member and the 35 means by said control member until said impulse
voltage impulses to said grid, and means includ
of voltage is impressed on said grid.
,
ing an auxiliary electrode within said valve
7. In combination, an electric valve means oi.’
means for maintaining the ionization initiated the type employing ,an ionlzable medium capable
within said valve means by said control member
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
until said impulse of voltage is impressed on said 40 anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control
grid.
'
'
ii. In combination, an electric valve means of
the type employing an ionlzable medium capable
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control
member associated with said cathode and a con
member associated with said cathode and a con
trol grid, a source of alternating current, means
‘ energized from said source for transmitting im
pulses of current of predetermined magnitude to
said control member in order to initiate are dis
charges within said electric valve means, means
trol grid, 9, source of alternating current, means
for controlling the phase of said impulses relative
to the voltage of said source, means intercon
wave form to said immersion-ignitor control
nected with said immersion-ignitor control mem
member comprising a capacitance connected to 50 ber for impressing on said grid impulses oi’ volt
for transmitting impulses of current. of peaked
be charged from said source and means for peri- >
odically discharging said capacitance, means con
age of predetermined constant phase displace
~ ment with respect to said impulses of current and
nected to said source for impressing on‘ said grid
comprising a, saturable inductive peaking device,
impulses of voltage 01 peaked wave iorm,'means
a capacitance, and unidirectional conducting
interconnecting said means for discharging said 65 means connected in series with said capacitance
capacitance and said last mentioned means for
to establish a negative unidirectional biasing
establishing a predetermined constant phase dis
potential, and means including an auxiliary elec- '
placement between the impulses of current trans
trode within said valve means for maintaining
mitted to said control member and the impulses
the ionization initiated within said valve means
of voltage impressed upon said grid, and means 60 by said control member until said impulse of
Including an auxiliary electrode within said valve , voltage is impressed on said grid.
,means ior maintaining the ionization'initiated
8. In combination, an electric valve means of
within said valve means by said controlmember x - the type employing an ionlzable medium capable
until said impulse of voltage is impressed on said
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
grid.
'
65 anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control
5. In combination, an electric valve means of
member associated with said cathode, a control
the type employing an ionlzable medium capable
grid and an auxiliary electrode, a source of alter
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
nating current, means energized from said source
anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control ‘ for transmitting to said control member impulses
member associated with said cathode and a con to of. current to initiate arc discharges within said
, trol grid, a source of alternating current, means
electric valve means, means for energizing said
for transmitting impulses of current of peaked
grid and said auxiliary electrode and for control
'wave form to said immersion-ignitor control
ling the times of initiation or current conduction
member and for initiating arc discharges and
between said anode and said cathode comprising
vcomprising a capacitance, means for charging 76 means'for simultaneously impressing on said grid
8,411,748
nected to said source of alternating current, and
and said electrode periodic voltages of peaked
wave form, and means including a holding anode
withinsaid valve means for maintaining the ion
ization initiated within said valve means by said
means including a holding anode within said valve
means ‘for maintaining the ionization initiated
1 within said'valve means by said control member
until-said impulse of voltage is impressed on said
control member until said impulse of voltage is
impressed on said grid.
grid.
-
.
' 12. In combination, an electric valve means of
'
9. In combination, an electric valve means of
the type employing an ionizable medium capable
the type employing an ionizable medium capable‘
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
anode, a cathode, an immersioneignitor control
anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control
member associated with said cathode, a control
grid interposed between‘ said anode and said
(cathode, a second control grid interposed between
said anodevand said cathode and a holding anode,
member associated with said cathode, a control
. grid and an auxiliary electrode,
a source of alter- '
nating current, means energized from said source
for transmitting to said control member impulses
a source of alternating current, means energized
from said source for transmitting impulses of
current to said immersion-ignitor control mem
ber and comprising a transformer having primary
of current to initiate arc discharges within said
for energizing said _
electric valve means, means
grid and said auxiliary electrode in order to con
winding means and secondary winding means, a
trol the times of initiation of current conduction
capacitance, means for charging said capacitance
between said anode and said cathode comprising
a saturable inductive peaking device energized 20 from said secondary winding means and means
for discharging said capacitance through said
from said source for simultaneously impressing
immersion-ignitor control member comprising an
on said grid and electrode periodic voltages of
electric discharge device having a grid, means
peaked wave form, and means including a holding
energized from said secondary'winding means for
anode within said valve means for maintaining
the ionization initiated within said valve means 25 impressing a voltage of predetermined phase re
lationship on the last mentionedgrid, mean-s tor
by said control member until saidimpulse of volt
connecting said holding anode to said secondary
age is impressed on said grid;
v
winding means, means energized from saidsec
' 10. In combination, an electric valve means
ondary winding means for impressing on the first
porting an arc discharge, and including an anode, 30 mentioned grids impulses or voltage of peaked
wave ‘form, and phase shifting means connected
a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control member
employing anionizable medium capable of sup
and a control grid,
a source of alternating cur-
,
between said source and said transformer for
rent, means energizedirom said source for trans
shifting by corresponding amounts the phase of .
mitting impulses of current'oi peaked wave' form
the impulses transmitted to said control member,
to said control member in order to initiate arc 35 the first mentioned grids and saidv holding anode.
discharges within said electric valve means, im
13,.v In combination, an electric valve means of
pulse generating means connected to said grid
for impressing thereon impulses of voltage of
peaked wave form to assist in the propagation of
the type employing an ionizable medium capable
cathode, means for maintaining a predetermined
constant phase displacement between the im
posed between said anode and said cathode for
pulses of current transmitted to ' said control
between said anode and'said cathode and having
member and the voltage impressed on said grid
comprising a phase shifting device connected be
a holding anode, a source of alternating current,
of supporting an arc discharge and including an
anode, a cathode, an immerslon-ignitor control
the arc discharge between said anode and said 40 member associated with said cathode, a grid inter
assisting in the propagation of the arc discharge -
means for transmitting impulses of current to
tween said'source and common to the ‘energizing
' means for said control member and said grid, and
‘said‘ immersion-ignitor control member compris
means including a holding anode within said
winding means, a capacitance, means for charg
valve means for maintaining the ionization initi
ated within said valve means by said control 50
member u'ntil said impulse of voltage is impressed ‘
on said grid.
11. In combination, an electric valve means of
ing said capacitance, means for discharging said
capacitance including an electric discharge device
having a grid, 9, phase shifting circuit connected
between said transforming means and the last
the type employing an-ioniza'ble medium capable
vice conducting at a predetermined time during
anode, a cathode, an immersion-ignitor control
member associated with said cathode, a control
grid and an auxiliary electrode, a source of alter
nating current, means energized from said source
fecting energization of said control
ing a transforming means having secondary
mentioned grid'for rendering said discharge de- '
of supporting an arc discharge and including an 55 each cycle of voltage of said source thereby ef
for transmitting impulses-oi current to said con
trol member to initiate arc discharges within said
electric valve means,rmeans for impressing on said '
member, ‘
means for impressing on said holding anode a
voltage displaced substantially 180 electrical de
grees relative to the voltage impressed on the
‘charging means for said capacitance, means for
impressing on the ?rst mentioned grid an impulse
of voltage of peaked wave form comprising a.
grid and said electrode impulses of voltage of
saturable inductive device energized from saidv
transforming means, and phase shifting means
substantial phase coincidence in order to assist
in the propagation of the arc discharges between 65 connected between said source and said trans
shifting the phase of the cur
said cathode and said anode, means for maintain
' forming means for
ing a predetermined constant phase displacement
rent impulses supplied to said control member
and the voltages applied to the ?rst mentioned
between the impulses of current transmitted to
said control member and the impulses of voltage w grid and said holding anode.
vm M. noaacx.
impressed on said-grid and said electrode com
prising a con phase shifting means con
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