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Nov. 26,1946.
T. R. GOLDSMITH
2,411,784‘ ‘
MILLING CUTTER
Filed Nov. 30, 1942
s Sheets-Sheet 1 '
INVENTOR
I
Nov. 26, 1946.
'
T. R. GOLDSMITH
'
MILLING
CUTTER
‘
'
2,411,784 '
’
~
Filed Nov. 30, 1942
SSheets-Sheet 2
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'INVENTOR
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ATTORNEYS
Nov. 26, 1946.
"r. R. GOLDSMITH
MILLING CUTTE‘R
2,411,784
Filled‘ Nov; 50, 1942
3 Sheéts-Sheet 5
ATTORNEYS.
2,411,784
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,784
MILLING; CUTTER
Thomas Ralph Goldsmith, Bu?'alo, N. Y., a-s-‘ '
signor, by mesne assignments, to Super Tool
Company, Macomb County, Mich., a partner
ship composed of Mrs. Sophie Birgbauer, Mrs.
Ruth Schreck, Mrs. Gordon Birgbauer, and Mr.
Gordon Birgbauer
Application November '30, 1942,,’ Serial No.’ 467,327.‘ .
3 Claims.
(01. 29-103) ’
2
1
- ‘This invention relates to tools of the milling 7' ' lowing description taken in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings, wherein:
cutter type, and particularly to'a built-up milling
cutter having the cutting edges tipped with hard
enedrcutting material in a manner to simplify the
grinding .of the cutting edges.
Figure 1 is an end view in elevation of a see
mental cutting tool having tipped teeth which
embodies a feature of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a side View of the tool illustrated in
Fig. 1, as viewed from the line 2-‘—2 thereof;
Fig. 3 is an exploded view of the cutter illus_
>
While no particular problem is presented in
tipping the cutting edges. of tools with a hard
cutting material, such as tungsten vcarbide, ti
trated in Fig. 2, showing the various segments
tanium carbide, Stellite; and the like, nevertheless
the tipping of milling cutting tools having form 10 thereof;
Fig.4 is an end-view in elevation of a cutter,
cutting ‘edges has not been successful because of
similar to that illustrated in Fig. 1, showing a
the dii?culty in sharpening the tools after the
further form which the invention may assume;
edges become dulled. When a dove-tail, for ex~
Fig.5 is a side view of the cutter illustrated
ample,-is to be cut in a' work-piece, the‘ cutter
will havea pair of offset flat cutting edges joined 15 in Fig. 4, as viewed from the line 5-5 thereof;
Fig, 6 is an exploded view of the elements of
by a sloping cutting edge which presents a dim
the cutter illustrated in Fig. 5;
cult grinding problem when the cutting edges be
come dull and require sharpening. ~
'
Fig. 7 is an end view in elevation of a tipped
'
cutting tool, similar to that illustrated in Fig. 1,
It is substantially impossible to grind the slop
ing edge without harming the spaced parallel 20 showing a still further form of the invention;
Fig. 8 is a side View of the tool illustrated in
edges or topreform the face of a grinding wheel
Fig. '7, as viewed fromthe line 8-8 thereof; and
to produce the form grinding of the edges. ' The
Fig. 9 is an exploded view of the tool illus
problem of grinding form cutting edges of ‘milling
trated in Fig. 8. '
cutting tools is such a di?icult one that tipped
milling cutterswere never, to applicant’s knowl 25 Referring to Figures 1 to 3, a cutting tool II
is illustrated embodying. a central cutting seg
edge, constructed for commercial application.
Similarly, when an arcuate slot having ?at shoul
ders adjacent thereto is to be out in a workpiece
ment l2 and end segments l3 and I4. The tool ,
H is employed for cutting a slot I5 in a piece of
being machined, it was found impossibleto grind
metal It, as illustrated in Figure 2. The slot has
a central arcuate portion l6 and adjacent ?at
shoulder portions l1 and I8. When the entire
tool was made from a hard cutting materiaLit
. the arcuate and shoulder portions ofvthe tool
without deforming ‘one or all of the edges.
It is one object of the present invention to so
construct a milling cutter that the di?iculty in
grinding the cutting edges is‘ entirely overcome. .
It, is a further object of the invention to divide
a milling cutter for producing an irregular sur
face into cutting segments having teeth of a form
which are readily ground and which when assem
was found that several sharpenings a day were
required to retain a sharp enough edge to cut the
‘ slot l5 in continuous production.
bled produce the irregular surface desired.
It is a still further object of the present in
vention to divide the cutter into several cutter
segments and to shim the segments apart to
retain the width ‘to the cutter after the sides have
been ground when performing a sharpening op
40
In view of
the fact that the setting up of the tool required
considerable time, a material loss in production
resulted therefrom. When attempting to apply
a hardtip to the cutting edges it was found that
it wasfsubstantially impossible to grind the arou
ate and flat forms on the tool to any degree of
precision "and satisfaction. It was found that the
tools could be made up from segments with the
teeth of each segment having a simple form which
45 could be readily ground so that the di?iculties ex
perienced in sharpening the tipped tool were
A still further object .of the invention is to
thereby overcome.
,
employ a plurality of cutter segments with spaced
.. .Reierringmore particularly‘ to Figure 3, it will
teeth which interlock with each other and over
be seen that'the central segment l2 has a body
come the effect of employing a reduced number
portion 2! which is recessed at 22 and 23 inward
of; teeth byincreasing the speed of rotation of the
ly of the width of the teeth 24. The teeth 24 have
an arcuate surface 25 conforming to the-shape of
Other objects and vfeatures of novelty of the
eration.
cutter.
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the arcuate portion N5 of the slot l5 to be out
by thetool. A tip 26 which is preferably made
invention will be either speci?cally pointed out
or will become apparent when referring, for a'
better understanding of the invention, to the fol:
55
.°?C?1”PQ19Y.°1' other extremely. hard materials
2,411,784
4
be made by each cutting tooth than by the cut
ting teeth of tools which are not tipped by the
hardened material. Spacers 45, 46, and 41 sepa
rate the cutter segments 33, 34, t5 and 36 from
each other. It will be noted from. Figure 4 that
all of the teeth [-59 of the segments haveC'arboloy
sweated on the ends of the teeth 25, as illustrated
more particularly in Figure l. The arcuate sur
face 25 is then ground on the teeth with a desira
ble relief.
The tool segments It and M nest withinthe
recesses 23 and 22, respectively, of the central tool
segment H. The tool segments is and [4 have
teeth 2'3 which are provided with the tips of Car
or similar tips 5! disposed in a recess in the end
thereof in position to be employed as the portion
having the cutting edges.
boloy 28 or other material as clearly disclosed
in Figure 1. No problem is presented in sharpen
10
Referring to Figures '7 to 9, a cutter 52 is illus
ing the teeth 13 and Ill since they have ?at sur
trated, made up of cutting segments 53 and 54.
faces at the ends and sides. After the teeth have
As illustrated in Fig. 8, the cutter 52 is employed
been sharpened, the segments are clamped to
for cutting a dove-tail slot 55 in a piece of metal.
gether, as illustrated in Figure 2, to provide an
It will be noted that the parallel surfaces 56 and
over-all cutting contour of a form to cut the slot 15 51 are spaced from each other and joined by a
l5 in the metal I 6.
sloping cutting edge 58. t Was found substan
If it is found that by dressing the side faces
tially impossible to grind the sloping surface 58
of the segments 53 and M that the over-all di
of the hard tip material without interfering,r with
mension of the slot l5 has been reduced, shims
or destroying the surface on the parallel edges
may be provided between segments l3 and I4 and 20 55 and 51. By separating the two segments 53
the body portion 2! of the central segment I2 to
and. 54, it will be ‘seen that the‘ sloping cutting
obtain the desired width. It was found that a
edge 58 may be ground without interference with
tool made in this manner could operate continu
the end cutting edge .51 and that this can be
ously throughout a 24 hour day without requiring
readily done without reouiring a lengthy set-up
a sharpening operation. When the cutting edges 25 or the use of a preformed grinding face. This is
become dull, it is a simple operation to grind the
also true of the segment 53 having the straight
cutting edges.
ends and sides of the teeth 21 of the cutter seg
ments l3 and Hi and to grind the sides and the
The teeth 59 of the segment 53 are provided
arcuate surface 25 of the central segment 12.
with a Carboloy tip 6! while the teeth 62 of the
These may again be assembled on a key 3! on the 30 segment 54 have similar tips 63. Each segment
is provided with three teeth and the fact that only
arbor 23 and be retained in abutted relation by
the sleeves 32 in the conventional manner.
three cuts are taken during one revolution of the
arbor 29 has no bearing on the speed of opera
In Figures ll, 5, and 6, a bank of milling cutter
tools is illustrated for cutting a plurality of slots
tion of the cutter in view of increased speed of
in the workpiece. Cutter segments 33, 34, 35, and 35 rotation of the arbor 29 and the depth of out
which may be taken because of the extremely
3% are similar to the cutter segments 53 and Ill of
Figures 1 to 3. The cutter segment 36 is of great
hard tips on which the cutting edges are formed.
er diameter to cut a slot Ell of greater depth than
the slots 38, 39, and iii cut by the segments 35,
34, and 83, respectively. The slot 39 has a shoul
der d2 cut thereon by a cutter segment 43 of
smaller diameter than the segment 34 with which
the cutter nests.
The segments 33, 34, 35, and 36 of the cutters
are undercut at M to receive other cutter seg
ments when wider slots are to be cut in the ma
Preferably each segment sbould'l'lave an even
number of cuttinrr teeth so that they can be ac
curately measured diametrically across the seg
ment.
When an odd number of teeth are pro
vided. as illustrated in Figure '71 di?iculty is ex
perienced in accurately measuring the radii of
the teeth.
45
While a dove-tail slot is illustrated in Figure 7
and an arcuate flat shouldered slot in Figure 2,
terial. t will be noted that the cutter segment
as Well as spaced slots in Figure 5. it is to be un
53 nests within the recess 134 of the cutter seg
derstood that any combination of segmental cut
ment 5:2 so as to be capable of being sharpened
ters having tipped teeth may be employed to pro
and being shimmed outwardly so that the width 50 duce any shape of slot or surface. This is pos
of the slot 39 and shoulder 44 may be main
siblewhen each of the segments has been selected
tained. It is to be understood that the cutter
to have teeth with cutting edges which may be
segment 63 may be of the same diameter as the
ground directly by a standard grinding wheel
segment 3d so as to cut the same depth of slot 39
without the necessity of preforming the face
thereof.
Width to the slots is maintained by
the slot when the two segments are shimmed
shims which space the segments apart a distance
apart after the side faces have been ground to
equal to the amount of material ground from the
produce a sharpening operation.
side faces during a sharpening operation. The
It will be noted that each of the segments 33,
3d, 35, 36, and 43 are provided with four teeth 60 interlocking of the segments permits the in
creased spacing of the segments without a gap
where at least 8, H), or l2 teeth would be pro’
appearing at the overlapped cutting edges. With
vided in a normal cutter. This eliminates the
this invention, tipped milling cutters may be made
difficulty of presenting a Wheel to the cutting
up from a plurality of cutter segments to pro
edges for the grinding operation, and reduces the
duce any desirable form in a slot or surface milled
number of cuts being taken in the slots during
by such cutters. While the number of teeth on
each revolution of the supporting arbor 29. To
each segment is materially reduced over that
overcome this tendency of reducing the speed of
normally employed to simplify the grinding and
the cutting operation, the rotation of the arbor
sharpen-operation, no time is lost thereby as the
Ed is increased to make up for the loss of teeth
in each cutter so that the same number or more 70 decrease in number of teeth is overcome by the
increased speed of operation of the supporting
cuts are made by the teeth in the slot in the same
length of time.
arbor. The hardened tips on the teeth retain
their cutting edges for a considerably longer
The tipped tool retains its cutting edges for a
greater length of time in view of the hardness of
period than the teeth of solid milling cutters
the material so that a greater depth of out can 75 made from ‘tool steel and are capable of cutting
while being capable of maintaining the Width of
2,411,784 ‘
5
6
faster and at a greater depth 50 as to reduce the
when the body portions are assembled together
time required to machine the slot or surface.
and the teeth on one'of said portions being dis
It is to be understood that, where the word
“Carboloy” is employed throughout the descrip
placed‘ axially into overlapping position with re
spect to the teeth on the other portion to provide
a driving interlock between the portions.
2. A cutting tool including, in combination,
a pair of like cutting elements having a body por
tion and spaced circumferential teeth, the teeth
tion, the invention is not to be considered as
being limited to tungsten carbide tips but that
titanium carbide, Stellite, and other hard mate
rials may also be utilized. . It will also be noted
on one element overhanging the right-hand face
that the interlocking cutting elements may be
constructed exactly alike and thereafter have the 10 of its body portion, the teeth of the other element
overhanging the left-hand face of its-body por
body relieved, one on the right side, the other on
. tion, the arcuate length of the teeth being equal
the left side, or, when a third cutter is to be
nested with the two cutters, to have the relief
to that of the space therebetween, so that, when
the adjacent faces of the elements abut, the teeth
cut on both sides of the body thereof. When
of the elements are in overlapping and interlock‘
the cutters are nested together, the teeth thereof
ing relation to each other.
'
will overhang and will'interlock relative to each
3. A composite milling cutter made of two
other, so that one may be driven by the other
when one is threaded on an arbor, as illustrated
washerlike body portions, each having cutting
teeth thereon, the cutting teeth on one of said
in Figs. 8 and 9. The space between the teeth
and that provided by the position of the teeth to 20 portions being spaced circumferentially from
those on the other a su?icient amount tov permit
cut alternate sides of a slot provides large areas
the teeth of one portion to be positioned between
‘ for chip clearance which prevents the tearing of
the teeth of the other portion when the body
the walls of the slot and damage to the cutter
portions are assembled together, the teeth on one
teeth.
portion being axially overlapped with respect to
What is claimed is:
1. A cutting tool of the milling type having a
the teeth of the other portion and received in
circumferentially spaced recesses in the side of
pair of washer-like body portions each portion
provided with peripheral cutting teeth, the teeth
said other portion to forma driving interlock, '
said recesses being located radially inwardly of
on one of said body portions being spaced circum
ferentially from those on the other a sufficient 30 the cutting edges of the body portion in which
amount to permit the teeth of one portion to be
they are formed.
positioned between the teeth of the other portion
THOMAS RALPH GOLDSMITH.
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