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Dec. 3, 1946.
- G. B. BROWN
2,411,868
PARACHUTE
Filed June 24, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
G. B. BROWN
Filed June 24, 1945
2,41 1,868
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
B. BROWN
2,411,868
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
UNITED-STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,868
PARACHUTE
Graham B. Brown, Washington, D. C.
Application June 24, 1943, Serial No. 492,071
1
14 Claims.
(01. 244-145)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
1
This invention relates to parachutes and more
particularly to that type of parachute employed
cured a plurality of shroud lines connected at the
lower end thereof to a supporting ring to which
for retarding the downward movement and ef
the mine or object of merchandise is attached.
The canopy is composed of fabric having high
tensile strength and high porosity thereby to im
prove the stability of the parachute during the
fecting the‘safe descent and landing of objects
from aeronautical vehicles.
In devices of this class heretofore devised it has
descent thereof through the air and to eliminate
been the general practice to employ a parachute
the necessity for a vent hole at the apex of the
having a relatively ?at canopy to which is at
canopy.
'
tached the object to be lowered by means of a
The canopy is provided with ?exible reinforc
plurality of shroud lines secured to the rim of 10
ing members at the point of emergence of the
the canopy at intervals or arranged on the out
looped portions of the resilient member from the
side of the canopy and generally converging to
aforesaid hem and preferably is also provided
ward a common point at the apex of the canopy.
with an additional reinforcing portion or ?exible
Such parachutes have, in general, not proven
entirely satisfactory in service for the safe des 15 element secured thereto at the upper central por
tion or apex of the canopy to prevent rupture or
cent of relatively heavy objects through the air
damage thereto as a result of the pressure of
in which the objects are to be landed within a
the air thereagainst when a violent shock is re
relatively small target area for the reason that
ceived at the moment of the complete unfolding
the shroud lines may be torn loose from the can
or full extension of the canopy and during the
opy in the case where the shroud lines are secured
to the rim thereof as the parachute snaps to open
downward ?ight of the object. Furthermore, by
providing an arrangement in which the entire
force resulting from the pull of the shroud lines
the air. In the case of parachutes in which the
is applied to the hem of the canopy through the
shroud lines are connected to ?exible tension
members extending across the top'of the canopy, 25 aforesaid elastic members, the ?exible tensile
members of the prior devices extending across the
it has been found that the canopy assumes the
top of the canopy are not required and thus a
shape of a section of an oblate spheroid when in
considerable saving in the bulk of the parachute
the extended position with the ?attened portion
when in a folded condition within the pack is ef
thereof in substantial coincidence with the apex
of the canopy and for this reason the descent of 30 fected and the parachute is particularly adapted
for use with aerial type mines in which the mines
the body through the air does not follow a prede
are laid from an aircraft in ?ight and in which
termined line of ?ight but, on the contrary, the
the mine is caused to fall upon a relatively small
path of travel of the body through the air may
position during the descent of the body through
pursue a fortuitous course and the body, there
fore, does not fall upon a predetermined relatively
small target area but may land anywhere within
a relatively large area as the result of the tortu
ous path of travel of the body through the air
during the downward ?ight thereof.
predetermined target area.
.
One of the objects of the present invention re
sides in the provision of a new and improved par
achute for causing the safe descent along a pre
determined path of travel of a heavy object from
an aircraft in ?ight.
-
‘
small target area of relatively heavy objects such,
Another of the objects is the provision of a
parachute of new and improved construction for
use with a relatively heavy object having small
bulk and in which means are employed for. re-'
ducing the shock caused by the opening of the
the like discharged from an aeronautical vehicle
while in ?ight. In the device of the present in-,
by the hemispherical shape of the canopy and by
The present invention contemplates the provi
sion of a parachute in which the foregoing ‘dis
advantages are obviated and which is adapted to '
insure the safe descent and landing within a
for example, as explosive mines, merchandise and 45 parachute to the fully extended position thereof
and in which stability of ?ight is obtained jointly
vention the canopy, when fully extended, is sub-v '
stantially hemispherical in shape and provided
the porosity of the material of which the canopy
is composed.
'
'
‘
Still another object is the provision of a plu
with a circular rim or hem at the lower portion 50'
rality of ?exible reinforcing elements respectively
thereof. Arranged within this hem is a continu
secured to the rim or hem of the canopy adja
ous elastic member having looped portions ex
cent the upper ends of each of the shroud lines
tending downwardly therefrom through suitable
and adapted to coact with a continuous resilient
apertures provided within the hem and arranged
at. regular intervals therealong to-whichare se-. On an element disposed withinthe hem of vthe canopy.
2,411,868
3
4
in operative connection with each of the shroud
lines thereby to distribute the force applied by
the shroud lines through a substantially in
creased portion of the canopy adjacent the rim
thereof.
Still other objects, advantages and improve
ments will be apparent from the following de
to and to the canopy above the hem portion as
at 24, a plurality of rows of stitches 2'5 being
provided to secure the hem cord su?iciently to
the hem to maintain the looped portions 21 pro
jecting through the associated apertures i9 of
the hem and to prevent the canopy opening
from being drawn together by the pull of the
scription taken in connection with the accom
shroud lines on the hem cord.
panying drawings of which:
Whereas in the illustrative embodiment of the
Fig. 1 is a view in elevation of a completely 10 invention there is shown a
cord having six
open parachute according to a preferred embodi
teen equally spaced loops 2 i , it will be understood
ment of the invention;
that, if desired, the number of loops in the cord
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the parachute of Fig. 1;
may be increased or decreased without depart
Fig. 3 shows an arrangement suitable for re
ing from the present invention. A plurality of
inforcing the crown section of the canopy of
shroud lines 26 are looped at the central portion
Fig. 1; and
2? thereof and connected at the ends to the
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view of the canopy of
looped portions 2i of the hem cord, each shroud
Fig. 1 showing a portion of the resilient sup~
line being connected to two adjacent loops in the
porting member and one of the shroud lines conhem cord. The looped portions 2'.‘ of the shroud
nected thereto and the means for additionally 20 lines are seized at 28 and secured to the mine
reinforcing the connection between the resilient
29 as by the shackles 35.
member and the canopy at a point of emergence
There is also secured to the hem cord as at
32 a static line 33 preferably having a weakened
Referring now to the drawings for a more
portion 54 at or near the point of connection of
complete understanding of the invention in which 25 the static line with the hem cord, the static line
like numerals of reference are employed to desig
being of suitable length such, for example, as
nate like parts throughout the several views,
twelve feet and connected at the opposite end
there is shown thereon a parachute indicated
thereof to the aircraft from which the mine is
generally by the numeral H1 comprising a can—
launched. The mine 29 is provided with a re
opy l I composed of porous fabric of high tensile
cessed portion 35 at one end thereof within
which the parachute is packed prior to the
strength cut in gore and crown sections with the
warp and woof thereof at substantially equal
launching of the mine from the aircraft and one
angles with respect to the outer edge of the
end of the static line is secured in any conven
canopy substantially as shown and attached to
ient manner to the aircraft whereby as the mine
gether in any suitable manner as by stitching t is dropped from the aircraft in flight at the
the parts together, as is well known in the art
proper time to cause the mine to land within
to which the present invention pertains.
the vpredetermined target area, the movement of
The central or crown portion l2 of the canopy
the mine away from the aircraft causes the static
is preferably composed of fabric having greater
line 34 to withdraw the parachute from the rc~
of the member therefrom.
tensile strength than the remaining gore sections
cessed portion 35 of the mine sufficiently for the
parachute to be opened by the pressure of the
air as the mine continues to move downward.
each thickness of material having substantially
When the parachute has been withdrawn from
the same tensile strength as the remaining gore
the mine the tension on the static lino is suf
ficient to break the line at the weakened portion
sections of the canopy. In the event that the
34 thereof thereby interrupting a control con
crown section is composed of a double thickness
nection between the parachute and the aircraft
of material, it has been found desirable to em
and allowing the mine and parachute to proceed
ploy an outer crown section iii of somewhat
toward the target area under the guidance and
greater size than the inner crown section M
whereby a plurality of rows of stitching between 50 control of the parachute.
the crown sections and the adjacent portions of
By securing the shroud lines at the looped por
the canopy are arranged in predetermined space
tions 2'! thereof to an annular member such as
relation with respect thereto and the possibility
the casing of the mine 29 illustrated, the velocity
of the mine through the air quickly reaches a
of rupture of the canopy at the junction of the
crown sections and adjacent portions is greatly
value su?icient to cause the parachute to change
reduced. This arrangement is shown on Fig. 3
from the squid form to the fully extended shape
by reason of the air rushing into the canopy.
in which the outer crown section it is shown
attached to the remainder of the canopy as by
When this occurs, the canopy snaps open and a
considerable increase in tension is applied to the
the stitching l5 and the inner crown section M
is attached to the remainder of the canopy by 60 shroud lines 26 by the falling mine. The shock
of the canopy or, if desired, the crown portion
may comprise a double thickness of material,
the stitching l6.
The'lower portion of the canopy H is provided
with a reinforced hem ll within which is ar
caused by the sudden opening of the parachute
is reduced and absorbed by the resilient hem
cord su?iciently to prevent damage or injury to
the parachute and the devices for connecting the
ranged a continuous hem cord is composed of
stretchable material suitable for the purpose 65 parachute to the mine. The looped portions El
such, for example, as nylon. There is also pro
of the hem cord are elongated during this shock“
absorbing process and the shroud lines are caused
vided within the lowermost portion of the hem
IT a plurality of apertures 59, Fig. 4, spaced at
to be somewhat stretched concurrently with the
elongation of the hem cord thereby additionally
regular intervals about the rim of the canopy l l
within which the hem cord extends thereby 70 to relieve the instantaneous strain on the canopy
forming a plurality of loops 2| in the hem cord.
The apertures iii are each encircled by a rein
.forcing'tape 22 stitched to the hem of the canopy
.and to a ?exible reinforcing element. 23 arranged
about; the .hem of. .the canopy and stitched there
as the parachute snaps to open position.
Whereas the parachute has been described
with reference to launching a mine from an air
craft in flight such that the mine will land with
ina relatively small target area, it» will, of course,
2,411,868
5
,
be understood thatthe device of the present in
vention is also adapted for use with any heavy
object such, for example, as an article of mer
chandise or freight composing an air-borne cargo
or other article of commerce in whichthe cargo
may be discharged from the aircraft in ?ight
and safely landed at a receiving station.
Whereas the invention has been described with
respect to a preferred embodiment thereof which
gives satisfactory results, it will be. understood
by those skilled in the art to which the invention
pertains, after understanding the invention, that
6
crown section surrounded by a plurality of gores,
an outer crown section stitched to said inner
crown section along the periphery thereof for
reinforcing said inner crown section, a continu
ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy,
reinforcing means in said hem, and a plurality
of shroud lines attached to said reinforcing
means, said shroud lines being adapted to support
said object.
a
'
6. A parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard a falling object, a hemispheri
cal canopy comprising an inner porous crown
sectionsurrounded by a plurality of porous gore
various changes and modi?cations may be made
. sections and having a circular rim,‘ said gore sec
without departing from the spirit and scope of
tions being arranged with the warp and woof
the invention and it is my intention, therefore, 15 thereof at substantially equal angles with respect
in the accompanying claims to cover all such
to said rim, an outer porous crown section
changes and modi?cations.
stitched to said inner crown section along the
The invention herein described and claimed
periphery thereof for reinforcing said inner
may be manufactured and used by or for the
crown section, a continuous reinforced circular
20
Government of the United States of America for
hem along said rim, a plurality of shroud lines
governmental purposes without payment of any
adapted to support said object, and extensible
royalties thereon or therefor.
means for, connecting the shroud lines to said
What is claimed as new and desired to be se
hem.
cured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
' 7; Ina parachute, of the character disclosed
l. A parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
adapted to retard the fall of an object released
spherical
canopy comprising a crown portion
from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical canopy
composed
of
a double thickness of material, said
having a continuous circular hem along the edge
crown portion comprising an inner crown sec
thereof, reinforcing means composed of extensi
and an outer crown section stitched thereto
ble material arranged in said hem and stitched 30 tion
along the periphery thereof, a continuous circu
thereto at intervals, and a plurality of shroud
lar hem along the edge of said canopy, reinforc
lines having loops formed in the ends thereof and
ing means disposed within said hem and stitched
the loops respectively secured to said reinforcing
thereto, and a plurality of shroud lines secured to
means, said shroud lines beingadapted to support ~ said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being
35
said object.
adapted to support said object.
2. A parachute of the character disclosed com
8. In a parachute of the character disclosed
prising a hemispherical canopy, an object adapt
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
ed to be supported by said parachute, a continu
, spherical canopy comprising a crown portion
ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy
composed of a double thickness of material, said
40
having a plurality of apertures spaced at regular
crown portion comprising an inner crown section
intervals therein, a continuous cord disposed
and an outer crown section of greater size than
within said hem and stitched thereto at intervals
the inner crown section and stitched thereto ‘
adjacent to and on opposite sides of said aper- '
along the periphery thereof,,a continuous circu
tures, said cord having looped portions which ex
tend through said apertures, means for reinforc
ing said hem about said apertures, and a plu
lar hem along the edge of said canopy, reinforc
ing means disposed within said hem and stitched
thereto, and a plurality of shroud lines secured
to said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being
rality of shroud lines having loops formed in the. .
ends thereof and the loops respectively secured
to said looped portions, said shroud lines being
adapted to support said object.
3. A parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to support said object.
9. In a parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
spherical canopy composed of a porous fabric of
high tensile strength and comprising a crown
portion, said crown portion having an inner
adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re
leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical
canopy having a continuous circular hem along
the edge thereof, a continuous elastic cord dis
posed within said hem and stitched thereto at
intervals, a plurality of shroud lines secured at
both ends thereof to said cord at regular inter
vals, and means for connecting said shroud lines
to said heavy object.
,
4. In a parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
spherical canopy comprising an inner crown sec
tion surrounded by a plurality of gores, an outer
' crown section stitched to said inner crown section
along the periphery thereof for reinforcing said
inner crown section, a continuous circular hem
alongv the edge‘ of said canopy, reinforcing means
in said hem, and a plurality of shroud lines at
tached to said reinforcing means, said shroud
lines being adapted to support said object.
5. In a parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
spherical canopy composed of a porous fabric
' of high tensilev strength and comprising an inner
crown section and an outer crown section, a plu
;rality of rows of stitching for securing the crown
‘ sections together along the outer periphery there
of and ‘to the remaining portion of the canopy,
a continuous circular hem along the edge of said
60
canopy, reinforcing means disposed within said
hem and stitched thereto, and a plurality of
shroud lines secured to said reinforcing means
and adapted to support said object.
10. A parachute of the character disclosed
adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re
leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical
canopy having a continuous circular hem along
the edge thereof, an extensible hem cord disposed
within said hem and having a plurality of looped
portions extending therefrom, a plurality of
‘shroud lines respectively secured to each of said
looped portions and to said object, means includ
ing a plurality of reinforcing members stitched
to said hem andto the hem cord for additionally
75 reinforcing the canopy at the point of emergence
7
2,411,868
of each of said looped portions of the hem cord
from the hem, and a plurality of rows of stitches
for securing the hem cord to the hem at regular
intervals thereby to prevent the canopy from be
8
in flight, a ?exibie hemispherical canopy com
prising a plurality of gore sections and having
a circular hem, a plurality of rows of stitching
for joining adjacent pairs of said gore sections,
ing drawn together by the pull of the shroud
each of said rows of stitching intersecting said
lines on the hem cord as the Parachute snaps to
hem, a continuous extensible cord disposed with
open position.
in the hem and stitched thereto, said cord hav
11. In a parachute of the character disclosed
ing a plurality of looped portions spaced at reg
adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi
ular intervals thereon and extending through
spherical canopy comprising an inner crown sec 10 the hem in predetermined relation with respect
tion surrounded by a plurality of gores and
to said rows of stitching, a plurality of shroud
stitched thereto, an outer crown section for re
lines having loops at each of the ends thereof,
inforcing said inner crown section and stitched
said loops being respectively secured to said
thereto along the periphery thereof, a continu
looped portions, and means connected to said
ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy, 15 shroud lines for attaching the object thereto.
an extensible hem cord arranged within said hem
14. A parachute of the character disclosed
and having a plurality of looped portions extend
adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re
ing therefrom, a piurality of shroud lines less in
leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical
number than the number of said looped por
canopy having a continuous circular hem along
tions, each of said shroud lines having a looped
the edge thereof, an extensible hem cord disposed
portion at the center thereof and secured at each
within said hem and having a plurality of looped
end to each pair of adjacent looped portions of
portions extending therefrom, a plurality of
the hem cord, an annular support on said body,
shroud lines respectively secured to each of said
and means for connecting the looped portions
looped portions and to said object, means includ
of the shroud lines at regular intervals to said 25 ing a plurality of reinforcing members stitched
support.
to said hem and to the hem cord for additionally
12. In a device for retarding the downward
reinforcing the canopy at the point of emergence
movement of an object dropped from an aircraft
of each of said looped portions of the hem cord
in ?ight, a ?exible hemispherical canopy having
from the hem, a plurality of rows of stitches for
a circular rim, a continuous resilient stretchable 30 securing the hem cord to the hem at regular in
member secured to said rim by stitching and
tervals ‘thereby to prevent the canopy from being
having a plurality of uniformly spaced looped
portions adapted to be momentarily elongated
drawn together by the pull of the shroud lines
on the hem cord as the parachute snaps to open
at the moment the parachute snaps open, a plu
position, and a plurality of reinforcing tapes,
rality of shroud lines having loops at each of the 35 each of said tapes being respectively stitched to
ends thereof, said loops being respectively secured
each of said reinforcing members and encircling
to said looped portions, and means connected to
each of said looped portions, said reinforcing
said shroud lines for attaching said object thereto.
tapes being also stitched to said hem.
13. In a device for retarding the downward
movement of an object dropped from an aircraft
GRAHAM B. BROWN.
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